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Tests of Several Model Nacelle-Propeller Arrangements in Front of a Wing

Description: An investigation was conducted in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot wind tunnel to determine the drag, the propulsive and net efficiencies, and the cooling characteristics of severa1 scale-model arrangements of air-cooled radial-engine nacelles and present-day propellers in front of an 18- percent-thick, 5- by 15-foot airfoil. This report deals with an investigation of wing-nacelle arrangements simulating the geometric proportions of airplanes in the 40,000- to 70,000- pound weight classification and having the nacelles located in the vicinity of the optimum location determined from the earlier tests.
Date: September 1, 1939
Creator: McHugh, James G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Torsional and Bending Deflection of Full-Scale Duralumin Propeller Blades under Normal Operating Conditions, Special Report

Description: The torsional deflection of the blades of three full-scale duralumin propellers operating under various loading conditions was measured by a light-beam method. Angular bending deflections were also obtained as an incidental part of the study. The deflection measurements showed that the usual present-day type of propeller blades twisted but a negligible amount under ordinary flight conditions. A maximum deflection of about 1/10th of a degree was found at V/nD of 0.3 and a smaller deflection at higher values of V/nD for the station at 0.70 radius. These deflections are much smaller than would be expected from earlier tests, but the light-beam method is considered to be much more accurate than the direct-reading transit method used in the previous tests.
Date: March 1, 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P. & Biermann, David
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane, Special Report

Description: An investigation was undertaken to determine the character and importance of the transition phase between the ground run and steady climb in the takeoff of an airplane and the effects of various factors on this phase and on the airborne part of the takeoff as a whole. The information was obtained from a series of step-by-step integrations, which defined the motion of the airplane during the transition and which were based on data derived from actual takeoff tests of a Verville AT airplane. Both normal and zoom takeoffs under several loading and takeoff speed conditions were considered. The effects of a moderate wind with a corresponding wind gradient and the effect of proximity of the ground were also investigated. The results show that, for normal takeoffs, the best transition was realized at the lowest possible takeoff speed. Moreover, this speed gave the shortest overall takeoff distance for normal takeoffs. Zoom takeoffs required a shorter overall takeoff run than normal takeoffs, particularly with a heavy landing, if the obstacle to be cleared was sufficiently high (greater than 50 feet); no advantage was indicated to the airplane with a light loading if the height to be cleared was less. The error resulting from the neglect of the transition in the calculation of the airborne distance of takeoff was found to vary from 4% with the heaviest loading considered to -4% with the lightest loading for normal takeoffs over a 100-ft obstacle; the percentage error was twice as great for a 50-foot obstacle. For zoom takeoffs the error attained much greater values. The average wind gradient corresponding to a 5-mile-per-hour surface wind reduced the airborne distance required to clear a 50-foot obstacle by about 9% with the lightest loading and 16% with the heaviest loading; for both cases. The overall reduction due to ...
Date: December 1, 1937
Creator: Wetmore, J. W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem Air Propellers

Description: Tests of 2-blade, adjustable-pitch, counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency, were made at Stanford University. The characteristics, for 15 degrees, 25 degrees, 35 degrees, and 45 degrees pitch settings at 0.75 R of the forward propeller and for 8 1/2%, 15% and 30% diameter spacings, were compared with those of 2-blade and 4-blade propellers of the same blade form. The tests showed that the efficiency of the tandem propellers was from 0.5% to 4% greater than that of a 4-blade propeller and, at the high pitch settings, not appreciable inferior to that of a 2-blade propeller. It was found that the rear tandem propeller should be set at a pitch angle slightly less than that of the forward propeller to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency. Under this condition the total power absorbed by the tandem propellers was from 3% to 9% more than that absorbed by the 4-blade propeller and about twice that absorbed by a 2-blade propeller.
Date: August 1, 1937
Creator: Lesley, E.P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem Air Propellers - II

