National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - Browse

Tests of Wing Machine-Gun and Cannon Installations in the NACA Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, Special Report
At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, an investigation was conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel of wing installations of .50-caliber machine guns and 20-millimeter cannons. The tests were made to determine the effect of various gun installations on the maximum lift and the high-speed drag of the airplane.
The Torsional and Bending Deflection of Full-Scale Duralumin Propeller Blades under Normal Operating Conditions, Special Report
The torsional deflection of the blades of three full-scale duralumin propellers operating under various loading conditions was measured by a light-beam method. Angular bending deflections were also obtained as an incidental part of the study. The deflection measurements showed that the usual present-day type of propeller blades twisted but a negligible amount under ordinary flight conditions. A maximum deflection of about 1/10th of a degree was found at V/nD of 0.3 and a smaller deflection at higher values of V/nD for the station at 0.70 radius. These deflections are much smaller than would be expected from earlier tests, but the light-beam method is considered to be much more accurate than the direct-reading transit method used in the previous tests.
The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane, Special Report
An investigation was undertaken to determine the character and importance of the transition phase between the ground run and steady climb in the takeoff of an airplane and the effects of various factors on this phase and on the airborne part of the takeoff as a whole. The information was obtained from a series of step-by-step integrations, which defined the motion of the airplane during the transition and which were based on data derived from actual takeoff tests of a Verville AT airplane. Both normal and zoom takeoffs under several loading and takeoff speed conditions were considered. The effects of a moderate wind with a corresponding wind gradient and the effect of proximity of the ground were also investigated. The results show that, for normal takeoffs, the best transition was realized at the lowest possible takeoff speed. Moreover, this speed gave the shortest overall takeoff distance for normal takeoffs. Zoom takeoffs required a shorter overall takeoff run than normal takeoffs, particularly with a heavy landing, if the obstacle to be cleared was sufficiently high (greater than 50 feet); no advantage was indicated to the airplane with a light loading if the height to be cleared was less. The error resulting from the neglect of the transition in the calculation of the airborne distance of takeoff was found to vary from 4% with the heaviest loading considered to -4% with the lightest loading for normal takeoffs over a 100-ft obstacle; the percentage error was twice as great for a 50-foot obstacle. For zoom takeoffs the error attained much greater values. The average wind gradient corresponding to a 5-mile-per-hour surface wind reduced the airborne distance required to clear a 50-foot obstacle by about 9% with the lightest loading and 16% with the heaviest loading; for both cases. The overall reduction due to ...
Tandem Air Propellers
Tests of 2-blade, adjustable-pitch, counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency, were made at Stanford University. The characteristics, for 15 degrees, 25 degrees, 35 degrees, and 45 degrees pitch settings at 0.75 R of the forward propeller and for 8 1/2%, 15% and 30% diameter spacings, were compared with those of 2-blade and 4-blade propellers of the same blade form. The tests showed that the efficiency of the tandem propellers was from 0.5% to 4% greater than that of a 4-blade propeller and, at the high pitch settings, not appreciable inferior to that of a 2-blade propeller. It was found that the rear tandem propeller should be set at a pitch angle slightly less than that of the forward propeller to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency. Under this condition the total power absorbed by the tandem propellers was from 3% to 9% more than that absorbed by the 4-blade propeller and about twice that absorbed by a 2-blade propeller.
Tandem Air Propellers - II
Tests of three-blade, adjustable-pitch counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency of the combination, were made at Stanford University. The aerodynamic characteristics, for blade-angle settings of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 degrees at 0.75R of the forward propeller and for diameters spacings of 8-1/2, 15 and 30% were compared with those of three-blade and six-blade propellers of the same blade form. It was found that, in order to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency, the blade angles for the rear propeller must be generally less than for the forward propeller, the difference increasing the blade angle. The tests showed that, at maximum efficiency, the tandem propellers absorb about double the power of three-blade propellers and about 8% more power than six-blade propellers having the pitch of the forward propeller of the tandem combination. The maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was found to be from 2-15% greater than for six-blade propellers, the difference varying directly with blade angle. It was also found that the maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was greater than that of a three-blade propeller for blade angles at 0.75R of 25 degrees or more. The difference in maximum efficiency again varied directly with blade angle, being about 9% for 65 degrees at 0.75R.
