National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 13,806 Matching Results

Search Results

Accelerations and passenger harness loads measured in full-scale light-airplane crashes
From Introduction: "Light-airplane accident data, compiled by Crash Injury Research of Cornell University Medical College, indicate that human beings have often withstood declarations in excess of those imposed in airplane crashes involving extensive damage to the airplane structure (ref. 1). This study also correlates the extent of damage to the airplane structure with the injury incurred by the occupants during crash accidents."
Accelerations in fighter-airplane crashes
From Introduction: "This report describes some measurements of these quantities obtained by crashing fighter aircraft under circumstances approximating those observed in service."
Accelerations in flight
Report discussung work on accelerometry was done at McCook Field for the purpose of continuing the work done by other investigators and obtaining the accelerations which occur when a high-speed pursuit airplane is subjected to the more common maneuvers. The accelerations obtained in suddenly pulling out of a dive with well-balanced elevators are shown to be within 3 or 4 per cent of the theoretically possible accelerations. The maximum acceleration which a pilot can withstand depends upon the length of time the acceleration is continued. It is shown that he experiences no difficulty under the instantaneous accelerations as high as 7.8 G., but when under accelerations in excess of 4.5 G., continued for several seconds, he quickly loses his faculties.
Accelerations in flight
This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.
Accelerations in Landing with a Tricycle-Type Landing Gear
In connection with the application of stable tricycle-type landing gears to transport airplanes, the question arises as to whether certain passengers may not experience relatively great accelerations in an emergency landing. Since the main landing wheels are behind the center of gravity in this type of gear, a hard-braked landing will cause immediate nosing down of the airplane and, when this motion is stopped due to the front wheel striking the ground, there will be some tendency for the rearmost passengers to be thrown out of their seats, The provided rough calculations are designed to show the magnitudes of the various reactions experienced in a severe landing under these circumstances.
Accelerations in transport-airplane crashes
From Introduction: "A study of crash-impact survival in light airplanes is reported in references 1 and 2. A similar study for fighter airplanes is reported in reference 3. This report discusses crash-impact survival in transport airplanes."
Accelerations measured at center of gravity and along span of the wing of a B-24D airplane in landing impacts
No Description Available.
Accelerometer design
In connection with the development of an accelerometer for measuring the loads on airplanes in free flight a study of the theory of such instruments has been made, and the results of this study are summarized in this report. A portion of the analysis deals particularly with the sources of error and with the limitations placed on the location of the instrument in the airplane. The discussion of the dynamics of the accelerometer includes a study of its theoretical motions and of the way in which they are affected by the natural period of vibration and by the damping, together with a report of some experiments on the effect of forced vibrations on the record.
Accuracy of airspeed measurements and flight calibration procedures
From Summary: "The sources of error that may enter into the measurement of airspeed by pitot-static methods are reviewed in detail together with methods of flight calibration of airspeed installations. Special attention is given to the problem of accurate measurements of airspeed under conditions of high speed and maneuverability required of military airplanes." (author).
Accuracy of approximate methods for predicting pressures on pointed nonlifting bodies of revolution in supersonic flow
No Description Available.
The accuracy of the substitute-stringer approach for determining the bending frequencies of multistringer box beams
No Description Available.
An accurate and rapid method for the design of supersonic nozzles
From Introduction: "This report presents a computational procedure which provides for the rapid and accurate calculation of any streamline in a series of special flows. Detailed information is given on the boundary conditions and equations used for computing the characteristic nets and stream function."
Accurate calculation of multispar cantilever and semicantilever wings with parallel webs under direct and indirect loading
In the present report the computation is actually carried through for the case of parallel spars of equal resistance in bending without direct loading, including plotting of the influence lines; for other cases the method of calculation is explained. The development of large size airplanes can be speeded up by accurate methods of calculation such as this.
An accurate method of measuring the moments of inertia of airplanes
From Summary: "This note contains a description of an improved apparatus and procedure used by the NACA for determining the moments of inertia of airplanes. The method used, based on the pendulum theory, is similar to that previously used, but a recent investigation of its accuracy has resulted in the improvements described herein. The error, when using the new apparatus and procedure, has been found to be of the order of 1 per cent."
Achievement of continuous wall curvature in design of two-dimensional symmetrical supersonic nozzles
No Description Available.
