It is known that compression shocks which lead from supersonic to subsonic velocity cause the flow to separate on impact on a rigid wall. Such shocks appear at bodies with circular symmetry or wing profiles on locally exceeding sonic velocity, and in Laval nozzles with too high a back pressure. The form of the compression shocks observed therein is investigated.
Report presenting comparisons of 24S-T aluminum-alloy flat compression panels with longitudinal Z-section stiffeners and panels with flat FS-1E magnesium-alloy sheet and longitudinal 24S-T aluminum-alloy Z-section stiffeners. The use of the composite magnesium-alloy, aluminum-alloy construction permits wider stiffener spacing with little to not loss in structural efficiency or stress for local buckling. Results regarding stiffener spacing, proportions, and consideration of the different material constructions are provided.
Report presenting results for a part of a test program on 24S-T aluminum-alloy flat compression panels with longitudinal formed hat-section stiffeners. This particular part of the program is concerned with panels in which the thickness of the stiffener material is equal to the thickness of the skin. Results regarding the hat-stiffened panels and a comparison of hat-stiffened and Z-stiffened panels are provided.
Memorandum presenting a determination of the performance of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine modified to operate on a compression-ignition cycle with a compression ratio of 8.0. Experimental data were obtained at an inlet-manifold pressure of 100 inches of mercury absolute, fuel-air ratios of 0.040 and 0.025, and engine exhaust pressures of 30 to 100 inches of mercury absolute. Results regarding single-cylinder-engine experimental data and full-scale-engine calculations are provided.
Computations were made to determine the temperature distribution and cooling of solid gas-turbine blades.A range of temperatures was used from 1500 degrees to 2500 degrees F, blade-root temperatures from 100 degrees to 1000 degrees F, blade thermal conductivity from 8 to 220 BTU/(hr)(sq ft)(degrees F/ft), and net gas to metal heat transfer coefficients from 75 to 250 BTU/(hr)(sq ft)(degrees F).
The evaporation velocity of liquid droplets under various conditions is theoretically calculated and a number of factors are investigated which are neglected in carrying out the fundamental equation of Maxwell. It is shown that the effect of these factors at the small drop sizes and the small weight concentrations ordinarily occurring in fog can be calculated by simple corrections. The evaporation process can be regarded as quasi-stationary in most cases. The question at hand, and also the equivalent question of the velocity of growth of droplets in a supersaturated atmosphere, is highly significant in meteorology and for certain industrial purposes. Since the literature concerning this is very insufficient and many important aspects either are not considered at all or are reported incorrectly, it seems that a short discussion is not superfluous. A special consideration will be given to the various assumptions and neglections that are necessary in deriving the fundamental equation of Maxwell. The experimental work available, which is very insufficient and in part poorly dependable, can be used as an accurate check on the theory only in very few cases.
In the case of cones in axially symmetric flow of supersonic velocity, adiabatic compression takes place between shock wave and surface of the cone. Interpolation curves betwen shock polars and the surface are therefore necessary for the complete understanding of this type of flow. They are given in the present report by graphical-numerical integration of the differential equation for all cone angles and airspeeds.
The results of calculations of the viscous and pressure drags of some two-dimensional supersonic airfoils at zero lift are presented. The results indicate that inclusion of viscous drag alters many previous results regarding the desirability of certain airfoil shapes for securing low drags at supersonic speeds. At certain Reynolds and Mach numbers, for instance, a circular-arc airfoil may theoretically have less drag than the previously advocated symmetrical wedge-shape profile; although under different conditions, the circular-arc airfoil may have a higher drag.
From Summary: "An investigation was conducted to determine the coolant-flow distribution, the cylinder temperatures, and the heat rejections of the V-1650-7 engine . The tests were run a t several power levels varying from minimum fuel consumption to war emergency power and at each power level the coolant flows corresponded to the extremes of those likely to be encountered in typical airplane installations, A mixture of 30-percent ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant. The temperature of each cylinder was measured between the exhaust valves, between the intake valves, in the center of the head, on the exhaust-valve guide, at the top of the barrel on the exhaust side, and on each exhaust spark-plug gasket."