Tank Tests of the Effect of Rivet Heads, etc., on the Water Performance of a Seaplane Float, Special Report
A 1/3.5 full-size model of the Mark V float of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested in the NACA tank both with smooth painted bottom surfaces and with roundhead rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. The augmentation in water resistance due to the added roughness was found to be from 10-12% at the hum speed and from 12-14% at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method which assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law, and in the case of the smooth model by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the takeoff performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence but that it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.
Tests in the Variable-Density Tunnel of Seven Tapered Wings Having N.A.C.A. 230 Mean Lines, Special Report
At the request of the Materiel Division of the Army Air Corps, seven tapered wings having sections based on the N.A,C.A. 230 mean line were tested in the variable-density wind tunnel, The characteristics of the wings are given.
Tests of a Highly Cambered Low-Drag-Airfoil Section with a Lift-Control Flap, Special Report
Tests were made in the NACA two-dimensional low turbulence pressure tunnel of a highly cambered low-drag airfoil (NACA 65,3-618) with a plain flap designed for lift control. The results indicate that such a combination offers attractive possibilities for obtaining low profile-drag coefficients over a wide range of lift coefficients without large reductions of critical speed.
Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressibility Burble
Development of airfoil sections suitable for high-speed applications has generally been difficult because little was known of the flow phenomenon that occurs at high speeds. A definite critical speed has been found at which serious detrimental flow changes occur that lead to serious losses in lift and large increases in drag. This flow phenomenon, called the compressibility burble, was originally a propeller problem, but with the development of higher speed aircraft serious consideration must be given to other parts of the airplane. Fundamental investigations of high-speed airflow phenomenon have provided new information. An important conclusion of this work has been the determination of the critical speed, that is, the speed at which the compressibility burble occurs. The critical speed was shown to be the translational velocity at which the sum of the translational velocity and the maximum local induced velocity at the surface of the airfoil or other body equals the local speed of sound. Obviously then higher critical speeds can be attained through the development of airfoils that have minimum induced velocity for any given value of the lift coefficient. Presumably, the highest critical speed will be attained by an airfoil that has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity or, in other words, a flat pressure distribution curve. The ideal airfoil for any given high-speed application is, then, that form which at its operating lift coefficient has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity. Accordingly, an analytical search for such airfoil forms has been conducted and these forms are now being investigated experimentally in the 23-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The first airfoils investigated showed marked improvement over those forms already available, not only as to critical speed buy also the drag at low speeds is decreased considerably. Because of the immediate marked improvement, it was considered desirable to extend the ...
A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft, Special Report
Various transparent organic plastics, including both commercially available and experimental materials, have been examined to determine their suitability for use as flexible windshields on aircraft, The properties which have been studied include light transmission, haziness, distortion, resistance to weathering, scratch and indentation hardness, impact strength, dimensional stability, resistance to water and various cleaning fluids, bursting strength at normal and low temperatures, and flammability.
A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft. Supplement
This supplement to a NACA study issued in May 1937 entitled "A Study of Transparent Plastics for Use on Aircraft", contains two tables. These tables contain data on bursting strengths of plastics, particularly at low temperatures. Table 1 contains the values reported in a table of the original memorandum, and additional values obtained at approximately 25 C, for three samples of Acrylate resin. The second table contains data obtained for the bursting strength when one surface of the plastic was cooled to approximately -35 C.
Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report
Results of a study to determine the effects on turning performance due to various assumed modifications to a typical Naval fighter airplane are presented. The modifications considered included flaps of various types, both part and full space, increased supercharging, and increased wing loading. The calculations indicated that near the low-speed end of the speed range, the turning performance, as defined by steady level turns at a given speed, would be improved to some extent by any of the flaps considered at altitudes up to about 25,000 feet. (If turning is not restricted to the conditions of no loss of speed or altitude, more rapid turning can, of course, be accomplished with the aid of flaps, regardless of altitude.) Fowler flaps and NACA slotted flaps appeared somewhat superior to split or perforated split flaps for maneuvering purposes, particularly if the flap position is not adjustable. Similarly, better turning performance should be realized with full-span than with part-span flaps. Turning performance over the lower half of the speed range would probably not be materially improved at any altitude by increased supercharging of the engine unless the propeller were redesigned to absorb the added power more effectively; with a suitable propeller the turning performance at high altitudes could probably be greatly improved with increased supercharging. A reduction in wing area with the aspect ratio held constant would result in impairment of turning performance over practically the entire speed range at all altitudes.
Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation
The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.
Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report
In many installations of castering rubber-tired wheels there is a tendency for the wheel to oscillate violently about the spindle axis. This phenomenon, popularly called 'shimmy,' has occurred in some airplane tail wheels and has been corrected in two ways: first by the application of friction in the spindles of the tail wheels; and, second, by locking the wheels while taxiing at high speeds. Shimmy is common with the large wheels used as nose wheels in tricycle landing gears and, since it is impossible to lock the wheels, friction in the nose-wheel spindle has been the sole means of correction. Because the nose wheel is larger than the conventional tail wheel and usually carries a greater load, the larger amounts of spindle friction necessary to prevent shimmy are objectionable. the present paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the problem of the stability of castering wheels for airplane landing gears. On the basis of simplified assumptions induced from experimental observations, a theoretical study has been made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called 'kinematic shimmy' and is compared quantitatively with the results of model experiments. Experimental checks, using a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy - lateral freedom - is introduced.
Statistics of the Bureau Veritas
Statistics are indispensable factors for the amelioration of safety. Through the reconciliation of accidents which may appear isolated to interested parties, they permit tracking of typical causes of accidents; conversely, they can prevent, after a serious accident due to some fortuitous cause, the taking of incautious measures under the pressure of public opinion, which always inclines to gauge the gravity of the causes by that of the results. Lastly, they permit appraisal of the efficacy of rules in force. We should add that statistics provide an agency of prevention for future accidents. A careful inspection of all signs of malfunction of material quite often prevents the occurrence of an accident. In this respect, many pilot's report, perfectly normal in every way as far as operation is concerned, can reveal much more interesting technical data than an accident, although it does not diminish the importance of statistics. Therefore, from the inception of its aeronautical service, at the end of 1922, the Bureau Veritas has kept annual statistics of all accidents which occurred in French civil aviation. In order to correctly perform their proper function, the statistics must be exact and sufficiently explicit and complete. To be exact, they must bear on all pertinent events, and on these alone. It is a matter then, first of all, defining the accident in such a way that no sinister detail bearing on the definition may escape control. The consideration of accidents to personnel only has appeared too limited. One of the essential qualities of statistics is to permit the taking of averages and in consequence to apply them ot a sufficiently large number; such is happily not the case in accidents to personnel.
Present Status of Lateral-Control Devices for use with Split Flaps, Special Report
The increased use of split flaps for the dual purpose of reducing the landing speed and shortening the landing glide of airplanes has established as acute the problem of obtaining satisfactory lateral control to be used in conjunction with the flaps with out the sacrifice of any of the effectiveness of the flaps. A large amount of work is being done on this problem by various organizations and individuals. Several of the devices developed seem usable, some of them unquestionably so. The present paper attempts to summarize the most promising results obtained to date. Topics covered include ordinary ailerons, external ailerons, floating ailerons, upper-surface ailerons, and spoilers. Although the external ailerons above the trailing edge of the wing and the spoilers at the rear of the wing appear quite promising, it would seem that probably the most satisfactory immediate solution of the problem, including the obtaining of light and smoothly graduated control forces, would in most cases be obtained by the use of the arrangement in which the flap is retracted ahead of ordinary narrow-chord ailerons and is deflected to the rear as well as downward when in use.
