Office of Technology Assessment - 918 Matching Results

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Transplantation of adrenal tissue into the nervous system
This report the transplantation of adrenal medullary tissue to the nervous system.
MEDLARS and Health Information Policy
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the arguments for and against NLM's (National Library of Medicine) creation and dissemination of health-related bibliographic information" and "provides information designed to help Congress in decisions regarding the appropriate mix of NLM and private sector activities that might serve the public interest most efficiently" (p. iii).
The Menopause, Hormone Therapy, and Women's Health
This background paper describes what is known about the natural progression of the menopause and its effect on women’s health, hormone treatment and prescribing practices, alternative approaches, and research needs.
Mental Disorders and Genetics: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Society
The report reviews data concerning the contribution of genetic factors to several severe mental disorders; described methodologies used in the studies, and broached several policy issues relevant to this area of research.
Medicare's Prospective Payment System: Strategies for Evaluating Cost, Quality, and Medical Technology
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "arrays the possible effects of PPS (prospective payment system) on the health care system and assesses the extent to which these effects can be measured" (p. iii)
Microelectronics research & development: background paper
This background paper describes the current state of research and development in microelectronics by examining the range of R&D efforts and the sources of Federal and private support for R&D. It also presents potential policy concerns that stem from existing arrangements for direct Federal support and from changes underway in microelectronics R&D.
Miniaturization Technologies
This report analyzes various technologies that may be important for future advances in miniaturization. Current research in the United States and other nations is pushing the limits of miniaturization to the point that structures only hundreds of atoms thick will be commonly manufactured. Researchers studying atomic and molecular interactions are continuing to push the frontiers, creating knowledge needed to continue progress in miniaturization. Scientists and engineers are creating microscopic mechanical structures and biological sensors that will have novel and diverse applications.
Monitoring Limits on Sea-Launched Cruise Missiles
This report examines in detail ways in which compliance with such a regime might be monitored. Surveying the life-cycle of SLCMs from development testing through deployment and storage, the assessment identifies the ‘indicators’ by which the missiles might be tracked and accounted for. It also assesses the paths of evasion that a determined cheater might take to avoid the proposed monitoring measures.
Moving Ahead: 1991 Surface Transportation Legislation
This report discusses the major issues surrounding the reauthorization of highway and transit legislation is laid out and four illustrative types of surface transportation programs are presented in chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 3 is devoted to the discussion of motor carrier programs, with special attention to issues related to longer combination trucks.
Multinationals and the National Interest: Playing by Different Rules
This report is intended as an introduction to and overview of the issues that affect multinational firms and the U.S. technology base.
Multinationals and the U.S. Technology Base
This report discusses globalization in perspective, U.S. technology policy in international economic perspective, and other aspects of technological developments. The most technologically sophisticated and economically significant sectors of the U.S. economy are now characterized by high levels of international production, foreign direct investment, trade among affiliated companies, and complex forms of international financial and technological collaboration.
NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications: Process, Priorities and Goals
This Background Paper summarizes a one-day workshop convened to assess the effectiveness of the planning and priority-setting mechanisms used by NASA’s Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) in carrying out its diverse scientific program.
MX Missile Basing
A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines a new intercontinental ballistic missile known as the MX, identifies MX basing modes and assesses "the major advantages, disadvantages, risks, and uncertainties of each" (p. 3).
Science, Technology, and the First Amendment: special report
Part I of the report discusses how the meaning of “the press” has expanded from printed material to include a wide range of broadcast and electronic media. Satellites, computers, electronic bulletin boards, teletex, videotext, and other new ways of gathering, editing, and delivering news are blurring legal and regulatory distinctions between common carriers and “the press, ” thus changing arguments about the constitutional rights that they have each enjoyed. Part II addresses freedom of speech and press as they apply to scientific communications and technological know-how. As science and technology become ever more important to our economy and our military strength, the delicate balance between individual rights and the national interest becomes both more important and more difficult to maintain.
The National Space Transportation Policy: Issues for Congress
This report is the first in a broad assessment of the health and future prospects of the U.S. space transportation technology and industrial base. The report focuses on the Clinton Administration’s National Space Transportation Policy. It examines administration policy in light of the implementation plans prepared by NASA, DOD, and the Transportation and Commerce Departments.
