National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 1,272 Matching Results

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Crippling strength of axially loaded rods

Description: A new empirical formula was developed that holds good for any length and any material of a rod, and agrees well with the results of extensive strength tests. To facilitate calculations, three tables are included, giving the crippling load for solid and hollow sectioned wooden rods of different thickness and length, as well as for steel tubes manufactured according to the standards of Army Air Services Inspection. Further, a graphical method of calculation of the breaking load is derived in which a single curve is employed for determination of the allowable fiber stress. Finally, the theory is discussed of the elastic curve for a rod subject to compression, according to which no deflection occurs, and the apparent contradiction of this conclusion by test results is attributed to the fact that the rods under test are not perfectly straight, or that the wall thickness and the material are not uniform. Under the assumption of an eccentric rod having a slight initial bend according to a sine curve, a simple formula for the deflection is derived, which shows a surprising agreement with test results. From this a further formula is derived for the determination of the allowable load on an eccentric rod. The resulting relations are made clearer by means of a graphical representation of the relation of the moments of the outer and inner forces to the deflection.
Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Natalis, FR
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of wind tunnel turbulence upon the forces measured on models

Description: 1. Reasons for inquiry: The tests were undertaken to find the effect of turbulence in the air stream upon the lift and drag forces measured on models in the four-foot wind tunnel at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2. Range of investigation: Maximum lifts and minimum drags were measured on Gottingen-387 and R.A.F.-15 airfoils, minimum drag on a streamlined strut, and the static pressure gradients for different conditions of turbulence. 3. Results and further developments: The results show that the scale of the turbulence (as defined in this report) has a marked effect upon the measured forces on models tested in the tunnel as well as on the pressure gradient, and it is recommended that further investigation of the phenomena be made with the aid of smoke and small wind vanes.
Date: May 1, 1924
Creator: Lepage, W L & Nichols, J T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disturbing effect of free hydrogen on fuel combustion in internal combustion engines

Description: Experiments with fuel mixtures of varying composition, have recently been conducted by the Motor Vehicle and Airplane Engine Testing Laboratories of the Royal Technical High School in Berlin and at Fort Hahneberg, as well as at numerous private engine works. The behavior of hydrogen during combustion in engines and its harmful effect under certain conditions, on the combustion in the engine cylinder are of general interest. Some of the results of these experiments are given here, in order to elucidate the main facts and explain much that is already a matter of experience with chauffeurs and pilots.
Date: March 1, 1923
Creator: Riedler, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests on riveted joints in sheet duralumin

Description: In making tension tests, the slippage of the joints was noted at three points across each joint. In addition, stress strain curves were obtained for plain tension specimens, and a chemical analysis was made of the sheet.
Date: November 1, 1923
Creator: Rettew, H F & Thumin, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of the effect of an oscillating airstream (Katzmayr effect) on the characteristics of airfoils

Description: A series of experiments were conducted related to the action of an airstream oscillating vertically on supporting surfaces. The object of the experiments was to verify the very interesting results of Mr. Katzmayr, Director of the Vienna Aerodynamics Laboratory, and, if possible, to obtain more complete data on the effect of the amplitude and velocity of the oscillations of the airstream. The results obtained by Mr. Katzmayr are briefly summarized. The conduct of the numerous experiments to verify his results are described in detail. Experimental results are given in tabular and graphical form.
Date: September 1, 1924
Creator: TOUSSAINT; KERNEIS & GIRAULT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static stability of seaplane floats and hulls

Description: Values of lateral and longitudinal metacentric heights for various seaplanes were calculated by means of approximate formulae derived here. The data are given in tabular form. Upon plotting these metacentric heights against the corresponding gross weights, it appears that the metacentric height is approximately a straight line function of the gross weight. For the lateral metacentric height GM = 13 + .002 W and for longitudinal metacentric height GM = 15 + .002 W, GM is in feet and the gross weight (W) is in pounds. Although only approximate, it is thought that the values indicated here are a reliable guide to current practice. It is recommended that the longitudinal and lateral metacentric heights be made equal and of the value given by GM = 15 = .002 W. The proper length or spacing required to satisfy the indicated value may then be obtained from substitution in the approximate formulae for metacentric height.
Date: March 1, 1924
Creator: Diehl, W S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interference of multiplane wings having elliptical lift distribution