Description: Tests of three-blade, adjustable-pitch counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency of the combination, were made at Stanford University. The aerodynamic characteristics, for blade-angle settings of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 degrees at 0.75R of the forward propeller and for diameters spacings of 8-1/2, 15 and 30% were compared with those of three-blade and six-blade propellers of the same blade form. It was found that, in order to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency, the blade angles for the rear propeller must be generally less than for the forward propeller, the difference increasing the blade angle. The tests showed that, at maximum efficiency, the tandem propellers absorb about double the power of three-blade propellers and about 8% more power than six-blade propellers having the pitch of the forward propeller of the tandem combination. The maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was found to be from 2-15% greater than for six-blade propellers, the difference varying directly with blade angle. It was also found that the maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was greater than that of a three-blade propeller for blade angles at 0.75R of 25 degrees or more. The difference in maximum efficiency again varied directly with blade angle, being about 9% for 65 degrees at 0.75R.
Date: October 1, 1939
Creator: Lesley, E. P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Tests of the Effect of Rivet Heads, etc., on the Water Performance of a Seaplane Float, Special Report

Description: A 1/3.5 full-size model of the Mark V float of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, was tested in the NACA tank both with smooth painted bottom surfaces and with roundhead rivets, plate laps, and keel plates fitted to simulate the actual bottom of a metal float. The augmentation in water resistance due to the added roughness was found to be from 10-12% at the hum speed and from 12-14% at high speeds. The effect of the roughness of the afterbody was found to be negligible except at high trims. The model data were extrapolated to full size by the usual method which assumes the forces to vary according to Froude's law, and in the case of the smooth model by a method of separation that takes into account the effect of scale on the frictional resistance. It was concluded that the effect of rivet heads on the takeoff performance of a relatively high-powered float seaplane is of little consequence but that it may be of greater importance in the case of more moderately powered flying boats.
Date: June 4, 1936
Creator: Parkinson, J. B. & Robertson, J. B., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressibility Burble

Description: Development of airfoil sections suitable for high-speed applications has generally been difficult because little was known of the flow phenomenon that occurs at high speeds. A definite critical speed has been found at which serious detrimental flow changes occur that lead to serious losses in lift and large increases in drag. This flow phenomenon, called the compressibility burble, was originally a propeller problem, but with the development of higher speed aircraft serious consideration must be given to other parts of the airplane. Fundamental investigations of high-speed airflow phenomenon have provided new information. An important conclusion of this work has been the determination of the critical speed, that is, the speed at which the compressibility burble occurs. The critical speed was shown to be the translational velocity at which the sum of the translational velocity and the maximum local induced velocity at the surface of the airfoil or other body equals the local speed of sound. Obviously then higher critical speeds can be attained through the development of airfoils that have minimum induced velocity for any given value of the lift coefficient. Presumably, the highest critical speed will be attained by an airfoil that has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity or, in other words, a flat pressure distribution curve. The ideal airfoil for any given high-speed application is, then, that form which at its operating lift coefficient has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity. Accordingly, an analytical search for such airfoil forms has been conducted and these forms are now being investigated experimentally in the 23-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The first airfoils investigated showed marked improvement over those forms already available, not only as to critical speed buy also the drag at low speeds is decreased considerably. Because of the immediate marked improvement, it was considered desirable to extend the ...
Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Stack, John
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft, Special Report

Description: Various transparent organic plastics, including both commercially available and experimental materials, have been examined to determine their suitability for use as flexible windshields on aircraft, The properties which have been studied include light transmission, haziness, distortion, resistance to weathering, scratch and indentation hardness, impact strength, dimensional stability, resistance to water and various cleaning fluids, bursting strength at normal and low temperatures, and flammability.
Date: May 1, 1937
Creator: Axilrod, Benjamin M. & Kline, Gordon M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft. Supplement

Description: This supplement to a NACA study issued in May 1937 entitled "A Study of Transparent Plastics for Use on Aircraft", contains two tables. These tables contain data on bursting strengths of plastics, particularly at low temperatures. Table 1 contains the values reported in a table of the original memorandum, and additional values obtained at approximately 25 C, for three samples of Acrylate resin. The second table contains data obtained for the bursting strength when one surface of the plastic was cooled to approximately -35 C.
Date: August 1, 1937
Creator: Axilrod, Benjamin M. & Kline, Gordon M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report

