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Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic tests of a family of models of flying hulls derived from a streamline body -- NACA model 84 series
Report discussing a series of related forms of flying-boat hulls representing various degrees of compromise between aerodynamic and hydrodynamic requirements was tested in Langley Tank No. 1 and in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. The purpose of the investigation was to provide information regarding the penalties in water performance resulting from further aerodynamic refinement and, as a corollary, to provide information regarding the penalties in range or payload resulting from the retention of certain desirable hydrodynamic characteristics. The information should form a basis for over-all improvements in hull form.
Aerodynamic characteristics and flap loads of perforated double split flaps on a rectangular NACA 23012 airfoil
From Introduction: "The results of the load tests and some additional aerodynamic characteristics of perforated double split flaps on a rectangular NACA 23012 airfoil are given in the present report."
Aerodynamic characteristics and flap loads of the brake-flap installation on the 0.40-scale model of the F4F-3 left wing panel
From Introduction: "The data are presented in coefficient form and include lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the airfoil-flap comoinations and the normal-force, chord-force, and hinge-moment coefficients of the upper (perforated split) flap and lower (slotted) flap."
Aerodynamic characteristics at high speeds of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller and of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-045 propeller
From Introduction: "The aerodynamic characteristics of a series of 10-foot-diameter propellers are being investigated in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel in a comprehensive propeller research program. Using high-critical-speed NACA 16-series airfoil sections (reference 1), these propellers are designed to have Betz minimum induced-energy loss loading (reference 2) for a blade angle of 45^o at the 0.7 radius, when used as a four-blade propeller operating at an advance ratio of approximately 2.1 The ultimate purpose of the program is to determine the influence upon propeller design factors and of compressiblity; the propeller tests reported herein form part of the investigation of the effects of blade-section thickness ratio."
Aerodynamic characteristics at high speeds of full-scale propellers having Clark Y blade sections
From Introduction: "The single purpose of this paper is to make available the data obtained from tests of these two Clark Y section propellers as quickly as possible with no attempt being made to analyze the results or to compare them with other high-speed-propeller test results."
Aerodynamic Characteristics at High Speeds of Full-Scale Propellers having Different Shank Designs
Tests of two 10-foot-diameter two-blade propellers which differed only in shank design have been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel. The propellers are designated by their blade design numbers, NACA 10-(5)(08)-03, which had aerodynamically efficient airfoil shank sections, and NACA l0-(5)(08)-03R which had thick cylindrical shank sections typical of conventiona1 blades, The propellers mere tested on a 2000-horsepower dynamometer through a range of blade-angles from 20deg to 55deg at various rotational speeds and at airspeeds up to 496 miles per hour. The resultant tip speeds obtained simulate actual flight conditions, and the variation of air-stream Mach number with advance ratio is within the range of full-scale constant-speed propeller operation. Both propellers were very efficient, the maximum envelope efficiency being approximately 0,95 for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 propeller and about 5 percent less for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller. Based on constant power and rotational speed, the efficiency of the NACA 10-(05)(08)-03 propeller was from 2.8 to 12 percent higher than that of the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03R propeller over a range of airspeeds from 225 to 450 miles per hour. The loss in maximum efficiency at the design blade angle for the NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 and 10-(5)(08)-03R propellers vas about 22 and 25 percent, respectively, for an increase in helical tip Mach number from 0.70 to 1.14.
Aerodynamic characteristics at subcritical and supercritical Mach numbers of two airfoil sections having sharp leading edges and extreme rearward positions of maximum thickness
From Introduction: "A 12-percent-chord-thick wedge section and a reversed NACA 0012 section were chosen for these tests as they are representative of sections having no boat tailing and appreciable boat tailing (i.e., blunt and rounded trailing edges, respectively), and the results of this investigation are compared with those obtained from a previous investigation of the NACA 0012 section. Conclusions are drawn regarding the relative merits of the two unconventional sections and the conventional section in transonic speed range."