Description: In calculating the self-induction of a wing surface, elliptical lift distribution is assumed, while in calculating the mutual induction or interference of two wing surfaces, a uniform distribution of the lift along the wing has hitherto been assumed. Whether the results of these calculations are substantially altered by assuming an elliptical lift distribution (which is just as probable as uniform distribution) is examined here.
Date: February 1, 1924
Creator: Von Sanden, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A variable speed fan dynamometer

Description: Fan brakes used as absorption dynamometers in testing internal combustion engines have the disadvantage that a given fan will run only at one speed when the engine is delivering full power. In order to be able to vary the speed at which a given power will be absorbed, English manufacturers have for some time been using a cylindrical housing around the fan with one or two variable openings in the periphery. Here, results are given of tests conducted to determine how great a range of speed can be obtained from such a device. The tests show that a power ratio of five to 1 can be obtained, the power ratio being defined as the ratio of the power absorbed by the fan at a given speed with the outlet open to the power absorbed at the same speed with the second outlet closed. Data show that improvements in the design of the fan brake can make the speed ratio approach but not exceed a value of two to one. Also given here are a brief outline of previous work on fan brakes, a description of the experimental apparatus and methods used in the tests, and a more detailed statement of test results.
Date: December 1, 1920
Creator: Wood, Karl D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple formula for estimating airplane ceilings

Description: The aeronautical engineer often has occasion to estimate the absolute ceiling of an airplane for which a detailed performance calculation is out of the question. In such cases it is customary to use either empirical performance charts or formulae. The performance charts given in several of the recent works on aeronautics are satisfactory so long as the airplane under consideration does not depart too far from the average in its characteristics. The formulae, with one exception, are no better. Given here is that exception, with indications of which terms of the formula may be neglected without seriously affecting the results, thus simplifying the task.
Date: June 1, 1922
Creator: Diehl, Walter S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

Description: Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1922
Creator: Diehl, W S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam power plants in aircraft

Description: The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.
Date: June 1, 1926
Creator: Wilson, E E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gordon Bennett Airplane Cup

Description: The characteristics of the airplanes built for the Gordon Bennet Airplane Cup race that took place on September 28, 1920 are described. The airplanes are discussed from a aerodynamical point of view, with a number of new details concerning the French machines. Also discussed is the regulation of future races. The author argues that there should be no limitations on the power of the aircraft engines. He reasons that in the present state of things, liberty with regard to engine power does not lead to a search for the most powerful engine, but for one which is reliable and light, thus leading to progress.
Date: April 1, 1921
Creator: Margoulis, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of rudder moments on an airplane during flight

Description: Tests indicated that: 1) C airplanes with two struts are extremely susceptible to aileron maneuvers, slight alterations of the aileron sufficing to compensate great unequalized moments; 2) great unequalized moments can be produced or neutralized by the unequalized alternation of the angle of attack below the outer and inner struts. Adjustment below the outer strut is the more effective of the two. 3) When a load of bombs is suspended beyond the center of the airplane, below the wings, the bombs need not be dropped simultaneously. 4) The propeller wash of a wide open engine has considerable influence on the position and operation of the elevator. The elevator is more susceptible in flight with the engine running than in gliding flight. 5) Adjustable tail planes are not advisable for D airplanes, nor for the C type, but they are, on the other hand, to be recommended for large size and giant airplanes in which the center of gravity changes during flight. 6) The aileron values obtained by wind tunnel measurements are about 10 percent too low, though otherwise applicable. For the elevator, the results of such measurements should be taken as mean values between flight with the engine running and gliding flight.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Heidelberg, Ing V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the resistance of the air at high speeds and on the automatic rotation of projectiles