Drugs in Livestock Feed: Volume 1: Technical Report
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) over the use of drugs in livestock feed
Drug Labeling in Developing Countries
This report discusses the pharmaceutical labeling requirements imposed on U.S.-based companies by the laws of the United States and the barriers to U.S. regulation of their labeling in other countries.
Educating scientists and engineers: grade school to grad school
This report examines how and why students are drawn toward or deterred from pursuing a career in science or engineering. Schools, families, peers, informal education efforts-such as museums, science centers, special programs, and television— all play a role. The subtitle of this report—Grade School to Grad School—emphasizes that many factors and institutions must be understood as all one system.
Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. I: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume presents the results of a model that estimates the cost per year of life gained from osteoporosis screening and hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.
Education and Technology: Future Visions
This paper summarizes the workshop discussion and contains the commissioned papers in their entirety. In June 1995, the contractors and a number of other prominent educators were invited to OTA for an all-day workshop to discuss these papers and the issues more broadly.
The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts
The report discusses trends in numbers of AIDS cases, approaches to AIDS prevention--changing behavior, efforts designed for the American people as a whole, and preventing AIDS among different groups.
Effectiveness and Costs of Osteoporosis Screening and Hormone Replacement Therapy, Vol. II: Evidence on Benefits, Risks, and Costs
This paper assesses the medical benefits and costs of both screening and hormone replacement therapy. It is divided into two volumes. This volume provides the basis for the assumptions about the costs and effects of screening and hormonal replacement therapy used in the cost-effectiveness model.
The Effectiveness of Research and Experimentation Tax Credits
This report assesses how well the research and experimentation R&E tax credit is currently understood, identifies inadequacies in the existing data and analyses, investigates implementation issues, considers the tax credit in the context of corporate R&D trends and Federal R&D policy more broadly, draws appropriate international comparisons, and specifies important avenues for further research.
The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: Implications for Controlling AIDS/HIV Infection
This Background Paper examines the evidence of the effectiveness of drug abuse treatment; it also evaluates the role that such treatment might play in reducing the spread of HIV. Because most intravenous drug users are not in treatment, the paper also examines other approaches to HIV prevention among this high-risk group.
Effects of federal policies on extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
A report on OTA’s assessment of payment for physician services: strategies for medicare
The Effects of Nuclear War
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examining "the full range of effects that nuclear war would have on civilians: direct effects from blast and radiation; and indirect effects from economic, social, and political disruption" (Foreward).
Effects of Information Technology on Financial Services Systems
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "describes the technologies now and likely to be available to providers and users of financial services" (p. iii).
Electronic delivery of public assistance benefits: technology options and policy issues
This background paper discusses the technological options available for use in an electronic system to deliver public assistance benefits, the privacy and security implications of such a system, and the programmatic effects of changing to an electronic delivery system. It was requested by the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
Electric Power Wheeling and Dealing: Technological Considerations for Increasing Competition
This assessment analyzes how the Nation’s power systems could accommodate various proposals for competition intended to make the electric power industry more responsive to market forces. Operation of an electric power system is extremely complex, and increased competition could have serious effects on costs and reliability if not implemented carefully. The assessment identifies the technical requirements that must be met to keep the system working well as the level of competition increases, and determines how competitive enterprises could meet these requirements.
Electronic Bulls and Bears: U.S. Securities Markets and Information Technology
This report responds to requests by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the House Committee on Government Operations to assess the role that communication and information technologies play in the securities markets. The Committee desired a benchmark for gauging progress made toward the national market system envisioned by the 1975 Act. This report assesses the current use of information technology by U.S. securities exchanges and over-the-counter dealers, by related futures and options markets, and by associated industries and regulatory agencies.
Renewable Ocean Energy Sources: Part 1 - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
A report in a series by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considering renewable ocean energy sources as a possible energy supply. This report focuses on ocean thermal energy conversion and analyzes the feasibility of using it and evaluates current research on the topic (p. iii).
Replacing Gasoline: Alternative Fuels for Light-Duty Vehicles
In this report OTA gives a broad overview of the qualities of the competing fuels and examines in depth some of the most contentious issues associated with the wisdom of active Federal support for introducing the fuels. Areas of uncertainty that affect the debate on Federal support include fuel cost (including costs of building new infrastructure and modifying vehicles); the air quality effects of the new fuels; effects on energy security; other environmental impacts of the fuels; and consumer acceptance of the changes in vehicle performance, refueling procedures, costs, and other facets of the transportation system that would follow a large-scale introduction of any of the fuels. The report singles out for special examination the arguments concerning the costs, energy security implications, and air quality impacts of introducing methanol fuels into the fleet.
Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace: Selected Aspects of Reproductive Health Hazards Regulations
A staff paper by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) assessing the workplace reproductive health hazards regulations.
Renewing Our Energy Future
This report evaluates the potential for cost-effective renewable energy in the coming decades and the actions that have to be taken to achieve the potential.
Research and Development in the Maritime Industry: A Supplement to an Assessment of Maritime Trade and Technology
An analysis by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that evaluates "long-term trends in global seaborne trade and maritime technology in relation to the U.S. maritime industry" (p. 3).
Requirements for Fulfilling a National Materials Policy
Report from a conference focused on finding a "consensus on main themes of materials policy, and to focus national attention on the need for a strong, effective national network of materials information systems" (p. 1).
Research funding as an investment: can we measure the returns?
A report on the mounting intensity of global competition in the 1980s that underscores the critical role played by the basic research enterprise of the United States. Basic research is the backbone of much of the technological development that has provided not only our economic prosperity, but improvements in health, a strong national defense, and exciting and fundamental advances in knowledge.
Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "reviews current knowledge of hazards and suspected hazards to the reproductive health of American's working men and women and to the health and well-being of their children" (Foreword).
Researching Health Risks
This report describes the Federal Government’s research activities that are intended to improve health risk assessments. One of the findings of this Report is that the attention and resources allotted to health risk assessment research are not commensurate with its national impact.
Retiring Old Cars: Programs To Save Gasoline and Reduce Emissions
This report examines the costs and benefits of vehicle retirement programs. With regulation of new vehicles above the 90 percent control level for the major pollutants and scheduled to become even stricter in the near future, emissions from older vehicles have drawn increasing attention.
Review of a Protocol for a Study of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Women Vietnam Veterans
This report discusses the study that has been proposed as a partial response to the mandate of Public Law 99-272; that law also requires approval from the Director of OTA before any such studies are undertaken, which is the reason for this review. This study is one of three that make up the full VA response to the mandate to look into the health of women Vietnam veterans.
Residential Energy Conservation
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that analyzes "the potential for conserving energy in homes in terms of energy and costs" and "reviews existing and promising technologies, and a broad set of issues affecting why these technologies are or are not used, how their level of use and effectiveness can be improved, and related Federal programs and policies" (p. iii).
A Review of Alternative Approaches to Federal Funding of Rail Rehabilitation
A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that is part of a plan to restructure the railroads of the Northeast. It "provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of alternative approaches to federal assistance for the rehabilitation of the nation's railroad fixed plant" (p. xiv).
Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information
This report examines the impact of recent and anticipated advances in communication and information technologies on the intellectual property system. It focuses primarily on the Federal copyright system, and on the continuing effectiveness of copyright law as a policy tool in the light of technologies such as audioand videorecorders, computer programs, electronic databases, and telecommunications networks.
International competition in services: banking building software know-how--
The international competitiveness of American firms in most manufacturing industries has been in decline, in large part because of growing competence in other parts of the world. As this assessment shows, the United States remains highly competitive in many service industries, But trade in services will remain small compared to trade in goods, and many of the benefits from foreign investments by American service firms accrue to the host nations where U.S.-based banks, insurance companies, accounting firms, and other suppliers of services do business, Services cannot right the Nation’s trade balance, even granting the many ways in which a strongly competitive service sector benefits the competitiveness of American manufacturing firms.
International Competitiveness in Electronics
An assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at the international competitiveness of the electronics technology industry.
International Cooperation and Competition in Civilian Space Activities
The findings of an assessment by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) on "international cooperation and competition in civilian space activities" (p. iii).
International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States
This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
International Partnerships in Large Science Projects
This report assesses the factors that facilitate international partnerships in big science projects and those that, conversely, favor the pursuit of purely national projects. The paper also reviews and identifies several important issues to consider in structuring future collaborations.
Issue Update on Information Security and Privacy in Network Environments
This paper updates and develops some key issues that OTA had identified in its earlier report, in light of recent developments in the private sector and in government.