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Some tables of the factor of apparent additional mass
This note, prepared for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, is a collection of the tables of the factor of apparent mass that have been published up to now. The theory of the motion of solids in a perfect fluid is of the greatest value for the study of most aerodynamic problems, and the additional apparent mass of an immersed solid is the most important characteristic for such theoretical numerical computations. It will therefore be helpful to have the most important values of the apparent mass - for some elementary cases - collected in a convenient form.
The spacing of orifices for the measure of pressure distributions
The following report has been prepared for publication by the NACA. Suitable locations of orifices for the measurement of pressure distributions have been discussed. Tables are given for quickly laying out these locations and for quickly and easily computing the resultant air forces from the result of the measurements.
The span as a fundamental factor in airplane design
Previous theoretical investigations of steady curvilinear flight did not afford a suitable criterion of "maneuverability," which is very important for judging combat, sport and stunt-flying airplanes. The idea of rolling ability, i.e., of the speed of rotation of the airplane about its X axis in rectilinear flight at constant speed and for a constant, suddenly produced deflection of the ailerons, is introduced and tested under simplified assumptions for the air-force distribution over the span. This leads to the following conclusions: the effect of the moment of inertia about the X axis is negligibly small, since the speed of rotation very quickly reaches a uniform value.
Spark plug defects and tests
The successful operation of the spark plug depends to a large extent on the gas tightness of the plug. Part 1 of this report describes the method used for measuring the gas tightness of aviation spark plugs. Part 2 describes the methods used in testing the electrical conductivity of the insulation material when hot. Part 3 describes the testing of the cold dielectric strength of the insulation material, the resistance to mechanical shock, and the final engine test.
The sparking voltage of spark plugs
This report has been prepared in order to collect and correlate into convenient and useful form the available data on this subject. The importance of the subject lies in the fact that it forms the common meeting ground for studies of the performance of spark generators and spark plugs on the one hand and of the internal combustion engines on the other hand. While much of the data presented was obtained from various earlier publications, numerous places were found where necessary data were lacking, and these have been provided by experiments in gasoline engines at the Bureau of Standards.
Special propeller protractor
A special protractor was designed and built with a view towards supplying a simple, inexpensive, practical, portable instrument for making measurements to detect propeller warpage under practically all conditions, without the use of auxiliary equipment, and without having to remove the propeller from the airplane. A detailed description is given of the protractor. Techniques for measuring are described. Directions are given on how to use the protractor to set detachable blade-type propellers on an airplane.
Specializing for record-breaking
This report seeks to determine what constitutes airplane performance and what line should be followed in seeking to break records if the designer is given a free hand.
Speed limits of aircraft
This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.
Speed measurements made by Division "A" of the airplane director
The various speeds of an airplane can only be measured in horizontal flight, since there are no means for measuring the angle of ascent or descent. The measurements must be corrected for the density of the air. This is obtained by simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements during flight. Calculation from the mean yearly values in accordance with Everling's suggestion can only be considered an approximation, since the distribution of pressure and temperature in the individual strata at different altitudes undergoes such large variations that the yearly mean gives inaccurate values. Thermographs of the present form are useless for temperature measurements of an airplane. In altitude data, the following are to be distinguished: the height above the earth, the barometric altitude, and the altitude corresponding to the yearly mean air density. Variometers are not suited for the mechanical control of high altitude flight.
Sphere drag tests in the variable density wind tunnel
The air forces on a twenty-centimeter sphere were measured after it had been rebuilt as an open throat type. The results from tests made at widely different densities and airspeeds and also on a smaller sphere are given.
Spindled and hollow spars
The most usual method of arriving at the maximum amount of spindling or hollowing out permissible in the case of any particular spar section is by trial and error, a process which is apt to become laborious in the absence of good guessing - or luck. The following tables have been got out with the object of making it possible to arrive with certainty at a suitable section at the first attempt.
Spiral tendency in blind flying
The flight path followed by an airplane which was being flown by a blindfolded pilot was observed and recorded. When the pilot attempted to make a straight-away flight there was a tendency to deviate from the straight path and to take up a spiral one.
Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen
It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.
Spray penetration with a simple fuel injection nozzle
The purpose of the tests covered by this report was to obtain specific information on the rate of penetration of the spray from a simple injection nozzle, having a single orifice with a diameter of 0.015 inch when injecting into compressed gases. The results have shown that the effects of both chamber and fuel pressures on penetration are so marked that the study of sprays by means of high-speed photography or its equivalent is necessary if the effects are to be appreciated sufficiently to enable rational analysis. It was found for these tests that the negative acceleration of the spray tip is approximately proportional to the 1.5 power of the instantaneous velocity of the spray tip.