Description: In many installations of castering rubber-tired wheels there is a tendency for the wheel to oscillate violently about the spindle axis. This phenomenon, popularly called 'shimmy,' has occurred in some airplane tail wheels and has been corrected in two ways: first by the application of friction in the spindles of the tail wheels; and, second, by locking the wheels while taxiing at high speeds. Shimmy is common with the large wheels used as nose wheels in tricycle landing gears and, since it is impossible to lock the wheels, friction in the nose-wheel spindle has been the sole means of correction. Because the nose wheel is larger than the conventional tail wheel and usually carries a greater load, the larger amounts of spindle friction necessary to prevent shimmy are objectionable. the present paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the problem of the stability of castering wheels for airplane landing gears. On the basis of simplified assumptions induced from experimental observations, a theoretical study has been made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called 'kinematic shimmy' and is compared quantitatively with the results of model experiments. Experimental checks, using a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy - lateral freedom - is introduced.
Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistics of the Bureau Veritas

Description: Statistics are indispensable factors for the amelioration of safety. Through the reconciliation of accidents which may appear isolated to interested parties, they permit tracking of typical causes of accidents; conversely, they can prevent, after a serious accident due to some fortuitous cause, the taking of incautious measures under the pressure of public opinion, which always inclines to gauge the gravity of the causes by that of the results. Lastly, they permit appraisal of the efficacy of rules in force. We should add that statistics provide an agency of prevention for future accidents. A careful inspection of all signs of malfunction of material quite often prevents the occurrence of an accident. In this respect, many pilot's report, perfectly normal in every way as far as operation is concerned, can reveal much more interesting technical data than an accident, although it does not diminish the importance of statistics. Therefore, from the inception of its aeronautical service, at the end of 1922, the Bureau Veritas has kept annual statistics of all accidents which occurred in French civil aviation. In order to correctly perform their proper function, the statistics must be exact and sufficiently explicit and complete. To be exact, they must bear on all pertinent events, and on these alone. It is a matter then, first of all, defining the accident in such a way that no sinister detail bearing on the definition may escape control. The consideration of accidents to personnel only has appeared too limited. One of the essential qualities of statistics is to permit the taking of averages and in consequence to apply them ot a sufficiently large number; such is happily not the case in accidents to personnel.
Date: March 1, 1932
Creator: Volmerange, Andre
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Present Status of Lateral-Control Devices for use with Split Flaps, Special Report

Description: The increased use of split flaps for the dual purpose of reducing the landing speed and shortening the landing glide of airplanes has established as acute the problem of obtaining satisfactory lateral control to be used in conjunction with the flaps with out the sacrifice of any of the effectiveness of the flaps. A large amount of work is being done on this problem by various organizations and individuals. Several of the devices developed seem usable, some of them unquestionably so. The present paper attempts to summarize the most promising results obtained to date. Topics covered include ordinary ailerons, external ailerons, floating ailerons, upper-surface ailerons, and spoilers. Although the external ailerons above the trailing edge of the wing and the spoilers at the rear of the wing appear quite promising, it would seem that probably the most satisfactory immediate solution of the problem, including the obtaining of light and smoothly graduated control forces, would in most cases be obtained by the use of the arrangement in which the flap is retracted ahead of ordinary narrow-chord ailerons and is deflected to the rear as well as downward when in use.
Date: August 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Distribution on the Fuselage of a Midwing Airplane Model at High Speeds

Description: The pressure distribution on the fuselage of a midwing airplane model was measured in the NACA 8-foot high speed wind tunnel at speeds from 140 to 440 miles per hour for lift coefficients ranging from -0.2 to 1.0. The primary purpose of the tests was to provide data showing the air pressures on various parts of the fuselage for use in structural design. The data may also be used for the design of scoops and vents. The results show that the highest negative pressures occurred near the wing and were more dependent on the wing than on the fuselage. At high speeds, the magnitude of the pressure coefficients as predicted from pressure coefficients determined experimentally at low speeds by application of the theoretical factor 1/(square root)1-M(exp 2) (where M is the ratio of the air speed to the speed of sound in air) may misrepresent the actual conditions. At the points where the maximum negative pressures ocurred, however, the variation of the pressure coefficients was in good agreement with the theoretical factor, indicating that this factor may afford satisfactory predictions of critical speed, at least for fuselages similar to the shape tested.
Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Delano, James B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Profile-Drag Investigation of an Airplane Wing Equipped with Rubber Inflatable De-Icer