Description: Here, the laws governing the flow of a compressible fluid through an opening in a thin wall are applied to the resistance of the air at high speeds, especially as applied to the automatic rotation of projectiles. The instability which we observe in projectiles shot into the air without being given a moment of rotation about their axis of symmetry, or without stabilizing planes, is a phenomenon of automatic rotation. It is noted that we can prevent this phenomenon of automatic rotation by bringing the center of gravity sufficiently near one end, or by fitting the projectile with stabilizing planes or a tail. The automatic rotation of projectiles is due to the suction produced by the systematic formation of vortices behind the extremity of the projectile moving with the wind.
Date: April 1, 1921
Creator: Riabouchinski, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The logarithmic polar curve-it's theory and application to the predetermination of airplane performance

Description: The logarithmic polar curve has for several years been used by the most prominent aerodynamical laboratories as well as by airplane manufacturers in Europe. To show more clearly the practical application of the polar curve, a series of examples are given with suggestions for solution. After a discussion of the theory and the practical application of the polar curve, the following problems are discussed: climbing flight, speed at various altitudes, and the characteristics of two seater observation airplanes of recent design.
Date: October 1, 1924
Creator: Cronstedt, Val
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent efforts and experiments in the construction of aviation engines

Description: It became evident during World War I that ever-increasing demands were being placed on the mean power of aircraft engines as a result of the increased on board equipment and the demands of aerial combat. The need was for increased climbing efficiency and climbing speed. The response to these demands has been in terms of lightweight construction and the adaptation of the aircraft engine to the requirements of its use. Discussed here are specific efforts to increase flying efficiency, such as reduction of the number of revolutions of the propeller from 1400 to about 900 r.p.m. through the use of a reduction gear, increasing piston velocity, locating two crankshafts in one gear box, and using the two-cycle stroke. Also discussed are improvements in the transformation of fuel energy into engine power, the raising of compression ratios, the use of super-compression with carburetors constructed for high altitudes, the use of turbo-compressors, rotary engines, and the use of variable pitch propellers.
Date: September 1, 1920
Creator: Schwager
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The dynamometer hub

Description: The construction of the dynamometer hub is illustrated and explained, and its electrical and aviation motor tests, as well as those in free flight, described.
Date: September 1, 1920
Creator: Stieber, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High thermal efficiency in airplane service

Description: Described here is a method by which high average fuel economy has been achieved in aircraft engines. Details are given of the design of certain foreign engines that employ an unusual type of fuel-air ratio control in which the change in power produced by a mixture change is due almost entirely to the change in the power producing ability of the unit weight of the mixture. The safety and performance features of this type of control are explained.
Date: December 1, 1920
Creator: Sparrow, S W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of the nature of surfaces on resistance as tested on struts

Description: The chief concern was to measure the variations of resistance brought about by the nature of the surface of the struts. The struts were spanned with aviation linen, and then covered with one coat of varnish. The top surface was not perfectly smooth after this treatment, being slightly rough owing to the threads and raised fibers of the fabric. The results of the measurements of the surfaces are shown by the dotted lines of the curves plotted in several figures. The resistance is given in terms of the characteristic value. Next, the surface was altered by the removal of any roughness on it by means of filing with sandpaper. The measurements of surfaces thus treated gave values represented by extended lines. The increase of resistance with increasing characteristic value, more or less marked in the first series of measurements, was no longer observable. Resistance always decreases with the increase of characteristic value, excepting in the case of strut 7, which shows a slight tendency to rise again. The reasons for this phenomenon have not yet been fully explained.
Date: February 1, 1921
Creator: Wieselsberger, Ing C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation of rib spacing to stress in wing planes

Description: The stress relations to the fabric and the rib consequent upon a change of spacing between ribs in a wing plane are discussed. Considering the wing plane as a static structure, and ignoring the question of aerodynamic efficiency, it appears that the unit stress in the rib and fabric will remain constant for constant p if the linear dimensions of both rib and fabric are increased alike, viz., if wing and fabric remain geometrically similar. Since the bulge and the structural dimensions remain geometrically similar, the whole distended plane remains so, and hence should have the same pressure distribution and efficiency. If therefore the Burgess rule of making the rib spacing always one-fifth of the chord of the plane be valid, it must be valid for all others that are mechanically similar in structure and covering.
Date: May 1, 1920
Creator: Zahm, A F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department