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The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. IV - Manufacturing Irregularities, 5, Manufacturing Irregularities

Description: Tests were made in the NACA 8-foot high speed wind tunnel of a metal-covered, riveted, 'service' wing of average workmanship to determine the aerodynamic effects of the manufacturing irregularities incident to shop fabrication. The wing was of 5-foot chord and of NACA 23012 section and was tested in the low-lift range at speeds from 90 to 450 miles per hour corresponding to Reynolds numbers from 4,000,000 to 18,000,000. At a cruising condition the drag of the service wing was 46% higher than the drag of a smooth airfoil, whereas the drag of an accurately constructed airfoil having the same arrangement of 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets and lap joints showed a 29% increase. The difference, or 17% of the smooth-wing drag, is apparently the drag caused by the manufacturing irregularities: sheet waviness, departures from true profile, and imperfect laps. the service wing, for one condition at least, showed a drag increase due to compressibility at a lower air speed than did the more accurate airfoil.
Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Robinson, Russell G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of various win-gun installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model with an NACA low-drag wing. Measurements were made of lift and drag over an angle-of-attack range and for several values of dynamic pressure on a four-tenths scale model of a high-speed airplane equipped with the low-drag wing and with various wing-gun installations. Two installations were tested: one in which the blast tube and part of the gun barrel protrude ahead of the wing and another in which the guns is mounted wholly within the wing. Two types of openings for the latter installation were tested. For each installation three simulated guns were mounted in each wing. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The installations tested appear to have little effect on the maximum-lift coefficient of the model. However, the drag coefficient shows a definite change. The least adverse effect was obtained with the completely internal mounting and small nose entrance. The results indicate that a properly designed wing-gun installation will have very little adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the low-drag wing.
Date: July 1, 1941
Creator: Muse, Thomas C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Aerodynamic Heating on Ice Formations on Airplane Propellers

Description: An investigation has been made of the effect of aerodynamic heating on propeller-blade temperatures. The blade temperature rise resulting from aerodynamic heating was measured and the relation between the resulting blade temperatures and the outer limit of the iced-over region was examined. It was found that the outermost station at which ice formed on a propeller blade was determined by the blade temperature rise resulting from the aerodynamic heating at that point.
Date: August 1, 1940
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Direction of Propeller Rotation on the Longitudinal Stability of the 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XB-28 Airplane with Flaps Neutral, Special Report

Description: The effects of direction of propeller rotation on factors affecting the longitudinal stability of the XB-28 airplane were measured on a 1/10-scale model in the 7- by 10-foot tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The main effect observed was that caused by regions of high downwash behind the nacelles (power off as well as power on with flaps neutral). The optimum direction of propeller rotation, both propellers rotating up toward the fuselage, shifted this region off the horizontal tail and thus removed its destabilizing effect. Rotating both propellers downward toward the fuselage moved it inboard on the tail and accentuated the effect, while rotating both propellers right hand had an intermediate result. Comparisons are made of the tail effects as measured by force tests with those predicted from the point-by-point downwash and velocity surveys in the region of the tail. These surveys in turn are compared with the results predicted from available theory.
Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Delany, Noel K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Electrical-Type Indicating Fuel Flowmeter

Description: An electrical-type meter has been developed for measuring mass rates of flow of gasoline or other nonconducting fluids. Its temperature dependence is small over a large range and it has no known vibrational or viscosity errors. The maximum temperature rise is less than 5 C. The rates of flow, measurable within 1% with the present instrument, are approximately 100 to 1,000 or more pounds of gasoline per hour when a potentiometer is used, or 100 to 300 pounds per hour when a deflection-type meter is used.
Date: September 1, 1939
Creator: Tozier, Robert E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag and Propulsive Characteristics of Air-Cooled Engine-Nacelle Installations for Large Airplanes, Special Report