Pressure Distribution on the Fuselage of a Midwing Airplane Model at High Speeds
The pressure distribution on the fuselage of a midwing airplane model was measured in the NACA 8-foot high speed wind tunnel at speeds from 140 to 440 miles per hour for lift coefficients ranging from -0.2 to 1.0. The primary purpose of the tests was to provide data showing the air pressures on various parts of the fuselage for use in structural design. The data may also be used for the design of scoops and vents. The results show that the highest negative pressures occurred near the wing and were more dependent on the wing than on the fuselage. At high speeds, the magnitude of the pressure coefficients as predicted from pressure coefficients determined experimentally at low speeds by application of the theoretical factor 1/(square root)1-M(exp 2) (where M is the ratio of the air speed to the speed of sound in air) may misrepresent the actual conditions. At the points where the maximum negative pressures ocurred, however, the variation of the pressure coefficients was in good agreement with the theoretical factor, indicating that this factor may afford satisfactory predictions of critical speed, at least for fuselages similar to the shape tested.
A profile-drag investigation in flight on an experimental fighter-type airplane the North American XP-51
No Description Available.
Profile-Drag Investigation of an Airplane Wing Equipped with Rubber Inflatable De-Icer
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has made profile-drag measurements in flight of a wing which was equipped with a rubber inflatable de-icer and to which various stimulated ice formations were attached. Tuft observations at the stalling speed of the wing with the various drag conditions were made in order to determine the influence on the maximum lift coefficient. The de-icer installation caused an increase of from 10-20% in the profile drag of the plain wing and reduced CL(sub max) about 6%. Simulated ice, when confined to the leading-edge region of the de-icer, had no measurable influence upon the profile drag at the cruising speed. This ice condition, however, reduced the value of CL(sub max) to about three-fourths that of the plain wing. Simulated ice in the form of a ridge along the upper and lower de-icer cap-strips increased the profile drag by about 360% at cruising speed. This condition reduced the CL(sub max) to approximately one-half that of the plain wing value.
Propeller-Design Problems of High-Speed Airplanes, Special Report
It is shown that on the basis of existing high-speed airfoil data, propeller efficiencies appreciably in excess of 40% do not appear possible at speeds above 500 miles per hour at 20,000 feet. The assumption that present propeller-blade thicknesses cannot be reduced radically, is implied. Until the reliability and applicability of the airfoil data are established, this conclusion must not be regarded as infallible. Dive tests with airplanes equipped with thrust meters and torque meters are proposed to provide an urgently needed check. The design of high-speed propellers is dictated wholly by compressibility considerations. The blade width, thickness, and pitch distribution; also the airfoil sections, the lift coefficient, the propeller diameter, and rpm must all be adjusted if reasonable efficiencies are to be maintained at airplane speeds that are now being approached. Research is urgently needed on: 1) airfoils at subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds; 2) propellers at high forward speeds in wind tunnels; 3)propellers in free flight at high speeds; and 4) jet propulsion and related devices. The breakdown of propeller efficiency indicated by airfoil data, should serve as an incentive for accelerated research on jet propulsion. This device may extend the attainable speed of current airplanes to the neighborhood of 550 miles per hour at 20,000 feet.
Radiator Design and Installation
The fundamental principles of fluid flow, pressure losses, and heat transfer have been presented and analyzed for the case of a smooth tube with fully developed turbulent flow. These equations apply to tubes with large length-diameter ratios where the f1ow is at a high Reynolds Number. The error introduced by using these equations increases as the magnitude of the tube length and the air-flow Reynolds Number approaches the values encountered in modern radiator designs. Accordingly, heat-transfer tests on radiator sections were made and the results are presented in nondimensional form to facilitate their use and for comparison with other heat-transfer data. In addition, pressure losses were measured along smooth tubes of circular, square, and rectangular cross section and the results were also correlated and are presented in nondimensional form. The problem of a radiator design for a particular installation is solved, the experimental heat-transfer and pressure-loss data being used, on a basis of power chargeable to the radiator for form drag, for propelling the weight, and for forcing the air through the radiator. The case of an installation within a wing or an engine nacelle is considered. An illustration of radiator design is carried through for an arbitrary set of conditions. Sufficient detail is given to enable the reader to reproduce the analysis for any given case.