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has made profile-drag measurements in flight of a wing which was equipped with a rubber inflatable de-icer and to which various stimulated ice formations were attached. Tuft observations at the stalling speed of the wing with the various drag conditions were made in order to determine the influence on the maximum lift coefficient. The de-icer installation caused an increase of from 10-20% in the profile drag of the plain wing and reduced CL(sub max) about 6%. Simulated ice, when confined to the leading-edge region of the de-icer, had no measurable influence upon the profile drag at the cruising speed. This ice condition, however, reduced the value of CL(sub max) to about three-fourths that of the plain wing. Simulated ice in the form of a ridge along the upper and lower de-icer cap-strips increased the profile drag by about 360% at cruising speed. This condition reduced the CL(sub max) to approximately one-half that of the plain wing value.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A. & Jones, Alun R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiator Design and Installation

Description: The fundamental principles of fluid flow, pressure losses, and heat transfer have been presented and analyzed for the case of a smooth tube with fully developed turbulent flow. These equations apply to tubes with large length-diameter ratios where the f1ow is at a high Reynolds Number. The error introduced by using these equations increases as the magnitude of the tube length and the air-flow Reynolds Number approaches the values encountered in modern radiator designs. Accordingly, heat-transfer tests on radiator sections were made and the results are presented in nondimensional form to facilitate their use and for comparison with other heat-transfer data. In addition, pressure losses were measured along smooth tubes of circular, square, and rectangular cross section and the results were also correlated and are presented in nondimensional form. The problem of a radiator design for a particular installation is solved, the experimental heat-transfer and pressure-loss data being used, on a basis of power chargeable to the radiator for form drag, for propelling the weight, and for forcing the air through the radiator. The case of an installation within a wing or an engine nacelle is considered. An illustration of radiator design is carried through for an arbitrary set of conditions. Sufficient detail is given to enable the reader to reproduce the analysis for any given case.
Date: May 1, 1939
Creator: Brevoort, M.J. & Leifer, M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relative Efficiencies and Design Charts for Various Engine-Propeller Combinations, Special Report

Description: The relative efficiencies of various engine-propeller combinations were the subject of a study that covered the important flight conditions, particularly the take-off. Design charts that graphically correlate the various propeller parameters were prepared to facilitate the solution of problems and also to c1arify the conception of the relationships of the various engine-propeller design factors. It is shown that, among the many methods for improving the take-off thrust, the use of high-pitch, large-diameter controllable propellers turning at low rotational speeds is probably the most generally promising. With such a combination the take-off thrust may be further increased, at the expense of a small loss in cruising efficiency, by compromise designs wherein the pitch setting is slightly reduced and the diameter is further increased. The degree of compromise necessary to accomplish the maximum possible take-off improvement depends on such design factors as overspeeding and overboosting at take-off as well as depending on the design altitude. Both overspeeding and designing for altitude operation have the same effect on the take-off thrust as compromising in that the propulsive efficiency is increased thereby; boosting the engine, however, has the reverse effect on the propulsive efficiency, although the brake horsepower is increased.
Date: September 1, 1936
Creator: Biermann, David
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Relative Hydrodynamic Resistance of Various Types of Rivet Heads from Tests of Planning Surfaces, Special Report

Description: The Committee was requested to investigate the effect of various types of rivet heads on hydrodynamic resistance. The proposal was made to obtain the resistance of the various types of rivets by tests of planing surfaces on which the full size rivets would be arranged. The testing methods, results and conclusions are given.
Date: July 1, 1935
Creator: Truscott, Starr & Parksinson, John B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resume of Present Data on Load Distribution on Slots and Flaps, Special Report

Description: This report covers a study of the generally available data on load distribution on slots and flaps. The study was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Material Division, Army Air Corps to furnish information applicable to design criteria for slots and flaps of various types. The data are presented in three main sections: slots (Handley page type), auxiliary airfoils (fixed), and flaps.
Date: April 1, 1934
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. IV - Manufacturing Irregularities, 5, Manufacturing Irregularities

