National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - Browse

ABOUT BROWSE FEED

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Horizontal Motion of a Wing Near the Ground

Description: By the method of images the horizontal steady motion of a wing at small heights above the ground was investigated in the wind tunnel, A rectangular wing with Clark Y-H profile was tested with and without flaps. The distance from the trailing edge of the wing to the ground was varied within the limits 0.75 less than or = s/c less than or = 0.25. Measurements were made of the lift, the drag, the pitching moment, and the pressure distribution at one section. For a wing without flaps and one with flaps a considereble decrease in the lift force and a,drop in the drag was obtained at angles of attack below stalling. The flow separation near the ground occurs at smaller angles of attack than is the case for a great height above the ground. At horizontal steady flight for practical values of the height above the ground the maximum lift coefficient for the wing without flaps changes little, but markedly decreases for the wing with flaps. Analysis of these phenomena involves the investigation of the pressure distribution. The pressure distribution curves showed that the changes occurring near the ground are not equivalent to a change in the angle of attack. At the lower surface of the section a very strong increase in the pressures is observed. The pressure changes on the upper surface at angles of attack below stalling are insignificant and lead mainly to an increase in the unfavorable pressure gradient, resulting in the earlier occurrence of separation. For a wing with flaps at large angles of attack for distances from the trailing edge of the flap to the ground less than 0.5 chord, the flow between the wing end the ground is retarded so greatly that the pressure coefficient at the lower surface of the section is ...
Date: September 1, 1946
Creator: Serebrisky, Y. M. & Biachuev, S. A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Lift Characteristics of an NACA 27-212 Airfoil Equipped with Two Types of Flap, Special Report

Description: An investigation has been made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large chord NACA 27-212 airfoil with a 20% chord split flap and with two arrangements of a 25.66% chord slotted flap to determine the section lift characteristics as affected by flap deflection for the split flap and as affected by flap deflection, flap position, and slot shape for the slotted flap. For the two arrangements of the slotted flap, the flap positions for maximum section lift are given. Comparable data on the NACA 23012 airfoil equipped with similar flaps are also given. On the basis of maximum section lift coefficient, the slotted flap with an easy slot entry was slightly better than either the split flap or the slotted flap with a sharp slot entry. With both types of flap the decrease in the angle of attack, for maximum section lift coefficient, with flap deflection is large for the NACA 27-212 airfoil as compared with the NACA 23012 airfoil. Also with both flaps, the maximum section lift coefficient obtained with flaps is much lower for the NACA 27-212 airfoil than for the NACA 23012 airfoil.
Date: September 1, 1940
Creator: Swanson, Robert S. & Schuldenfrei, Marvin J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Characteristics of a 1/8-Scale Model of the Republic XP-91 Airplane with a Vee and a Conventional Tail

Description: Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a l/8 scale model of the Republic XP-91 airplane were made to determine its low-speed characteristics and the relative merits of a vee and a conventional tail on the model. The results of the tests showed that for the same amount of longitudinal and directional stability the conventional tail gave less roll due to sideslip than did the vee tail. The directional stability of the model was considered inadequate for both the vee and conventional tails; however, increasing the area and aspect ratio of the conventional vertical tail provided adequate directional stability. It was possible with negative wing dihedral and open main landing gear doors to reduce the excessive roll due to sideslip for the landing configuration (flaps and gear down) to a more reasonable value commensurate with the aileron power. The use of variable wing incidence to adjust the longitudinal balance was sufficiently effective to reduce the predicted up-elevator required for landing by approximately 5 deg.
Date: December 15, 1947
Creator: Weiberg, James A. & Anderson, Warren E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Static Stability and Control Characteristics of a Model of Bell MX-776

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the low-speed static stability and control characteristics of a model of the Bell MX-776. The results of the investigation indicated that the basic model configuration was longitudinally stable in the angle-of-attack range from about -16 deg. to 16 deg. but that the stability was a minimum near O deg angle of attack. The data indicated an aerodynamic-center position about 0.64 body diameters behind the center of gravity at low angles of attack. Reduction in the size of the front horizontal fins increased the longitudinal stability. With 20 percent of the span of the normal front horizontal fins cut off the aerodynamic center was about 1.04 body diameters behind the center of gravity, and with front horizontal fins having the same area as the front vertical fins, the aerodynamic center was 2.26 body diameters behind the center of gravity (at low angles of attack).
Date: July 6, 1949
Creator: Queijo, M. J. & Michael, W. H., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Static Stability and Control Characteristics of a Model of the Bell MX-776 (RASCAL) in Combined Angle of Attack and Sideslip

Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the low-speed static stability and control characteristics of a model of the Bell MX-776. The results show the model to be longitudinally unstable in the angle-of-attack range around zero angle of attack and to become stable at moderate angles of attack. The results of the present investigation agree reasonably well with results obtained in other facilities at low speed. The present pitching-moment results at low Mach numbers also agree reasonably well with unpublished results of tests of the model at supersonic Mach numbers (up to Mach number 1.86). Unpublished results at moderate and high subsonic speeds, however, indicate considerably greater instability at low angles of attack than is indicated by low-speed results. The results of the present tests also showed that the pitching-moment coefficients for angles of attack up to 12deg remained fairly constant with sideslip angle up to 12deg. The elevators tested produced relatively large pitching moments at zero angle of attack but, as the angle of attack was increased, the elevator effectiveness decreased. The rate of decrease of elevator effectiveness with angle of attack was less for 8deg than for 20deg elevator deflection. Therefore although 8deg deflection caused an appreciable change in longitudinal trim angle and trim lift coefficient a deflection of 20deg caused only a small additional increase in trim angle and trim lift coefficient.
Date: January 1, 1949
Creator: Letko, William
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Opening Characteristics, Drag, and Stability of Several Hemispherical Parachutes

Description: An investigation has been conducted to determine the opening characteristics of several hemispherical parachutes and to study the influence of the parachute design variables on these opening characteristics. The effects of design variables on the drag and stability characteristics of the parachutes were also evaluated. The tests were made in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel and in the Langley 300 MPH 7 by 10-foot tunnel.
Date: October 7, 1948
Creator: Scher, Stanley E. & Gale, Lawrence J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability of the Jettisonable Nose Section of the X-3 Airplane

Description: Because previous work has indicated that jettisonable nose sections of airplanes may be inherently unstable, and thus may cause dangerous centripetal accelerations on a pilot after jettisoning during high-speed flight, an investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the behavior in descent of a model of the jettisonable nose section of the Douglas X-3 airplane. The effects of varying the center-of-gravity position, of attaching fins of various sizes, and of installing a stabilizing parachute were investigated. In the investigation the model descended with its front and trimmed 36 deg above the horizontal and rotated about a vertical wind axis while rolling about its longitudinal body axis. The nose section was made to descend in a stable front-down attitude when stabilizing fins were installed in conjunction with movement of the center of gravity forward or when a stable parachute was attached to the model.
Date: December 8, 1946
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of two airfoils with 25-percent-chord Gwinn and plain flaps

Description: Aerodynamic force tests of an NACA 23018 airfoil with a Gwinn flap having a chord 25 percent of the overall chord and of an NACA 23015 airfoil with a plain flap having a 25-percent chord were conducted to determine the relative merits of the Gwinn and the plain flaps. The tests indicated that, based on speed-range ratios, the plain flap was more effective than the Gwinn flap. At small flap deflections, the plain flap had lower drag coefficients at lift-coefficient values less than 0.70. For lift coefficients greater than 0.70, however, the Gwinn flap at all downward flap deflections had the lower drag coefficients.
Date: May 1, 1940
Creator: Ames, Milton B , Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Diving Brakes

Description: Unduly high diving speeds can be effectively controlled by diving brakes but their employment involves at the same time a number of disagreeable features: namely, rotation of zero lift direction, variation of diviving moment, and, the creation of a potent dead air region.
Date: November 1, 1942
Creator: Fucha, D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigations on a Changed Mustang Profile with Nose Flap Force and Pressure-Distribution Measurements

Description: Measurements are described which were taken in the large wind tunnel of the AVA on a rectangular wing "Mustang 2" with nose flap of a chord of 10 percent. Besides force measurements the results of pressure-distribution measurements are given and compared with those on the same profile "without" nose flap.
Date: September 1, 1947
Creator: Krueger, W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Measurements on the Henschel Missile "Zitterrochen" in Subsonic and Supersonic Velocities

Description: At the request of the Henschel Aircraft Works. A. G. Berlin. three models of the missile "Zitterrochen" were investigated at subsonic velocities.(open jet 215-millimeter diameter) and at supersonic velocities (open jet 110 by 130 millimeters) in order to determine the effect of various wing forms on the air forces and moments. Three-component measurements were taken, and one model was also investigated with deflected control plates.
Date: April 1, 1948
Creator: Weber & Kehl
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department