From Summary: "An investigation has been conducted on a V-1650-7 engine to determine the cylinder temperatures and the coolant and oil heat rejections over a range of coolant flows (50 to 200 gal/min) and oil inlet temperatures (160 to 2150 F) for two values of coolant outlet temperature (250 deg and 275 F) at each of four power conditions ranging from approximately 1100 to 2000 brake horsepower. Data were obtained for several values of block-outlet pressure at each of the two coolant outlet temperatures. A mixture of 30 percent by volume of ethylene glycol and 70-percent water was used as the coolant."
An analysis is presented of rim cooling of gas-turbine blades; that is, reducing the temperature at the base of the blade (wheel rim), which cools the blade by conduction alone. Formulas for temperature and stress distributions along the blade are derived and, by the use of experimental stress-rupture data for a typical blade alloy, a relation is established between blade life (time for rupture), operating speed, and amount of rim cooling for several gas temperatures. The effect of blade parameter combining the effects of blade dimensions, blade thermal conductivity, and heat-transfer coefficient is determined. The effect of radiation on the results is approximated. The gas temperatures ranged from 1300F to 1900F and the rim temperature, from 0F to 1000F below the gas temperature. This report is concerned only with blades of uniform cross section, but the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to most modern turbine blades. For a typical rim-cooled blade, gas temperature increases are limited to about 200F for 500F of cooling of the blade base below gas temperature, and additional cooling brings progressively smaller increases. In order to obtain large increases in thermal conductivity or very large decreases in heat-transfer coefficient or blade length or necessary. The increases in gas temperature allowable with rim cooling are particularly small for turbines of large dimensions and high specific mass flows. For a given effective gas temperature, substantial increases in blade life, however, are possible with relatively small amounts of rim cooling.
A theoretical analysis of the radial temperature distribution through the rotor and constant cross sectional area blades near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the rotor and blade temperatures of a specific turbine using a gas flow of 55 pounds per second, a coolant flow of 6.42 pounds per second, and an average coolant temperature of 200 degrees F. The effect of using kerosene, water, and ethylene glycol was determined. The effect of varying blade length and coolant passage lengths with water as the coolant was also determined. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.
A theoretical analysis of the temperature distribution through the trailing portion of a blade near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the hot spot temperatures at the trailing edge and influence of design variables. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.
A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.
Report presenting an analytical investigation to determine primarily the reduction in cooling-air requirement and the increase in effective gas temperature for the same quantity of cooling air resulting from the use of an insert in the cooling-air passage of a hollow air-cooled turbine blade.
An analysis was developed for calculating the radial temperature distribution in a gas turbine with only the temperatures of the gas and the cooling air and the surface heat-transfer coefficient known. This analysis was applied to determine the temperatures of a complete wheel of a conventional single-stage impulse exhaust-gas turbine. The temperatures were first calculated for the case of the turbine operating at design conditions of speed, gas flow, etc. and with only the customary cooling arising from exposure of the outer blade flange and one face of the rotor to the air. Calculations were next made for the case of fins applied to the outer blade flange and the rotor. Finally the effects of using part of the nozzles (from 0 to 40 percent) for supplying cooling air and the effects of varying the metal thermal conductivity from 12 to 260 Btu per hour per foot per degree Farenheit on the wheel temperatures were determined. The gas temperatures at the nozzle box used in the calculations ranged from 1600F to 2000F. The results showed that if more than a few hundred degrees of cooling of turbine blades are required other means than indirect cooling with fins on the rotor and outer blade flange would be necessary. The amount of cooling indicated for the type of finning used could produce some improvement in efficiency and a large increase in durability of the wheel. The results also showed that if a large difference is to exist between the effective temperature of the exhaust gas and that of the blade material, as must be the case with present turbine materials and the high exhaust-gas temperatures desired (2000F and above), two alternatives are suggested: (a) If metal with a thermal conductivity comparable with copper is used, then the blade temperature can be reduced ...
Report presenting a correlation of the experimental and calculated effects of the product of inertia on the stability of lateral oscillations of airplanes. The experimental and calculated boundaries were in good agreement with one another, but neglecting the product of inertia led to wide discrepancies. Results regarding stability and its influence on general flight behavior are provided.