Description: Tests were made in the NACA 8-foot high speed wind tunnel of a metal-covered, riveted, 'service' wing of average workmanship to determine the aerodynamic effects of the manufacturing irregularities incident to shop fabrication. The wing was of 5-foot chord and of NACA 23012 section and was tested in the low-lift range at speeds from 90 to 450 miles per hour corresponding to Reynolds numbers from 4,000,000 to 18,000,000. At a cruising condition the drag of the service wing was 46% higher than the drag of a smooth airfoil, whereas the drag of an accurately constructed airfoil having the same arrangement of 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets and lap joints showed a 29% increase. The difference, or 17% of the smooth-wing drag, is apparently the drag caused by the manufacturing irregularities: sheet waviness, departures from true profile, and imperfect laps. the service wing, for one condition at least, showed a drag increase due to compressibility at a lower air speed than did the more accurate airfoil.
Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Robinson, Russell G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Electrical-Type Indicating Fuel Flowmeter

Description: An electrical-type meter has been developed for measuring mass rates of flow of gasoline or other nonconducting fluids. Its temperature dependence is small over a large range and it has no known vibrational or viscosity errors. The maximum temperature rise is less than 5 C. The rates of flow, measurable within 1% with the present instrument, are approximately 100 to 1,000 or more pounds of gasoline per hour when a potentiometer is used, or 100 to 300 pounds per hour when a deflection-type meter is used.
Date: September 1, 1939
Creator: Tozier, Robert E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag and Propulsive Characteristics of Air-Cooled Engine-Nacelle Installations for Large Airplanes, Special Report

Description: An investigation is in progress in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle sizes. In contrast with the usual tests with a single nacelle, these tests were conducted with nacelle-propeller installations on a large model of a 4-engine airplane. Data are presented on the first part of the investigation, covering seven nacelle arrangements with nacelle diameters from 0.53 to 1.5 times the wing thickness. These ratios are similar to those occurring on airplane weighing from about 20 to 100 tons. The results show that the drag, the propulsive efficiency, and the overall efficiency of the various nacelle arrangements as functions of the nacelle size, the propeller position, and the airplane lift coefficient. The effect of the nacelles on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model are shown for both propeller-removed and propeller-operating conditions.
Date: August 1, 1939
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Wilson, Herbert A., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Lateral Inclination of the Thrust Axis and of Sweepback of the Leading Edge of the Wing on Propulsive and Net Efficiencies of a Wing-Nacelle-Propeller Combination

Description: This report describes and gives the results of tests made to determine the effect of lateral inclination of the propeller thrust axis to the direction of flight. A wing-nacelle-propeller combination with the nacelle axis located successively parallel to and at 15 degrees to the perpendicular to the leading edge of a wing was tested with the combination at several angles of yaw. Tests of the wing alone at the same angles of yaw were also made. The data are presented in the usual graphic form. An increase in propulsive efficiency with increase in angle of the thrust axis was found. The change in net efficiency, found by charging the whole nacelle drag to the power unit, was negligible, however, within the range of the tests.
Date: April 1, 1935
Creator: Wood, Donald H. & Windler, Ray
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Streamlining the Afterbody of an N.A.C.A. Cowling

Description: The drag and the power cost associated with the changing of the nose of a nacelle from a streamline shape to a conventional N.A.C.A. cowling shape was investigated in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot tunnel. Full-scale propellers and nacelles were used. The increment of drag associated with the change of nose shapes was found to be critically dependent on the afterbody of the nacelle. Two streamline afterbodies were tested. The results fo the tests with the more streamlined afterbody showed that the added drag due to the open-nose cowling was only one-fourth of the drag increase obtained with the other afterbody. The results of this research indicate that the power cost, in excess of that with a streamline nose, of using an N.A.C.A. cowling in front of a well-designed afterbody to enclose a 1,500-horsepower engine in an airplane with a speed of 300 miles per hour amounts to 1.5 percent of the engine power. If the open-nose cowling is credited with 1 percent because it cools the front of the cylinders, the non-useful power cost amounts to only 0.5 percent of the engine power.
Date: December 1, 1939
Creator: Stickle, George W.; Crigler, John L. & Naiman, Irven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department