National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - Browse

Aviation fuels : with especial reference to "white spirit."
Gasoline, the fuel now used, is an extremely volatile and inflammable liquid capable of forming explosive mixtures, the cause of many catastrophes in aviation. It is therefore of special interest to investigate the possibility of using fuels which, while being less volatile than gasoline, would nevertheless enable this engine to function satisfactorily.
Aviation in the Belgian Congo
The establishment of air service in the Belgian Congo is detailed in this report. The airplanes, landing fields, and air routes are all discussed.
Aviation spirit - past, present, and future
The volatile fuel of the high-speed internal combustion engine has, in the past, consisted almost exclusively of the lighter distillates from crude petroleum. Alternative and supplementary fuels are discussed such as: tetraline, dekalin, alcohol, cyclo-hexenes.
Avimeta three-engine commercial monoplane : type A.V.M. 132
This is an all metal aircraft, including the wing coverings. Both the framework and the sheet-metal coverings are Alferium, made by Schneider Co.
The Avro "Avian" Airplane : 65 HP. Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet" engine
The Avro Avian, designed by Mr. Chadwick of A.V. Roe & Co., Ltd. has a very low structural weight (estimated at 750 lbs. empty) but with sufficient structural integrity to be eligible of an "Aerobatics" certificate from the British Air Ministry. It can be configured as a monoplane, or a biplane with seaplane floats. It is designed for economical production.
The Avro "Avian III" Airplane (British)
The Avro Avian has a lift capacity of 828 lbs (including pilot). It is equipped with the Mark II A.D.C. Cirrus engine.
The Avro "Gosport," 504 R : a new training airplane
No Description Available.
The background of detonation
No Description Available.
Bagnulo heavy fuel internal combustion engine and its employment in aviation
We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.
The balance of moments and the static longitudinal stability of airplanes
A nomogram is developed which renders it possible by drawing a few lines, to determine: the location of the center of gravity for zero wing and tail moments; the longitudinal dihedral angle; the tail coefficient F(sub h) iota/F(sub t). Moreover there is no difficulty in determining the magnitude of the restoring moment or of the unstable moment.
Balloon fabrics made of Goldbeater's skins
Goldbeater's skin, which is the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox, is examined as a balloon fabric and details of how goldbeater's skin is prepared for use are provided. The construction techniques employed by Germany, France, and England are all discussed.
Balloon flight and atmospheric electricity
The air is known to be charged with electricity (chiefly positive) with reference to the earth, so that its potential increases with the altitude and the difference in potential between two points in the same vertical line, divided by the distance between them, gives a value called the "potential gradient," which may vary greatly with the altitude, the nature of the ground and the atmospheric conditions.
Beacon lights for air traffic
A beacon light manufactured by the Julius Pintsch Company is described and the arrangement of these lights on a landing field is discussed.
Bearing strength of wood under steel aircraft bolts and washers and other factors influencing fitting design
The purpose of this report is to correlate, bring up to date, and put under a single cover all the information thought to be essential to an understanding of the formulas.
Behavior of aviation engines at different air densities
The author expresses his views that engine performance would be affected only at very low temperatures is presented in this report.
Behm acoustic sounder for aircraft
The Behm acoustic sounder for aircraft enables the barometric determination for the altitude by night or fog and therefore promises to prove of great importance in safeguarding air traffic.
The Belgian Aerotechnical Laboratory at Rhode-Saint-Genese
This report describes the layout of the laboratory along with the motor and balance for the wind tunnel.
Bending moments, envelope, and cable stresses in non-rigid airships
This report describes the theory of calculating the principal stresses in the envelope of a nonrigid airship used by the Bureau of Aeronautics, United States Navy. The principal stresses are due to the gas pressure and the unequal distribution of weight and buoyancy, and the concentrated loads from the car suspension cables. The second part of the report deals with the variations of tensions in the car suspension cables of any type of airship, with special reference to the rigid type, due to the propeller thrust or the inclination of the airship longitudinally.
The Bernard 20 C.1 (French) : a single-seat pursuit monoplane
No Description Available.
Best rectangular and I-shaped cross sections for airplane wing spars
Equations are presented with which to determine spar cross-sections.
Bird flight: hints to be obtained from it for use in aviation
This report is a comprehensive study of birds and how their shapes have been molded by the resistance of the air. 500 species of birds were studied and nearly 30,000 ratios calculated. The author makes a distinction between flapping and soaring flight.
The Blackburn "Bluebird" Mark IV (British) all-metal biplane
No Description Available.
The Blackburn "Bluebird" "two-seat training and sport airplane
The Bluebird is a two seat, side by side biplane, designed primarily for training and pleasure flying.
The Blackburn "Sprat": A Training Airplane Convertible into Landplane or Seaplane
The Sprat is similar the Blackburn Swift and Dart models but is designed as a trainer. It is powered with a smaller 275 HP Rolls-Royce Falcon engine. It is a 2 seat biplane with equal sized upper and lower wings. It can quickly convert from a land to a seaplane.
Bleriot combat monoplane 127 (French)
The 127 is a cantilever monoplane without external bracing. It is designed to accompany and protect bombardment and observation aircraft.
Bleriot-Spad 91 Airplane (French) : pursuit single-seater, type "Jockey"
This aircraft has announced a speed of 270 km per hour at 4000 m. It is of all metal construction.