Stability equations for airship hulls
In the text are derived simple formulae for determining, directly from the data of wind tunnel tests of a model of an airship hull, what shall be the approximate character of oscillation, in pitch or yaw, of the full-scale airship when slightly disturbed from steady forward motion. (author).
Stability of airplanes
The author attempts to correct the misconception that piloting an airplane requires extraordinary skill and balance. He also tries to show that airplanes are extremely stable in flight. Some of the major points covered in this article include: automatic pilots, airplanes designed to be stable, and the reliance on mathematics to help in designing stable aircraft.
Stability of the parachute and helicopter
This report deals with an extension of the theory of stability in oscillation to the case of aircraft following a vertical trajectory, and particularly to the oscillations of parachutes.
Stall-proof airplanes
My lecture has to do with the following questions. Is the danger of stalling necessarily inherent in the airplane in its present form and structure, or can it be diminished or eliminated by suitable means? Do we possess such means or devices and how must they operate? In this connection I will devote special attention to the exhibition of stall-proof airplanes by Fokker under the auspices of the English Air Ministry, which took place in Croyden last April.
Standard atmosphere
This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.
Standard atmosphere - tables and data
Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.
Standardization and aerodynamics
No Description Available.
Standardization tests of NACA no. 1 wind tunnel
The tests described in this report were made in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, at Langley Field. The primary objective of collecting data on the characteristics of this tunnel for comparison with those of others throughout the world, in order that, in the future, the results of tests made in all the principle laboratories may be interpreted, compared, and coordinated on a basis of scientifically established relationships, a process hitherto impossible due to the lack of comparable data. The work includes tests of a disk, spheres, cylinders, and airfoils, explorations of the test section for static pressure and velocity distribution, and determination of the variations of air flow direction throughout the operating range of the tunnel. (author).
Static soaring flight over flat sea coasts
Static soaring flight has hitherto been accomplished by means of two sources of energy: ascending air currents in the vicinity of obstacles and those produced by unequal heating. The latter has not yet been practically tested in soaring flight.
Static stability of seaplane floats and hulls
Values of lateral and longitudinal metacentric heights for various seaplanes were calculated by means of approximate formulae derived here. The data are given in tabular form. Upon plotting these metacentric heights against the corresponding gross weights, it appears that the metacentric height is approximately a straight line function of the gross weight. For the lateral metacentric height GM = 13 + .002 W and for longitudinal metacentric height GM = 15 + .002 W, GM is in feet and the gross weight (W) is in pounds. Although only approximate, it is thought that the values indicated here are a reliable guide to current practice. It is recommended that the longitudinal and lateral metacentric heights be made equal and of the value given by GM = 15 = .002 W. The proper length or spacing required to satisfy the indicated value may then be obtained from substitution in the approximate formulae for metacentric height.
Static testing and proposed standard specifications
Static tests fall into two groups, the first of which is designed to load all members of the structure approximately in accordance with the worst loads which they carry in flight, while the second is directed to the testing of specific members which are suspected of weakness and which are difficult to analyze mathematically. The nature of the loading in the second type is different for every different test, but the purpose of the first is defined clearly enough to permit the adoption of some standard set of loading specifications, at least for airplanes of normal design. Here, an attempt is made to carry through an analysis leading to such a standard, the goal being the determination of a load which will simultaneously impose on every member of the airplane structure a stress equal to the worst it will carry in flight.
Statical longitudinal stability of airplanes
This report, which is a continuation of the "Preliminary report on free flight testing" (report no. NACA-TR-70), presents a detailed theoretical analysis of statical stability with free and locked controls and also the results of many free flight test on several types of airplanes. In developing the theory of stability with locked controls an expression for pitching moment is derived in simple terms by considering the total moment as the sum of the moments due to wings and tail surface. This expression, when differentiated with respect to angle of incidence, enables an analysis to be made of the factors contributing to the pitching moment. The effects of slipstream and down wash are also considered and it is concluded that the C. G. Location has but slight effect or stability, and that stability is much improved by increasing the efficiency of the tail surfaces, which may be done by using an "inverted" tail plane. The results of free flight tests with locked controls are discussed at length and it is shown that the agreement between the experimental results and theory is very satisfactory. The theory of stability with free controls is not amendable to the simple mathematical treatment used in the case of locked controls, but a clear statement of the conditions enables several conclusions to be drawn, one of which is that the fixed tail surfaces should be much larger than the movable surfaces.
The steadiness factor in engine sets
No Description Available.
Steam power plants in aircraft
The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.
Steel spars
A history of English metal spar construction is presented in this paper.
Stieber dynamometer hub for aircraft propellers
The knowledge gained from previous experiments and reports was utilized for the construction of a dynamometer hub for 200 mkg (134.4 ft.-lb.) and 1200 kg (2646 lb.) thrust suited for a Liberty "12" engine. A reversing device is also described.