Acoustic analysis of ram-jet buzz
From Introduction: "The surging of a system containing a centrifugal- or axial-flow compressor (e.g., refs. 1 to 4) is an example of self-sustained oscillation. Inlets designed for supersonic jet engines also have been observed to induce oscillations (e.g., refs. 5 to 11) which are usually referred to as "buzz." The origin of buzz in ram-jet engines is the subject of the present report."
Acoustic radiation from two-dimensional rectangular cutouts in aerodynamic surfaces
From Introduction: "The experiments in high-speed flow showed that an intense, high-frequency acoustic radiation is an essential feature of the problem. Consequently, a study of the acoustic field (involving schlieren observations and frequency and intensity measurements) was undertaken. This report presents the salient features of the study, which was mainly exploratory."
Acoustic, thrust, and drag characteristics of several full-scale noise suppressors for turbojet engines
From Introduction: " Considerable analytical and experimental research has been done to find means of reducing the noise levels of the turbojet transports. Noise levels can be decreased by engine redesign to reduce the jet-exit velocity (ref. 1), proper flight-climb techniques (ref. 2), and the use of noise-suppression exhaust nozzles (refs. 3 to 5). The present report is concerned with the last method."
Acoustical treatment for the NACA 8- by 6-foot supersonic propulsion wind tunnel
From Introduction: "This report presents results of a research and engineering program performed during the first half of 1950 that resulted in an acoustical treatment for the 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory."
Acoustics of a nonhomogeneous moving medium.
Report discussing theoretical basis of the acoustics of a moving nonhomogeneous medium. Experiments that illustrate or confirm some of the theoretical explanation or derivation of these acoustics are also included.
Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number
This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report.
An active particle diffusion theory of flame quenching for laminar flames / Dorothy M. Simon and Frank E. Belles
An equation for quenching distance based on the destruction of chain carriers by the surface is derived. The equation expresses the quenching distance in terms of the diffusion coefficients and partial pressures of the chain carriers and gas phase molecules, the efficiency of the surface as a chain breaker, the total pressure of the mixture, and a constant which depends on the geometry of the quenching surface. Quenching distances measured by flashback for propane-air flames are shown to be consistent with the mechanism. The derived equation is used with the lean inflammability limit and a rate constant calculated from burning velocity data to estimate quenching distances for propane-air (hydrocarbon lean) flames satisfactorily.
Adaptation of a Cascade Impactor to Flight Measurement of Droplet Size in Clouds
A cascade impactor, an instrument for obtaining: the size distribution of droplets borne in a low-velocity air stream, was adapted for flight cloud droplet-size studies. The air containing the droplets was slowed down from flight speed by a diffuser to the inlet-air velocity of the impactor. The droplets that enter the impactor impinge on four slides coated with magnesium oxide. Each slide catches a different size range. The relation between the size of droplet impressions and the droplet size was evaluated so that the droplet-size distributions may be found from these slides. The magnesium oxide coating provides a permanent record. of the droplet impression that is not affected by droplet evaporation after the. droplets have impinged.
Adaptation of aeronautical engines to high altitude flying
Report discussing Issues and techniques relative to the adaptation of aircraft engines to high altitude flight. Covered here are the limits of engine output, modifications and characteristics of high altitude engines, the influence of air density on the proportions of fuel mixtures, methods of varying the proportions of fuel mixtures, the automatic prevention of fuel waste, and the design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying. Summary: 1. Limits of engine output. 2. High altitude engines. 3. Influence of air density on proportions of mixture. 4. Methods of varying proportions of mixture. 5. Automatic prevention of fuel waste. 6. Design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying.
Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 1, Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air
The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.
Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 2, Combustion in Air-Breathing Jet Engines
This volume continues the NACA study of combustion principles for aircraft propulsion. The various aspects of combustion pertinent to jet engines are organized and interpreted with quite extensive information, particularly for basic or fundamental. subject matter. The report concerns only air-breathing engines and hydrocarbon fuels, and not rocket engines and high-energy fuels. Since the references have been selected to illustrate important points, the bibliographies, while thorough, are not complete. This volumes describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. These include combustor-inlet conditions; starting, acceleration, combustion limits, combustion efficiency, coke deposits, and smoke formation in turbojets; ram-jet performance; and afterburner performance and design.