Description: An investigation is in progress in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle sizes. In contrast with the usual tests with a single nacelle, these tests were conducted with nacelle-propeller installations on a large model of a 4-engine airplane. Data are presented on the first part of the investigation, covering seven nacelle arrangements with nacelle diameters from 0.53 to 1.5 times the wing thickness. These ratios are similar to those occurring on airplane weighing from about 20 to 100 tons. The results show that the drag, the propulsive efficiency, and the overall efficiency of the various nacelle arrangements as functions of the nacelle size, the propeller position, and the airplane lift coefficient. The effect of the nacelles on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model are shown for both propeller-removed and propeller-operating conditions.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Wilson, Herbert A., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag of Several Gunner's Enclosures at High Speeds, Special Report

Description: The drag of several types of gunner's turrets, windshields, blisters, and other protuberances, including projecting guns, was investigated at speeds from 75 to 440 miles per hour in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. The various gunner's enclosures were represented by 1/10 and 1/7 full-size models on a midwing-fuselage combination representative of bomber types. Most of the usual types of retractable turrets are very poor aerodynamically; they caused wind drag increments, dependent upon the size of the turret relative to the fuselage and upon the speed, up to twice the drag of the fuselage alone. A large streamline blister sufficient to enclose completely one type of rotating cylindrical turret caused a drag increment of approximately one-half that of the turret and at the same time provided space adequate for two gunners rather than for one gunner. A large portion of the drag increments for some types of turret appeared to be due to adverse effects on the fuselage flow caused by the turret rather than by the direct drag of the turret.
Date: July 1, 1941
Creator: Stack, John & Moberg, Richard J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Compressibility on the Growth of the Laminar Boundary Layer on Low-Drag Wings and Bodies

Description: The development of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid is considered. Formulas are given for determining the boundary-layer thickness and the ratio of the boundary-layer Reynolds number to the body Reynolds number for airfoils and bodies of revolution. It i s shown that the effect of compressibility will profoundly alter the Reynolds number corresponding to the upper limit of the range of the low-drag coefficients . The available data indicate that for low-drag and high critical compressibility speed airfoils and bodies of revolution, this effect is favorable.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Allen, H. Julian & Nitzberg, Gerald E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Initial Displacement of the Center Support on the Buckling of a Column Continuous over Three Supports

Description: The test indicate that "an indiscriminate single application of the Southwell method (for analyzing Exp. Observations in problems of elastic stability)--can result in definite and measurable errors" The test also indicate "that the effect of curvature due to bending on the critical load for the compression flange material of a box beam is probably small and can be neglected." We have not found this to be true in our tests. It is believed that the effect of curvature, together with a small amount of fixity at the ribs, tends to force the stiffeners to bow in each bay thus effectively increasing their end fixity and thereby raising their allowable loads.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Lunquist, Eugene E. & Kotanchik, Joseph N.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Lateral Inclination of the Thrust Axis and of Sweepback of the Leading Edge of the Wing on Propulsive and Net Efficiencies of a Wing-Nacelle-Propeller Combination

Description: This report describes and gives the results of tests made to determine the effect of lateral inclination of the propeller thrust axis to the direction of flight. A wing-nacelle-propeller combination with the nacelle axis located successively parallel to and at 15 degrees to the perpendicular to the leading edge of a wing was tested with the combination at several angles of yaw. Tests of the wing alone at the same angles of yaw were also made. The data are presented in the usual graphic form. An increase in propulsive efficiency with increase in angle of the thrust axis was found. The change in net efficiency, found by charging the whole nacelle drag to the power unit, was negligible, however, within the range of the tests.
Date: April 1, 1935
Creator: Wood, Donald H. & Windler, Ray
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Streamlining the Afterbody of an N.A.C.A. Cowling