Tests of a PB2Y-3 flying boat were made at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Md., to determine its hydrodynamic trim limits of stability. Corresponding tests were also made of a 1/8-size powered dynamic model of the same flying boat in Langley tank no. 1. During the tank tests, the full-size testing procedure was reproduced as closely as possible in order to obtain data for a direct correlation of the results. As a nominal gross load of 66,000 pounds, the lower trim limits of the full-size and model were in good agreement above a speed of 80 feet per second. As the speed decreased below 80 feet per second, the difference between the model trim limits and full-scale trim limits gradually became larger. The upper trim limit of the model with flaps deflected 0 deg was higher than that of the full-size, but the difference was small over the speed range compared. At flap deflections greater than 0 deg, it was not possible to trim either the model of the airplane to the upper limit with the center of gravity at 28 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The decrease in the lower trim limits with increase in flap deflection showed good agreement for the airplane and model. The lower trim limits obtained at different gross loads for the full-size airplane were reduced to approximately a single curve by plotting trim against the square root of C(sub delta (sub o)) divided by C(sub V).
Note presenting an investigation of the buckling of a simply supported rectangular flat plate under combinations of shear and direct stress by means of an energy method. The critical combinations of stress for several length-width ratios were determined to an accuracy of about 1 percent in conjunction with a modified matrix iteration method. Results regarding the shear and longitudinal stress and shear and transverse stress are provided.
Note presenting a theoretical solution for the buckling stresses of long plates with transverse curvature loaded in shear and longitudinal direct stress. The theoretical critical-stress combinations for plates with either simply supported or clamped edges are given in figures and tables and a comparison is made with previous theoretical solutions. Results regarding the theoretical results, empirical results and design curves, and some interaction formulas are provided.
"A theoretical solution is presented for the determination of the combinations of direct axial stress and torsion which cause thin-walled cylinders with either simply supported or clamped edges to buckle. This theoretical solution is used in conjunction with available test data to develop empirical curves and formulas for use in design. Comparisons are made with theoretical and empirical solutions obtained in other investigations" (p. 1).
"A solution based upon small-deflection theory is presented for the critical shear stress of curved rectangular panels with simply supported edges. Computed curves which cover a wide range of panel dimensions are presented; these curves are found to be in good agreement with test results. Estimated curves are also given for panels with clamped edges" (p. 1).
"A theoretical solution is presented for the buckling stress of long plates with transverse curvature loaded in shear. The results are given in the form of curves and formulas for plates with simply supported or clamped edges for a wide range of plate dimensions. Comparisons are made with theoretical solutions obtained in previous investigations" (p. 1).
Empirical design curves are presented for the critical stress of thin-wall cylinders loaded in axial compression. These curves are plotted in terms of the nondimensional parameters of small-deflection theory and are compared with theoretical curves derived for the buckling of cylinders with simply supported and clamped edges. An empirical equation is given for the buckling of cylinders having a length-radius ratio greater than about 0.75.
"Empirical design curves are presented for the critical stress of thin-walled cylinders loaded in axial compression. These curves are plotted in terms of nondimensional parameters of small-deflection theory and are compared with theoretical curves derived for the buckling of cylinders with simply supported and clamped edges. An empirical equation is given for the buckling of cylinders having a length-radius ratio greater than about 0.75" (p. 1).
Note presenting a theoretical solution for the critical stress of thin-walled cylinders loaded in torsion. The results are presented in terms of simple formulas and curves which are applicable to a wide range of cylinder dimensions. The theoretical results are found to be in fairly good agreement with experimental results.
The crystal structures of alloys 61, X-40,X-50, 422-19, 6059, and Vitallium, derived from x-ray diffraction, are discussed. The alloys have been, or are being considered for use in gas turbine applications. The predominant phase was a solid solution of the face centered cubic type of the principal constituent elements.The lattice parameters were found to be between 3.5525 and 3.5662.
An investigation was conducted to correlate the engine service performance of cast Vitallium turbine buckets with standard laboratory metallurgical data. Data were obtained from four I-40 turbine wheels of Timken alloy with cast Vitallium buckets. In order to accelerate bucket deterioration, the turbine wheels were subjected to 20-minute cycles consisting of 5 minutes at idle and 15 minutes at rated speed. A bucket broke on the first wheel during cycle 22 after 7 hours and 20 minutes. The broken bucket was replaced and during the third cycle after the replacement a second bucket broke after a total running time of 8 hours and 12 minutes, The first bucket failure on the second wheel occurred during cycle 29 after 9 hours and 28 minutes; no further failure occurred during 66 additional cycles. Total running time on this wheel was 31 hours and 40 minutes. The third wheel was run for 229 cycles (76 hr and 20 min, total running time) without a. failure. The fourth wheel was operated for 105 cycles (35 hr, total running time) without a failure. Examination of the bro?en buckets indicated that the failures were probably due to fatigue, Massive eutectic areas that existed near the trailing edge probably contributed to the low fatigue strength.