Aerodynamic characteristics at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers of a thin triangular wing of aspect ratio 2 I : maximum thickness at 20 percent of the chord
From Summary: "This report presents the results of a wind-tunnel investigation conducted to determine the effects of Mach number on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing of triangular plan form."
Aerodynamic characteristics at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers of a thin triangular wing of aspect ratio 2 II : maximum thickness at midchord
The lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of a triangular wing, having an aspect ratio of 2 and a symmetrical double-wedge profile of 5-percent-chord maximum thickness at midchord, have been evaluated from wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.975 and from 1.09 to 1.49 and at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.67 to 0.85 million. The lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the triangular wing with a leading-edge sweepback of approximately 63 degrees did not exhibit the irregular variations with Mach number at high subsonic and low supersonic Mach numbers that are characteristic of unswept wings. The lift-curve slope increased steadily with Mach number below unity and declined slowly beyond the Mach number of 1.13. A substantial rise in the minimum drag coefficient occurred between Mach numbers of 0.95 and 1.20 with an associated reduction in the maximum lift-drag ratio. The aerodynamic center shifted rearward toward the centroid of area of the wing with increasing Mach number below 0.975; whereas above 1.09 it coincided with the centroid.
Aerodynamic characteristics at subsonic and transonic speeds of a 42.7 degree sweptback wing model having an aileron with finite trailing-edge thickness
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics for internal-balance and Frise type ailerons on an NACA 6 series low-drag tip section of the wing for the XP-63 airplane
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics including scale effect of several wings and bodies alone and in combination at a Mach number of 1.53
From Introduction: "In the present report, the results for the wings and bodies of revolution alone are first analyzed in comparison with exiting theory."
Aerodynamic characteristics of 15 NACA airfoil sections at seven Reynolds numbers from 0.7 x 10(exp 6) to 9.0 x 10(exp 6)
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 0.5-Scale Model of the Fairchild XSAM-N-2 Lark Missile at High Subsonic Speeds
An investigation was conducted to determine the longitudinal- and lateral-stability characteristics of a 0.5-scale moue1 of the Fairchild Lark missile, The model was tested with 0 deg and with 22.5 deg of roll. Three horizontal wings having NACA 16-009, 16-209, and 64A-209 sections were tested. Pressures were measured on both pointed and blunt noses. The wind-tunnel-test data indicate that rolling the missile 22.5 deg. had no serious effect on the static longitudinal stability. The desired maneuvering acceleration could not be attained with any of the horizontal wings tested, even with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 50 deg. The flaps on the 64A-209 wing (with small trailing-edge angles and flat sides) were effective at all flap deflections, while the flaps on the 16-series wings (with large trailing-edge angles) lost effectiveness at small flap deflections. The data showed that rolling moment existed when the vertical wing flaps were deflected with the model at other than zero angle of attack. A similar rolling moment probably would be found . with the horizontal wing flaps deflected and the model yawed.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/8-scale powered model of a high-speed bomber with a dual pusher propeller aft of the empennage
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a 6-percent-thick symmetrical double-wedge airfoil at transonic speeds from tests by the NACA wing-flow method
From Introduction: "The investigation covered a range of Mach numbers from 0.66 to 1.12 and included measurements of angle of attack, pitching moment, normal force, and chord force. The drag at zero lift obtained in this investigation was reported in reference 1, but without the correction for tare of the end plate."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 degree swept-back wing with aspect ratio 4 and NACA 64(sub 1)-112 airfoil sections at Reynolds numbers from 1,700,000 to 9,500,000
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a 45 degree swept-back wing with aspect ratio of 3.5 and NACA 2S-50(05)-50(05) airfoil sections
From Introduction: "The present paper presents the scale effect on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, the aerodynamic characteristics in yaw, and the tuft studies for 0^o and 3.7^o yaw. The results of the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing will be presented in later reports."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull having a length-beam ratio of 15 and a warped forebody
From Introduction: "The results of two phases of this investigation, presented in references 1 and 2, have indicated possible ways of reducing hull drag without causing large changes in aerodynamic stability and hydrodynamic performance."