Description: The drag and the power cost associated with the changing of the nose of a nacelle from a streamline shape to a conventional N.A.C.A. cowling shape was investigated in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot tunnel. Full-scale propellers and nacelles were used. The increment of drag associated with the change of nose shapes was found to be critically dependent on the afterbody of the nacelle. Two streamline afterbodies were tested. The results fo the tests with the more streamlined afterbody showed that the added drag due to the open-nose cowling was only one-fourth of the drag increase obtained with the other afterbody. The results of this research indicate that the power cost, in excess of that with a streamline nose, of using an N.A.C.A. cowling in front of a well-designed afterbody to enclose a 1,500-horsepower engine in an airplane with a speed of 300 miles per hour amounts to 1.5 percent of the engine power. If the open-nose cowling is credited with 1 percent because it cools the front of the cylinders, the non-useful power cost amounts to only 0.5 percent of the engine power.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Stickle, George W.; Crigler, John L. & Naiman, Irven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag, 3, Roughness

Description: Tests have been made in the N.A.C.A. 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the drag caused by roughness on the surface of an airfoil of N.A.C.A. 23012 section and 5-foot chord. The tests were made at speeds from 80 t o 500 miles per hour at lift coefficients from 0 to 0.30. For conditions corresponding to high-speed flight, the increase in the drag was 30 percent of the profile drag of the smooth airfoil for the roughness produced by spray painting and 63 percent for the roughness produced. by 0.0037-inch carborundum grains. About one-half the drag increase was caused by the roughness on the forward one-fourth of the airfoil. Sandpapering the painted surface with No. 400 sandpaper made it sufficiently smooth that the drag was no greater than when the surface was polished. In the lower part of the range investigated the drag due to roughness increased rapidly with Reynolds Number.
Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Hood, Manley J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of NACA 4400R Series Rectangular and Tapered Airfoils, Including the Effect of Split Flaps

Description: At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, tests were made in the variable-density wind tunnel of a tapered wing of 3-10-18 plan form and based on the NACA 4400R series sections. The wing was also tested with 0.2 chord spit flaps, deflected 60 deg span ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 respectively. In order to get data from which to calculate the characteristics of the flapped wing, the investigation was extended to include tests of the four rectangular airfoils of the NACA 4400R series (4409R, 4412R, 4415R, and 4418R) with full-span 0.2 chord, trailing edge split flaps deflected 60 deg.
Date: January 1941
Creator: Greenberg, Harry
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Intercooler Characteristics

Description: A method is presented of comparing the performance, weight, and general dimensional characteristics of inter-coolers. The performance and dimensional characteristics covered in the comparisons are cooling effectiveness, pressure drops and weight flows of the charge and cooling air, power losses, volume, frontal area, and width. A method of presenting intercooler data is described in which two types of charts are plotted; (1) A performance chart setting forth all the important characteristics of a given intercooler and (2) a replot of these characteristics for a number of intercoolers intended to assist in making a selection to satisfy a given set of installation conditions. The characteristics of commercial intercoolers obtained from manufacturers' data and of some computed designs are presented on this basis. A standard test procedure and instrumentation are suggested whereby comparable data may be obtained by different testing organizations.
Date: May 1, 1941
Creator: Reuter, J. George & Valerino, Michael F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Three Exit-Area Control Devices on an N.A.C.A. Cowling, Special Report

Description: Adjustable cowling flaps, an adjustable-length cowling skirt, and a bottom opening with adjustable flap were tested as means of controlling the rate of cooling-air flow through an air-cooled radial-engine cowling. The devices were tested in the NACA 20-foot tunnel on a model wing-nacelle-propeller combination, through an airspeed range of 20 to 80 miles per hour, and with the propeller blade angle set 23 degrees at 0.75 of the tip radius. The resistance of the engine to air flow through the cowling was simulated by a perforated plate. The results indicated that the adjustable cowling flap and the bottom opening with adjustable flap were about equally effective on the basis of pressure drop obtainable and that both were more effective means of increasing the pressure drop through the cowling than the adjustable-length skirt. At conditions of equal cooling-air flow, the net efficiency obtained with the adjustable cowling flaps and the adjustable-length cowling skirt was about 1% greater than the net efficiency obtained with the bottom opening with adjustable flap.
Date: May 1, 1940
Creator: McHugh, James G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressibility Effects in Aeronautical Engineering