Adaptor for measuring principal strains with Tuckerman strain gage
Report discussing an adapter which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.
Addition of heat to a compressible fluid in motion
From Introduction: "The purpose of this report is to summarize, without extended proofs, the results of a study of a simplified model of nonadiabiatic, compressible fluid flow, both subsonic and supersonic, and to state these results in a form that will make them immediately useful in providing a theoretical background for current technical problems of high-speed combustion.
Additional abstracts pertaining to seaplanes
From Summary: "About 500 additional references pertaining to hydrodynamic design of seaplanes have been compiled, and the information is presented in the form of abstracts classified under six main headings:GENERAL INFORMATION, HYDROSTATICS, HYDRODYNAMICS, AERODYNAMICS, OPERATION, and RESEARCH. The compilation is an extension of NACA RM No. L6I13, entitled "Abstracts Pertaining to Seaplanes," by Jerold M. Bidwell and Douglas A. King. An author index and a subject index are included."
Additional comparisons between computed and measured transonic drag-rise coefficients at zero lift for wing-body-tail configurations
From Introduction: "This report makes further comparisons of the theoretical computing method with available experimental results, showing effects of wing plan-form changes, and the effect of an airfoil-section change on a wing of given plan form."
Additional design charts relating to the stalling of tapered wings
From Introduction: "The present report, therefore, may be considered a supplement to reference 1. The combined scope of the stall charts of reference 1, designated A, and of the present work, designated B, is summarized in the following table: For the wing with root thickness ratio to 18 was also investigated.
Additional experimental heat-transfer and durability data on several forced-convection, air-cooled, strut-supported turbine blades of improved design
No Description Available.
Additional experiments with flat-top wing- body combinations at high supersonic speeds
Flat top wing body configuration effects on aerodynamic characteristics of supersonic aircraft.
Additional fatigue tests on effects of design details in 355-T6 sand-cast aluminum alloy
From Introduction: "Reported herein are results of the additional direct-stress fatigue tests on: (1) a plate-type specimen with cored centrally located hole and (2) 0.300-inch-diameter round polished specimens with various degrees of porosity."
Additional free-flight tests of the rolling effectiveness of several wing-spoiler arrangements at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds
From Introduction: "The purpose of the present paper is to present results obtained recently relating to the characteristics of a full-span sharp-edge spoiler with an 0.02-chord projection above the wing surface at several chordwise positions and also to the relative effectiveness of the sharp-edge spoiler and a wedge-type spoiler located at the 80-percent-chord line."
An additional investigation of the high-speed lateral-control characteristics of spoilers
No Description Available.
The additional-mass effect of plates as determined by experiments
From Introduction: "The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included."
Additional measurements of the low-speed static stability of a configuration employing three triangular wing panels and a body of equal length
From Introduction: "The results of an investigation of the low-speed static stability of a simplified model of such an arrangement having one of the airfoils placed vertically on top of the body and the other two as wing panels having negative dihedral are presented in reference 1. In order to provide information for predicting the effects of changes in the basic configuration on the low-speed stability characteristics presented in reference 1, additional measurements have been made."
Additional power-on wind-tunnel tests of the 1/8-scale model of the Brewster F2A airplane with full-span slotted flaps
No Description Available.
Additional results in a free-flight investigation of control effectiveness of full-span, 0.2-chord plain ailerons at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds to determine some effects of wing sweepback, aspect ratio, taper, and section thickness ratio
Report discussing an aerodynamic control effectiveness study using free-flight, rocket-propelled test vehicles. Information about the effects of wing sweepback, aspect ratio, taper ratio, and section thickness ratio on the rolling effectiveness of full-span, sealed ailerons is provided.
Additional results of an investigation at transonic speeds to determine the effects of a heated propulsive jet on the drag characteristics of a series of related afterbodies
From Introduction: "Presented in this report are the basic data obtained from investigation. The data are presented with limited analysis in order to expedite their availability to those concerned with jet-exit-afterbody design."