A method is derived for calculating the damping coefficients in pitch and roll for a series of triangular wings and a restricted series of sweptback wings at supersonic speeds. The elementary "supersonic source" solution of the linearized equation of motion is used to find the potential function of a line of doublets, and the flows are obtained by surface distributions of these doublet lines. The damping derivatives for triangular wings are found to be a function of the ratio of the tangent of the apex angle to the tangent of the Mach angle. As this ratio becomes equal to and greater than 1.0 for triangular wings, the damping derivatives, in pitch and in roll, become constant. The damping derivative in roll becomes equal to one-half the value calculated for an infinite rectangular wing, and the damping derivative in pitch for pitching about the apex becomes equal to 3.375 times that of an infinite rectangular wing.
The flight investigation of the C-54D airplane was initiated to determine the necessity of changes or additions to existing handling-qualities requirements to cove the case of instrument approaches with large airplanes. This paper gives a brief synopsis of the results and presents the measured data of tests to determine the stability and control characteristics. It was found that no new requirements were necessary to cover the problems of instrument approaches. The C-54D airplane tested met the Amy and Navy stability and control requirements except for the following items. The control-system friction with autopilot installed vas double that allowed by the requirements. The amount of friction was found to impair the controllability of the airplane in precision flying. The lateral and directional characteristics were good except that the maximum pb/2V was slightly below the minimum required, and the elevator-control forces to obtain the maximum pb/2V at low speeds were above the Army and Navy requirements. The longitudinal stability and control characteristics were good except that the elevator-control forces exceeded the limits of the Army and Navy requirements in turns and in landings. The stalling characteristics were considered good in all conditions with the stall warning in the form of tail buffeting occurring at speeds approximately 5 miles per hour above the stall.
Report presenting a series of tensile-strength and shear-strength tests made on age-hardened 17S-T rivets machine-countersunk in 75S-T sheets. The results of the tests indicated that the joints can be made satisfactorily with regard to both flushness and strength if the ratio of buck to diameter is kept to a certain value.
Note presenting theories of bending and torsion as applied to the problem of calculating the deflections in aircraft shell structures, particularly of wings. Bending as well as torsional deflections are discussed for wings without or with cut-outs.
The Russian AM 35 and AM 38 aircraft engines have superchargers with a swirl throttle, which appears to be a purely Russian development. This paper gives the results of test runs of the two engines, including the effects of the swirl throttle on engine performance.
A family of diffusing scrolls was designed for use with a mixed-flow impeller and a small-diameter vaneless diffuser. The design theory, intended to maintain a uniform pressure around the scroll inlet, permits determination of the position of scroll cross sections of preassigned area by considering the radial variation in fluid density and the effects of friction along the scroll. Inasmuch as the design method leaves the cross-sectional shape undetermined, the effect of certain variations in scroll shape was investigated by studying scrolls having angles of divergence (of the scroll walls downstream of the entrance section) of 24 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees. A second 80 degree scroll was of asymmetrical construction and a third was plaster-cast instead of sand-cast. Each scroll was tested as a compressor component at actual impeller tip speeds of 700 to 1300 feet per second from full throttle to surge.
Report presenting design charts for 24S-T and 75S-T aluminum-alloy flat compression panels with longitudinal extruded Y-section stiffeners. Comparisons are also made among panels designed from these charts and 24S-T aluminum-alloy panels with formed Z-section stiffeners designed from available design charts.
From Summary: "A solution is presented for the coupled modes and frequencies of swept wings mounted on a fuselage. The energy method is used in conjunction with power series to obtain the characteristic equations for both symmetrical and asymmetrical vibration. A numerical example which is susceptible to exact solution is presented, and the results for the exact solution and the solution presented in this paper show excellent agreement."
A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.
Report presenting a method for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate how to treat solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed of a single material or two or more welded materials.