Radiator Design and Installation - II, Special Report
A mathematical analysis of radiator design has been made. The volume of the radiator using least total power has been expressed in a single formula which shows that the optimum radiator volume is independent of the shape of the radiator and which makes possible the construction of design tables that give the optimum radiator volume per 100-horsepower heat dissipation as a function of the speed, of the altitude, and of one parameter involving characteristics of the airplane. Although, for a given set of conditions, the radiator volume using the least total power is fixed, the frontal area, or the length of the radiator needs to be separately specified in order to satisfy certain other requirement such as the ability to cool with the pressure drop available while the airplane is climbing. In order to simplify the specification for the shape of the radiator and in order to reduce the labor involved in calculating the detailed performance of radiators, generalized design curves have been developed for determining the pressure drop, the mass flow of air, and the power expended in overcoming the cooling drag of a radiator from the physical dimensions of the radiator. In addition, a table is derived from these curves, which directly gives the square root of the pressure drop required for ground cooling as a function of the radiator dimensions, of the heat dissipation and of the available temperature difference. Typical calculations using the tables of optimum radiator volume and the design curves are given. The jet power that can be derived from the heated air is proportional to the heat dissipation and is approximately proportional to the square of the airplane speed and to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature of the atmosphere. A table of jet power, per 100 horsepower of heat dissipation at various ...
Relative Efficiencies and Design Charts for Various Engine-Propeller Combinations, Special Report
The relative efficiencies of various engine-propeller combinations were the subject of a study that covered the important flight conditions, particularly the take-off. Design charts that graphically correlate the various propeller parameters were prepared to facilitate the solution of problems and also to c1arify the conception of the relationships of the various engine-propeller design factors. It is shown that, among the many methods for improving the take-off thrust, the use of high-pitch, large-diameter controllable propellers turning at low rotational speeds is probably the most generally promising. With such a combination the take-off thrust may be further increased, at the expense of a small loss in cruising efficiency, by compromise designs wherein the pitch setting is slightly reduced and the diameter is further increased. The degree of compromise necessary to accomplish the maximum possible take-off improvement depends on such design factors as overspeeding and overboosting at take-off as well as depending on the design altitude. Both overspeeding and designing for altitude operation have the same effect on the take-off thrust as compromising in that the propulsive efficiency is increased thereby; boosting the engine, however, has the reverse effect on the propulsive efficiency, although the brake horsepower is increased.
The Relative Hydrodynamic Resistance of Various Types of Rivet Heads from Tests of Planning Surfaces, Special Report
The Committee was requested to investigate the effect of various types of rivet heads on hydrodynamic resistance. The proposal was made to obtain the resistance of the various types of rivets by tests of planing surfaces on which the full size rivets would be arranged. The testing methods, results and conclusions are given.
A Remote Indicating Hinge-Moment Balance, Special Report
This report describes an electrical hinge-moment balance for use with wind-tunnel models of aircraft. A brief description of the principle of operation and operating experience with the balance is given in part I. Part II gives constructional details and part III gives theoretical considerations. Extensive constructional information is given to enable the reproduction of the equipment.
Restraint Provided a Flat Rectangular Plate by a Sturdy Stiffener Along an Edge of the Plate, Special Report
A sturdy stiffener is defined as a stiffener of such proportions that it does not suffer cross-sectional distortion when moments are applied to some part of the cross section. When such a stiffener is attached to one edge of a plate, it will resist rotation of that edge of the plate by means of its torsional properties. A formula is given for the restraint coefficient provided the plate by such a stiffener. This coefficient is required for the calculation of the critical compressive stress of the plate.
Resume of Present Data on Load Distribution on Slots and Flaps, Special Report
This report covers a study of the generally available data on load distribution on slots and flaps. The study was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Material Division, Army Air Corps to furnish information applicable to design criteria for slots and flaps of various types. The data are presented in three main sections: slots (Handley page type), auxiliary airfoils (fixed), and flaps.