Additional Results on the Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.05-Scale Model of the Convair F2Y-1 Airplane at High Subsonic Speeds
Additional results on the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a 0.05-scale model of the Convair F2Y-1 water-based fighter airplane were obtained in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.92. The maximum angle-of-attack range (obtained at the lower Mach numbers) was from -2 degrees to 25 degrees. The sideslip-angle range investigated was from -4 degrees to 12 degrees. The investigation included effects of various arrangements of wing fences, leading-edge chord-extensions, and leading-edge notches. Various fuselage fences, spoilers, and a dive brake also were investigated. From overall considerations of lift, drag, and pitching moments, it appears that there were two modifications somewhat superior to any of the others investigated: One was a configuration that employed a full-chord fence and a partial-chord fence located at 0.63 semispan and 0.55 semispan, respectively. The second was a leading-edge chord-extension that extended from 0.68 semispan to 0.85 semispan in combination with a leading-edge notch located at 0.68 semispan. With plus or minus 10 degrees aileron, the estimated wing-tip helix angle was reduced from 0.125 at a Mach number of 0.50 to 0.088 at a Mach number of 0.92, with corresponding rates of roll of 4.0 and 5.2 radians per second. The upper aft fuselage dive brake, when deflected 30 degrees and 60 degrees, reduced the rudder effectiveness about 10 to 20 percent and about 35 to 50 percent, respectively.
Additional static and fatigue tests of high-strength aluminum-alloy bolted joints
From Introduction: "Early in 1951 the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics published, as Technical Note 2276 (ref. 1), a report by the Aluminum Research Laboratories of the Aluminum Company of America on the results of static and fatigue tests of high-strength aluminum alloy monobloc specimens and bolted joints. In view of special interest shown by several aircraft companies, certain expansions of the test program were undertaken by the Aluminum Research Laboratories and are reported herein."
Additional studies of the stability and controllability of an unswept-wing vertically rising airplane model in hovering flight including studies of various tethered landing techniques
Report discussing the results of an investigation to determine the stability and control characteristics of a flying model of an unswept-wing vertically rising airplane. Information about stabilization, maneuverability, rolling motions, and landings is provided.
Additional test data on static longitudinal stability
From Summary: "The purpose of this investigation was to explore the influence of weights of the controls on the stability with elevator released. The available test data were extended to stability with elevator locked. In this connection the study of the propeller effect seemed of vital importance."
Adhesion of ice in its relation to the de-icing of airplanes
From Summary: "The various possible means of preventing ice adhesion on airplane surfaces are critically reviewed. Results are presented of tests of the adhesives forces between ice and various solid and liquid forces. It is concluded that the de-icing of airplane wings by heat from engine exhaust shows sufficient promise to warrant full-scale tests. For propellers, at least, and possibly for certain small areas such as windshields, radio masts, etc. the use of de-icing or adhesion-preventing liquids will provide the best means of protection."
The adhesion of molten boron oxide to various materials
This report includes the description and results of an experiment evaluating the amount of adhesion existing between the liquid boron oxide and various materials used in engines.
Adhesive and protective characteristics of ceramic coating A-417 and its effect on engine life of forged Refractaloy-26 (AMS 5760) and cast stellite 21 (AMS 5385) turbine blades
The adhesive and protective characteristics of National Bureau of Standards Coating A-417 were investigated, as well as the effect of the coating on the life of forged Refractaloy 26 and cast Stellite 21 turbine blades. Coated and uncoated blades were run in a full-scale J33-9 engine and were subjected to simulated service operations consisting of consecutive 20-minute cycles (15 min at rated speed and approximately 5 min at idle). The ceramic coating adhered well to Refractaloy 26 and Stellite 21 turbine blades operated at 1500 degrees F. The coating also prevented corrosion of the Refractaloy 26, a corrosion-sensitive nickel-base alloy, and of the Stellite 21, a relatively corrosion-resistant cobalt-base alloy. Although the coating prevented corrosion of both alloys, it had no apparent effect on blade life.
Adjustment of stick force by a nonlinear aileron-stick linkage
No Description Available.
Advantages of oxide films as bases for aluminum pigmented surface coatings for aluminum alloys
Report discussing both laboratory and weather-exposure corrosion tests showed conclusively that the protection afforded by aluminum pigmented spar varnish coatings applied to previously anodized aluminum surfaces was greatly superior to that afforded by the same coatings applied to surfaces which had simply been cleaned free from grease and not anodized.