From Summary: "Results of local-instability tests of H-, Z-, and C-section plate assemblies of four extruded aluminum alloys and two magnesium alloys, obtained in an extensive investigation to determine plate compressive strengths of aircraft structural materials, are summarized. On the basis of the general relationships found between the plate compressive strengths and the compressive stress-strain curves, methods applicable to flat plates and based upon the use of the compressive stress-strain curve are suggested for determining the critical compressive stress and the average stress at maximum load."
"A method is described by which the total temperature of the gases at the combustion-chamber outlet of a ram-jet engine may be determined from the loss in total pressure measured across the combustion chamber. A working chart is presented by means of which the ratio of the total temperature of the gases at the combustion-chamber outlet to the total temperature of the gases at the combustion-chamber inlet may be determined from the measured loss of total pressure across the combustion chamber and the known values of air flow, total pressure, and total temperature at the combustion-chamber inlet. Values of total-temperature ratio across the combustion chamber of a 20-inch ram jet were obtained in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel over a range of pressure altitudes from 6000 to 15,000 feet" (p. 1).
Stress-rupture data for four heat-resisting alloys are analyzed according to equations of the theory of rate processes. A method for determining the four parameters of structure and composition is demonstrated and the four parameters are determined for each of the alloys: forged S816, cast S816, cast S590, and cast Vitallium. It is concluded that parameters can be determined for an alloy provided sufficient reliable experimental data are available.
The stress distribution in stepped shafts stressed in torsion is determined by means of the electric precision strain gage the stress concentration factor is ascertained from the measurements. It is shown that the test values always are slightly lower than the values resulting from an approximate formula.
A method of interference is described in the present report which promises profitable application in aeronautical research. The physical foundation of the method and a simple method of adjustment are briefly discussed. The special technical construction of the instrument is described which guarantees its use also in the case of vibrations of the surrounding space and permits the investigation of unsteady phenomena. It is found that the interference method will make the small differences in density in the flow field around the body even at low speeds. (40 m/sec) optically measurable.
From Summary: "A series of investigations of several 1/14-scale models of an inboard nacelle for the XB-36 airplane was made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels. The purpose of these investigations was to develop a low-drag wing-nacelle pusher combination which incorporated an internal air-flow system. As a result of these investigations, a nacelle was developed which had external drag coefficients considerably lower than the original basic form with the external nacelle drag approximately one-half to two-thirds of those of conventional tractor designs. The largest reductions in drag resulted from sealing the gaps between the wing flaps and nacelle, reducing the thickness of the nacelle training-edge lip, and bringing the under-wing air inlet to the wing leading edge."
The results of an experimental investigation made for the purpose of developing suitable jet-engine nacelle designs for a high-speed medium bomber are presented. Two types of nacelles were investigated, the first enclosing two 4000-pounds-thrust jet engines and a 65-inch-diameter landing wheel and the second enclosing a single 4000-pounds-thrust jet engine. Both types of nacelles were tested in positions underslung beneath the wing and centrally located on the wing. This report summarizes the investigation which was performed at low speed for the purpose of developing entrance and body shapes of suitable form. Included are results from the high-speed portion of the investigation on the characteristics of an underslung nacelle.
From Summary: "An investigation of two 1/14 scale model configurations of an outboard nacelle for the XB-36 airplane was made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels over a range of airplane lift coefficients (C (sub L) = 0.409 to C(sub L) = 0.943) for three representative flow conditions. The purpose of the investigation was to develop a low-drag wing-nacelle pusher combination which incorporated an internal air-flow system. The present investigation has led to the development of a nacelle which had external drag coefficients of similar order of magnitude to those obtained previously from tests of an inboard nacelle configuration at the corresponding operating lift coefficients and from approximately one-third to one-half of those of conventional tractor designs having the same ratio of wing thickness to nacelle diameter."
A device has been developed which measures the velocity of sound in fluids at stagnation and is especially adaptable to turbine and compressor testing for which the constituency of the working fluid may be in doubt. By utilizing the shaft frequency of a rotary compressor, the instrument can also be used to provide a direct measurement of the compressor Mach number (ratio of blade-tip velocity to inlet velocity of sound at stagnation). A Helmholtz resonator is employed in the measurement of the sound velocity. Viscous effects in the orifice of the Helmholtz resonator are shown to be important and can be taken into account with the help of a parameter obtained from Stokes solution of the flow near an oscillating wall. This parameter includes the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and the frequency of sound in the resonator. When these effects are recognized, the resonator can be calibrated to measure velocity of sound or compressor Mach number to an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent.
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