Stinson commercial airplane, type S M-1
The Stinson S M-1 seats 5 passengers and a pilot. It is equipped with a Wright Whirlwind Engine.
Strength calculations on airplanes
Every strength calculation, including those on airplanes, must be preceded by a determination of the forces to be taken into account. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that the magnitudes of these forces are known and that it is only a question of how, on the basis of these known forces, to meet the prescribed conditions on the one hand and the practical requirements on the other.
The strength of one-piece solid, build-up and laminated wood airplane wing beams
The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of all wood airplane wing beams tested to date in the Bureau of Standards Laboratory in order that the various kinds of wood and methods of construction may be compared. All beams tested were of an I section and the majority were somewhat similar in size and cross section to the front wing beam of the Curtiss JN-4 machine. Construction methods may be classed as (1) solid beams cut from solid stock; (2) three-piece beams, built up of three pieces, web and flanges glued together by a tongue-and-groove joint and (3) laminated beams built up of thin laminations of wood glued together.
Strength of tubing under combined axial and transverse loading
No Description Available.
Stressed coverings in naval and aeronautic construction
We propose to make a study of the difficulties in using stressed coverings and their appropriate solutions. Fatigue and buckling are also discussed.
The stresses in columns under combined axial and side loads
The problem before us is to determine the total stresses in an axially loaded column of any degree of restraint which is also subject to transverse bending both from a uniformly distributed load and from concentrated loads.
Stresses produced on an airship flying through gusty air
The stresses produced by gusts are proportional to the speed of the airship. At highest speed they are of the same range of magnitude as the stresses during the creation of a large dynamic lift.
Structural and economic limits to the dimensions of airships
In opposition to the advantage of larger dimensions, there is one disadvantage, namely, the weight of the structure increases more rapidly than the buoyancy. It is not possible, however, to determine a general law. In order to formulate one having the merit of simplicity, we will divide the structure into two parts: one subject to tensile and compressive stresses, varying directly as the ascensional or lifting forces; the other subject to varying stresses of the surface areas.
Structural details from 1926 Paris Aero Salon
No Description Available.
Structural details of German gliders
The structural details such as wings, fuselage, landing gear, and steering organs of German gliders are detailed in this report.
Structural details of the giant Dornier seaplane "Do X."
No Description Available.
Structural methods employed by the Schutte-Lanz Airship Company
This article is based on the experience of the Schute-Lanz Airship Company in light construction. The object is to stimulate the employment of these methods in other fields of industry.
Structural safety during curved flight
No Description Available.
Structural weight of aircraft as affected by the system of design
Various details of design or arrangement of the parts of airplane structures are shown and discussed, the use of these devices having resulted in the production of structures of adequate strength, yet of a weight less than one-half of the usual construction.
The structure of airplane fabrics
This report prepared by the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics supplies the necessary information regarding the apparatus and methods of testing and inspecting airplane fabrics.
Structures of thin sheet metal, their design and construction
This report presents a brief survey of the uses of sheet-metal coverings in conjunction with the inner structure. A method of construction is presented as well as a discussion on the strength of sheet metal.
A study of airplane engine tests
This report is a study of the results obtained from a large number of test of an Hispano-Suiza airplane engine in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. It was originally undertaken to determine the heat distribution in such an engine, but many other factors are also considered as bearing on this matter.
A study of airplane maneuvers with special reference to angular velocities
This investigation was undertaken by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of increasing our knowledge on the behavior of the airplane during various maneuvers and to obtain values of the maximum angular velocities and accelerations in flight. The method consisted in flying a JN4H airplane through various maneuvers while records were being taken of the control position, the air speed, the angular velocity and the acceleration along the Z axis. The results showed that the maximum angular velocity about the X axis of radians per second in a barrel roll. The maximum angular acceleration about the X axis of -2.10 radians per (second) to the 2nd power occurred in a spin, while the maximum about the Y axis was 1.40 radians per (second) to the 2nd power when pulling suddenly out of a dive. These results have direct application to the design of airplane parts, such as propeller shaft and instruments.
A study of airplane ranges and useful loads
This report is an analysis of the maximum flight radii of typical large airplanes and a discussion of the way in which the possible length of flight is affected by the change of weight by consumption of fuel during the flight.
A study of longitudinal dynamic stability in flight
This investigation was carried out by the aerodynamic staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of studying experimentally the longitudinal dynamic stability of airplanes in flight. The airplanes selected for this purpose were a standard rigged VE-7 advanced-training airplane and a JN4H with special tail surfaces. The airplanes were caused to oscillate by means of the elevator, then the longitudinal control was either locked or kept free while the oscillation died out. The magnitude of the oscillation was recorded either by a kymograph or an airspeed meter. The results show that the engine speed has as much effect on the period and damping as the airspeed, and that, contrary to theory as developed for small oscillations, the damping decreased at the higher airspeeds with closed throttle.