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Number of Modified NACA Four-Digit-Series Airfoil Sections
Theoretical pressure distributions and measured lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics at three values of Reynolds number are presented for a group of NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections modified for high-speed applications. The effectiveness of flaps applied to these airfoils and the effect of standard leading-edge roughness were also investigated at one value of Reynolds number. Results are also presented of tests of three conventional NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a number of modified NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Portion of the Horizontal Tail from a Douglas C-74 Airplane with Fabric-Covered Elevators
A Douglas C-74 airplane, during a test dive at about 0.525 Mach number, experienced uncontrollable longitudinal oscillations sufficient to cause shedding of the outer wing panels and the subsequent crash of the airplane. Tests of a section of the horizontal tail plane from a C-74 airplane were conducted in the Ames 16-foot high-speed wind tunnel to investigate the possibility of the tail as a contributing factor to the accident. The results of the investigations of fabric-covered elevators in various conditions of surface deformation are presented in this report.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a slot-lip aileron and slotted flap for dive brakes
From Introduction: "As a part of this investigation, a study is being made of test results obtained during the development of devices designed primarily for other purposes, such as high lift or lateral control, but which may also be used for dive control. These results have been reanalyzed and are herein presented in a form that should make them convenient for design purposes."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-03R propeller
From Introduction: "This paper presents the test data obtained for the NACA 10-(3) (08)-03R propeller blade which was one of the blades tested to determine the effects of shank design."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(12)-03 propeller
From Introduction: "The particular blade design, the tests of which are described in the present paper, was one necessary to the investigation of the effect of differences in blade-thickness ratios."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with quarter-chord line swept back 35 degrees, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section : transonic-bumb method
From Introduction: "This paper presents the results of the investigation of wing-alone and wing-fuselage combinations employing a wing with the quarter-chord line swept back 35^o, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with quarter-chord line swept back 45 degrees, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section : transonic-bump method
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with quarter-chord line swept back 45 degrees, aspect ratio 6, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with quarter-chord line swept back 60 degrees, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section : transonic-bump method
From Introduction: "This paper presents the results of the investigation of the wing-alone and wing-fuelage configurations employing a wing with the quarter-chord line swept back 60^o, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and an NACA 65A006 airfoil section parallel to the free stream."
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section
From Introduction: "This paper presents the results of the investigation of the wing-alone and of the wing-fuselage configuration employing a wing with an unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and an NACA 65A006 airfoil section parallel to the air stream. The results of closely related sweptback-wing investigations, which are part of the present transonic programs, are presented in references 1 to 3."
Aerodynamic characteristics of an 0.08-scale model of the Martin XB-51 Airplane at high subsonic speeds
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil-forebody swept flying-boat hull with a wing and tail swept back 51.3 degrees at the leading edge
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of flying-boat hulls having length-beam ratios of 20 and 30
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of four NACA airfoil sections designed for helicopter rotor blades
From Introduction: "The purpose of the present work is to extend the previous investigation and to derive additional airfoil sections designed to minimize the undesirable characteristics of the previously tested airfoils. The tests of these additional airfoils were made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel (LTT)."
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Four Republic Airfoil Sections from Tests in Langley Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnels
Four airfoils sections, designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for the root and tip sections of the XF-12 airplane, were tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels to obtain their aerodynamic characteristics. Lift characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, 9,000,000, and 14,000,000, whereas drag characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, and 9,000,000. Pressure distributions were obtained for one of the root sections for several angles of attack at a Reynolds number of 2,600,000. Comparison of the root section that appeared best from the tests with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic section has a higher maximum lift and higher calculated critical speeds, but a higher minimum drag. In addition, with standard roughness applied to the leading edge, the maximum lift of the Republic airfoil is lower than that of the NACA airfoil. Comparison of the Republic tip section with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic airfoil has a lower maximum lift and a higher minimum drag than the NACA airfoil. The calculated critical speeds of the Republic section are slightly higher than those of the NACA section.
Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces
From Summary: "Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory."
Aerodynamic characteristics of several modifications of a 0.45-scale model of the vertical tail of the Curtiss XP-62 airplane
From Introduction: "In the course of an investigation to find a satisfactory vertical tail for the XP-62 airplane, a 0.45-scale vertical tail model on a stub fuselage was tested in the Langley 7- by 10-foot tunnel. This model was fitted with a flat plate to represent the horizontal tail surface. The data are presented herein for their general interest value rather than their application to this particular airplane."
Aerodynamic characteristics of several NACA airfoil sections at seven Reynolds numbers from 0.7 x 10(exp 6) to 9.0 x 10(exp 6)
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 8-H-12 airfoil section at six Reynolds numbers from 1.8 x 10(exp 6) to 11.0 x 10(exp 6).
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 747A315 and 747A415 airfoils from tests in the NACA two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls
An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.
Aerodynamic characteristics of two all-movable wings tested in the presence of a fuselage at a Mach number of 1.9
No Description Available.
The aerodynamic characteristics throughout the subsonic speed range of a thin, sharp-edged horizontal tail of aspect ratio 4 equipped with a constant-chord elevator
From Introduction: "Recent investigations have indicated several wing plan forms, wing sections, and wing-body-tail combinations suitable for flight at supersonic speeds. One such lifting surface, a thin, sharp-edged without sweep of aspect ratio 4 and taper ratio 0.5, has been the subject of an investigation in the Ames 12-foot pressure wind tunnel. The aim of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of such a wing plan form throughout the range of subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.94."
Aerodynamic data for a wing section of the Republic XF-12 airplane equipped with a double slotted flap
No Description Available.
The aerodynamic effects of rockets and fuel tanks mounted under the swept-back wing of an airplane model
From Summary: "The effects of externally mounted rockets and fuel tanks on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane model with a swept-back wing are presented in this report."
Aerodynamic factors affecting the ability of a pilot to return an airplane to level from a banked attitude by use of the rudder alone and without change of heading
No Description Available.
Aerodynamic Heat-Power Engine Operating on a Closed Cycle
Hot-air engines with dynamic compressors and turbines offer new prospects of success through utilization of units of high efficiencies and through the employment of modern materials of great strength at high temperature. Particular consideration is given to an aerodynamic prime mover operating on a closed circuit and heated externally. Increase of the pressure level of the circulating air permits a great increase of limit load of the unit. This also affords a possibility of regulation for which the internal efficiency of the unit changes but slightly. The effect of pressure and temperature losses is investigated. A general discussion is given of the experimental installation operating at the Escher Wyss plant in Zurich for a considerable time at high temperatures.
Aerodynamic heating and the deflection of drops by an obstacle in an air stream in relation to aircraft icing
From Summary: "Two topics of interest to persons attempting to apply the heat method of preventing ice formation on aircraft are considered. Surfaces moving through air at high speed are shown, both theoretically and experimentally, to be subject to important aerodynamic heating effects that will materially reduce the heat required to prevent ice. Numerical calculations of the path of water drops in an air stream around a circular cylinder are given. From these calculations, information is obtained on the percentage of the swept area cleared of drops."
Aerodynamic measurements made during Navy investigation of human tolerance to wind blasts
From Summary: "This report presents the aerodynamic measurements made during a Navy investigation conducted in the Langley 8-foot high speed tunnel to determine the actual human tolerance to wind blasts."
Aerodynamic problems in the design of efficient propellers
From General Analysis: "The purpose of part I of this paper is to show how the loading that gives the minimum induced energy loss can be obtained from rather elementary considerations and to present design charts from which such a plan form can be quickly obtained for any set of design conditions."