Bending and shear stresses developed by the instantaneous arrest of the root of a cantilever beam with a mass at its tip
No Description Available.
Calculation of the aileron and elevator stick forces and rudder pedal forces for the Bell XP-83 airplane (project MX-511) in spins
No Description Available.
Calibrations of service pitot tubes in the Langley 24-inch high-speed tunnel
No Description Available.
Characteristics of several single- and dual-rotating propellers in negative thrust
No Description Available.
Characteristics of the BMW 801D2 automatic engine control as determined from bench tests
No Description Available.
Charts showing stability and control characteristics of airplanes in flight
No Description Available.
Comparison of predicted and actual control-fixed stability and control characteristics of a Douglas A-26B airplane
No Description Available.
Comparison of the knock-limited performance of triptane with 23 other purified hydrocarbons
No Description Available.
Control of cylinder temperatures by thermostatically operated internal-coolant valves
No Description Available.
Proposal for a propeller side-force factor
No Description Available.
Relative effects of cylinder-head and inlet-mixture temperatures upon knock limits of fuels
No Description Available.
Preliminary investigation of the relation of the compressive strength of sheet-stiffener panels to the diameter of rivet used for attaching stiffeners to sheet
No Description Available.
A preliminary study of machine-countersunk flush rivets subjected to a combined static and alternating shear load
No Description Available.
Preliminary tank experiments with a hydrofoil on a planing-tail seaplane hull
No Description Available.
Preliminary tests to determine the dynamic stability characteristics of various hydrofoil systems for seaplanes and surface boats
No Description Available.
Pressure lag in tubing used in flight research
Tests described in this report were undertaken to obtain a quantitative measure of the pressure lag in typical pressure-tubing systems used by the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory in flight research investigations. Lag measurements were made with both single-direction and oscillating pressure changes. Single-direction pressure changes were investigated to determine if the lag in orifice-pressure lines and in the research airspeed and altitude measuring systems of pursuit-type airplane undergoing flight tests was sufficient to cause an appreciable error in the record of a sudden pressure change. Oscillating pressure changes were investigated with particular reference to the accuracy of pressure peaks in pressure-distribution measurements during the time of buffeting conditions as found in stalls. (author).
Analytical investigation of the stability of an F8F dropping model with automatic stabilization
No Description Available.
Attainment of a straight-line trajectory for a preset guided missile with special reference to effect of wind or target motion
No Description Available.
Analysis and correlation of data obtained by six laboratories on fuel-vapor loss from fuel tanks during simulated flight
No Description Available.
An analysis of the indications of the University of Chicago airborne turbulence indicator in gusty air
No Description Available.
Analysis of V-G Records from the SNB-1 Airplane
Availability data obtained on SNB-1 trainer-class airplanes were analyzed and results presented as flight envelopes which predict occurrences of large values of air speed and acceleration. Comparison is made with SNJ-4 trainer-class airplane data analyzed by the same method. It is concluded that flight envelopes are satisfactory; that the two types show large differences in flight loads and speeds experience; and that SNB-1 will seldom, if ever, exceed design limit load factor and restricted speed, which SNJ-4 can be expected to exceed design-limit load factor and restricted speed in a very small number of flight hours.
Analysis of V-G records from the SNJ-4 airplane
No Description Available.
Performance Characteristics of an Aircraft Engine with Exhaust Turbine Supercharger, Special Report
The Pratt and Whitney Aircraft company and the Naval Aircraft Factory of the United States Navy cooperated in a laboratory and flight program of tests on an exhaust turbine supercharger. Two series of dynamometer tests of the engine super-charger combination were completed under simulated altitude conditions. One series of hot gas-chamber tests was conducted by the manufacturer of the supercharger. Flight demonstrations of the supercharger installed in a twin-engine flying boat were terminated by failure of the turbine wheels. The analysis of the results indicated that a two-stage supercharger with the first-stage exhaust turbine driven will deliver rated power for a given indicated power to a higher altitude, will operate more efficiently, and will require simpler controls than a similar engine with the first stage of the supercharger driven from the crankshaft through multispeed gears.