Description: Compressible-flow research, while a relatively new field in aeronautics, is very old, dating back almost to the development of the first firearm. Over the last hundred years, researches have been conducted in the ballistics field, but these results have been of practically no use in aeronautical engineering because the phenomena that have been studied have been the more or less steady supersonic condition of flow. Some work that has been done in connection with steam turbines, particularly nozzle studies, has been of value, In general, however, understanding of compressible-flow phenomena has been very incomplete and permitted no real basis for the solution of aeronautical engineering problems in which.the flow is likely to be unsteady because regions of both subsonic and supersonic speeds may occur. In the early phases of the development of the airplane, speeds were so low that the effects of compressibility could be justifiably ignored. During the last war and immediately after, however, propellers exhibited losses in efficiency as the tip speeds approached the speed of sound, and the first experiments of an aeronautical nature were therefore conducted with propellers. Results of these experiments indicated serious losses of efficiency, but aeronautical engineers were not seriously concerned at the time became it was generally possible. to design propellers with quite low tip. speeds. With the development of new engines having increased power and rotational speeds, however, the problems became of increasing importance.
Date: August 1, 1941
Creator: Stack, John
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction of Profile-Drag Results from Variable-Density Tunnel and the Effect on the Choice of Wing-Section Thickness

Description: Profile-drag coefficients published from tests in the N.A.C.A. variable-density tunnel (Technical Reports Nos. 460, 537, 586, and 610, references 1 to 4) have tended to appear high as compared with results from the N.A.C.A. full-scale tunnel (Technical Report No. 530, reference 5) and from foreign sources (references 6 to 8). Such discrepancies were considered in Technical Report No. 586, and corrections for turbulence and tip effects were derived that tended to reduce the profile-drag coefficients, particularly for the thicker airfoils. The corrected profile-drag coefficients, designated by the lower-case symbol cdo as contrasted with the older CDO, have been employed in the airfoil reports published since Technical Report No. 460, but even these corrected results continued to appear high, particularly for the thicker sections. The important practical result is that a smaller increase of drag with airfoil thickness is indicated, which may be of primary importance to the airplane designer in choosing the optimum airfoil sections for actual wings. Further investigations of this subject were, of course, undertaken, one of the most important being an investigation of three symmetrical sections N.A.C A. 0009, 0012, and 0018 under conditions of low turbulence in the full-scale tunnel. Preliminary results from this investigation also indicate a smaller increase in drag with airfoil thickness than the results from the variable-density tunnel. Furthermore, comparative tests made in the two tunnels by applying strings to the surface of the N.A.C.A. 0012 airfoil to move the transition point to a predetermined position indicated that the effective reynolds Number concept would account approximately for the drag as affected by the position of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer.
Date: March 1, 1938
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Compressive Stress for Flat Rectangular Plates Supported Along all Edges and Elastically Restrained Against Rotation Along the Unloaded Edges, Special Report 189

Description: A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in flat rectangular plates supported along all edges and, in addition, elastically restrained against rotation along the unloaded edges. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required in the construction of the chart are given.
Date: May 1, 1941
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Eldbridge Z.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Compressive Stress for Outstanding Flanges

Description: A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in outstanding flanges. These flanges are flat rectangular plates supported along the Loaded edges, supported and elastically restrained along one unloaded edge, and free along the other unloaded edge. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required for the construction of the chart are given.
Date: April 1, 1941
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Elbridge Z.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Definition of Method of Measurement of Supporting and Control Surface Areas, Special Report

Description: Definitions of methods of measurements of supporting and control surface areas are presented. Methods for measuring the supporting surface, i.e., the wing area, and the control surfaces, i.e., the horizontal tail area, the vertical tail area, and the trailing control surface areas are defined. Illustrations of each of the areas are included.
Date: May 1, 1931
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Flight Paths of an SBD-1 Airplane in Simulated Diving Attacks, Special Report