The Boeing mail airplane
The Boeing Mail Airplane is a biplane with cloth covered wings of wood and wire construction, a top speed of 130 MPH, and a fuel capacity of 100 gallons in two tanks.
Bomb trajectories
The report is a mathematical treatise dealing with the trajectories of bombs of high terminal velocity, dropped from a great altitude.
The Boulton and Paul "Bugle" airplane : day bomber
The Bugle is a twin engine tractor biplane. It features two Jupiter engines and oleo-pneumatic landing gear. Its maximum speed is 120 MPH.
The Boulton and Paul "Partridge" (British) : all-metal single-seat fighter
The Partridge is a tractor biplane of orthodox design. It has a single supercharged Jupiter VII engine.
The Boulton and Paul "Sidestrand I" bomber airplane (British)
The Sidestrand I is a twin engine bomber that has gone into production for Royal Air Force Squadrons. It seats three, and can carry a load in excess of 3500 lbs.
The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane
The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.
The Bristol "Bulldog" (British): A Single-Seat All-Steel Fighter
No Description Available.
British certificates of airworthiness
This report details the rules and regulations for obtaining a British airworthiness certificate. Aircraft loading and construction are especially important.
Buckling tests of light-metal tubes
I will attempt to determine mathematically the buckling-strength curves of various centrally loaded light-metal tubes which exhibit conspicuous differences of behavior under compressive loads. For this purpose I will employ Von Karman's method, after adapting it to special conditions.
Building a full-size glider
The building and flying of a glider is possible for anyone who can use a few basic tools. This report presents some plans and techniques for building your own glider.
The C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. transatlantic seaplane (French)
Tested at the end of March, 1928, the C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. was built for the purpose of crossing the Atlantic from Europe by way of the azores. It has a biplane construction with wings mounted above the hull. It is powered by two new series 500 HP. geared Hispano Suiza V type engines.
The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines
In part one of this report are presented the theoretical performance curves of an airplane engine equipped with a supercharging compressor. In predicting the gross power of a supercharging engine, the writer uses temperature and pressure correction factors based on experiments made at the Bureau of Standards (NACA report nos. 45 and 46). Means for estimating the temperature rise in the compressor are outlined. Part two of this report presents an estimation of the performance curves of an airplane fitted with a supercharging engine. A supercharging installation suitable for commercial use is described, and it is shown that with the use of the compressor a great saving in fuel and a considerable increase in carrying capacity can be effected simultaneously. In an appendix the writer derives a theoretical formula for the correction of the thrust coefficient of an airscrew to offset the added resistance of the airplane due to the slip-stream effect.
Calculating thrust distribution and efficiency of air propellers
I am now proposing a method for the preliminary approximate calculation of the thrust distribution and efficiency of air propellers under any operating conditions. Our task becomes the following, namely, to determine the speed relations and the forces developed on a section with a given direction and velocity of the air current, a problem which can be solved with the aid of the momentum theory.
Calculation of Airplane Performances Without the Aid of Polar Diagrams
For good profiles the profile-drag coefficient is almost constant in the whole range which comes into consideration for practical flight. This is manifest in the consideration of the Gottingen airfoil tests and is confirmed by the investigations of the writer (measurements of the profile drag during flight by the Betz method), concerning which a detailed report will soon be published. The following deductions proceed from this fact. The formulas developed on the assumptions of a constant profile-drag coefficient afford an extensive insight into the influences exerted on flight performances by the structure of the airplane.
Calculation of combining effects in the structure of airplane wings: a rational basis for estimating the reduction in the design load on wing beams due to the influence of ribs and covering toward causing the beams to deflect together
This lecture concerns the combining effects in airplane wings so as to save some of the dead weight.
Calculation of low-pressure indicator diagrams
Report develops a fundamental conception and partial application of a method for calculating the pressure-volume relationships to be expected for any given engine design. It outlines a method of computing and interpreting low-pressure indicator cards.
Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships
Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.
Calculation of the pressures on aircraft engine bearings
For aircraft engines the three principal operating conditions are idling speed, cruising speed, and diving with the engine stopped. In what follows, we will discuss a method which affords a good idea of the course of pressure for the above mentioned operating conditions. The pressures produced in the driving gear are of three kinds; namely, the pressure due to gases, the pressure due to the inertia of the rotating masses, and the pressure due to the inertia of the reciprocating masses.
Calculation of tubular radiators of the automobile type
We propose to show how to calculate the cooling capacity of all radiators through which the air flows in separate treamlets, whether enclosed in actual tubes or not and whatever cross-sectional shape the tubes may have. The first part will give the fundamental principles for calculating velocity of air in the tubes and the heat exchange by radiation, conduction and convection, and show, by examples, the agreement of the calculation with experiments. In the second part, the effect of the dimensions and conditions of operation on the heat exchange will be systematically investigated.
The calculation of wing float displacement in single-float seaplanes
No Description Available.
Calculation of wing spars
The author presents a comparison and combination of the numerical and geometrical determinations of the maximum M, when calculating the maximum bay moment.
Calculation of wing spars
A simplified formula for calculating wing spars is presented.
Calculation of wing spars
The author presents a comparison and combination of the numerical and geometrical determinations of the maximum M, when calculating the maximum bay moment.
Calculation of wing spars of variable cross-section and linear load
The calculation of wing spars of constant cross-section and load has been thoroughly treated by a large number of authors. Such is not the case,however, regarding the calculation of wing spars whose section and linear load diminish toward the ends, as in wings of trapezoidal contour and decreasing section.