Description: An investigation has been made to determine the motions of and the flight paths describe by a Navy dive-bombing airplane in simulated diving attacks. The data necessary to evaluate these items, with the exception of the atmospheric wind data, were obtained from automatic recording instruments installed entirely within the airplane. The atmospheric wind data were obtained from the ground by the balloon-theodolite method. The results of typical dives at various dive angles are presented in the form of time histories of the motion of the airplane as well as flight paths calculated with respect to still air and with respect to the ground.
Date: March 1, 1943
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Loss, Velocity Distribution, and Temperature Distribution for a Baffled Cylinder Model, Special Report

Description: In the design of a cowling a certain pressure drop across the cylinders of a radial air-cooled engine is made available. Baffles are designed to make use of this available pressure drop for cooling. The problem of cooling an air-cooled engine cylinder has been treated, for the most part, from considerations of a large heat-transfer coefficient. The knowledge of the precise cylinder characteristics that give a maximum heat-transfer coefficient should be the first consideration. The next problem is to distribute this ability to cool so that the cylinder cools uniformly. This report takes up the problem of the design of a baffle for a model cylinder. A study has been made of the important principles involved in the operation of a baffle for an engine cylinder and shows that the cooling can be improved 20% by using a correctly designed baffle. Such a gain is as effective in cooling the cylinder with the improved baffle as a 65% increase in pressure drop across the standard baffle and fin tips.
Date: April 1, 1937
Creator: Brevoort, Maurice J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

Description: Engine and airplane performance data have been gathered from various sources and analyzed to determine indications of the most economical methods of flight operation from a consideration of fuel expenditure. The analysis includes the influence of such facts as fuel-air ratio, engine speed, engine knock, altitude, cylinder cooling, spark timing, and limits of cruising brake mean effective pressure. The results indicate that the cheapest power is obtained with approximately correct mixture at low engine speed and highest permissible manifold pressure. If more power is desired, the methods of obtaining it are, in order of fuel economy: (a) increasing the engine speed and maintaining safe cylinder temperatures by cooling; (b) retarding the spark or cooling further to permit higher manifold pressure; and, (c) riching the mixture. The analysis further shows that the maximum time endurance of flight occurs at the air speed corresponding to minimum thrust horsepower required and with minimum practicable engine speed. Maximum mileage per pound of fuel is obtained at slightly higher air speed. The fuel-air ratio should be approximately the theoretically correct ratio in both cases. For an engine equipped with a geared supercharger, as in the example presented, and with knock as the limiting condition, a comparison of operation at sea level and at 6,000 feet shoes flight at altitude to be more economical on the basis of both range and endurance.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Reuter, George
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimated Effect of Ring Cowl on the Climb and Ceiling of an Airplane, Special Report

Description: Although the application of a ring cowl to an airplane with an air-cooled engine increases the maximum L/D and the high speed to an appreciable extent, the performance in climb and ceiling is not increased as much as one would expect without analyzing the conditions. When a ring cowl is installed on an airplane, the propeller is set at a higher pitch to allow the engine to turn its rated r.p.m. at the increased high speed. V/nD is increased and the propeller efficiency at high speed is increased slightly. The ratio of r.p.m. at climbing speed, V(sub c) , to the r.p.m. at maximum speed, V (sub m) is dependent upon the ratio of V(sub c) to V(sub m). The increase in V(sub c) for all airplane with ring cowl i s not as great as the increase in V(sub m), so that the ratio V(sub c)/V(sub m) is less than for the airplane without ring. Consequently the r.p.m. and full throttle thrust power available are less at V(sub c) for the airplane with ring cowl and in spite of the increase in L/D due to the installation of the ring, the excess thrust power available for climbing is not appreciably changed. The same method of reasoning accounts for the small increase in absolute ceiling in spite of a large increase in L/D maximum.
Date: June 1931
Creator: Louden, F. A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department