National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 1,358 Matching Results

Search Results

The 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: This report presents a description of the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel and associated apparatus of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Included also are calibration test results and characteristic test data of both static force tests and autorotation tests made in the tunnel.
Date: 1933
Creator: Harris, Thomas A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number

Description: This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report.
Date: October 1939
Creator: Peschard, Marcel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 1929 Rhon soaring-flight contest

Description: The limitation of the 1929 contest to performance gliders necessitated the establishment of a formula which would make it possible to distinguish between performance gliders and school and training gliders. The sinking speed was therefore adopted as the basis for such a distinction, and the requirement was made that the sinking speed of a performance glider should not exceed 0.8 m/s. The rest of the report details the different entries with regard to design and performance.
Date: April 1930
Creator: Lippisch, Alexander
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charts expressing the time, velocity, and altitude relations for an airplane diving in a standard atmosphere

Description: In this report charts are given showing the relation between time, velocities, and altitude for airplanes having various terminal velocities diving in a standard atmosphere. The range of starting altitudes is from 8,000 to 32,000 feet, and the terminal velocities vary from 150 to 550 miles per hour. A comparison is made between an experimental case and the results obtained from the charts. Examples pointing out the use of the charts are included.
Date: April 1, 1937
Creator: Pearson, H A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charts for determining the pitching moment of tapered wings with sweepback and twist

Description: This report presents a convenient method for calculating the pitching-moment characteristics of tapered wings with sweepback and twist. The method is based on the fact that the pitching-moment characteristics of a wing may be specified by giving the value of the pitching moment at zero lift and the location of the axis about which the axis is constant. Data for calculating these characteristics are presented by curves which apply to wings having a linear distribution of twist along the span and which cover a large range of aspect ratios. The curves are given for wings having straight taper and distorted elliptical plan forms. The characteristics of wings of other shapes may be determined by interpolation.
Date: December 1, 1933
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculations of the effect of wing twist on the air forces acting on a monoplane wing

Description: A method is presented for calculating the aerodynamic forces on a moncylane wing, taking into account the elastic twisting of the wing due to these forces. The lift distribution along the span is calculated by the formulas of Amstutz as a function of the geometrical characteristics of the wing and of the twist at stations 60 and 90 percent of the semispan. The twist for a given lift distribution is calculated by means of influence lines. As a numerical example, the forces on a Swiss military D.2V airplane are calculated. Comparisons with the strip method and with the ordinary stress-analysis method are also given.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Datwyler, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Complete Tank Test of a Model of a Flying-Boat Hull - N.A.C.A. Model No.11

Description: This note discusses the limitations of the conventional tank test of a seaplane model. The advantages of a complete test, giving the characteristics of the model at all speeds, loads, and trim angles in the useful range are pointed out. The data on N.A.C.A. Model No.11, obtained from a complete test, are presented and discussed. The results are analyzed to determine the best trim angle for each speed and load. The data for the best angles are reduced to non-dimensional form for ease of comparison and application. A practical problem using the characteristics of model no.11 is presented to show the method of calculating the take-off time and run of a seaplane from these data.
Date: July 1, 1933
Creator: Shoemaker, James M. & Parkinson, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The calculated effect of trailing-edge flaps on the take-off of flying boats

Description: The results of take-off calculations are given for an application of simple trailing-edge flaps to two hypothetical flying boats, one having medium wing and power loading and consequently considerable excess of thrust over total resistance during the take-off run, the other having high wing and power loading and a very low excess thrust. For these seaplanes the effect of downward flap settings was: (1) to increase the total resistance below the stalling speed, (2) to decrease the get-away speed, (3) to improve the take-off performance of the seaplane having considerable excess thrust, and (4) to hinder the take-off of the seaplane having low excess thrust. It is indicated that flaps would allow a decrease in the high angles of wing setting necessary with most seaplanes, provided that the excess thrust is not too low.
Date: November 1, 1934
Creator: Parkinson, J E & Bell, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculated effect of various types of flap on take-off over obstacles

Description: In order to determine whether or not flaps could be expected to have any beneficial effect on take-off performance, the distances required to take off and climb to an altitude of 50 feet were calculated for hypothetical airplanes, corresponding to relatively high-speed types and equipped with several types of flap. The types considered are the Fowler wing, the Hall wing, the split flap, the balanced split flap, the plain flap, and the external-airfoil flap. The results indicate that substantial reductions in take-off distance are possible through the use of flaps, provided that the proper flap angle corresponding to a given set of conditions is used. The best flap angle for taking off varies inversely as power loading and, to a much smaller extent, varies inversely with wing loading. Apparently, the best take-off characteristics are provided by the type of device in which the flap forms an extension to the main wing as in the case of the Fowler wing and the external-airfoil flap.
Date: May 1, 1936
Creator: Wetmore, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boosted performance of a compression-ignition engine with a displaced piston

Description: Performance tests were made using a rectangular displacer arranged so that the combustion air was forced through equal passages at either end of the displacer into the vertical-disk combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition test engine. After making tests to determine optimum displacer height, shape, and fuel-spray arrangement, engine-performance tests were made at 1,500 and 2,000 r.p.m. for a range of boost pressures from 0 to 20 inches of mercury and for maximum cylinder pressures up to 1,150 pounds per square inch. The engine operation for boosted conditions was very smooth, there being no combustion shock even at the highest maximum cylinder pressures. Indicated mean effective pressures of 240 pounds per square inch for fuel consumptions of 0.39 pound per horsepower-hour have been readily reproduced during routine testing at 2,000 r.p.m. at a boost pressure of 20 inches of mercury.
Date: May 1, 1936
Creator: Moore, Charles S & Foster, Hampton H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of air and fuel oil temperatures on spray penetration and dispersion

Description: Presented here are experimental results obtained from a brief investigation of the appearance, penetration, and dispersion of oil sprays injected into a chamber of highly heated air at atmospheric pressure. The development of single sprays injected into a chamber containing air at room temperature and at high temperature was recorded by spray photography equipment. A comparison of spray records showed that with the air at the higher temperature, the spray assumed the appearance of thin, transparent cloud, the greatest part of which rapidly disappeared from view. With the chamber air at room temperature, a compact spray with an opaque core was obtained. Measurements of the records showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in the dispersion of the spray injected into the heated air. No ignition of the fuel injected was observed or recorded until the spray particles came in contact with the much hotter walls of the chamber about 0.3 second after the start of injection.
Date: May 1, 1930
Creator: Gelalles, A. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some characteristics of fuel sprays at low-injection pressures

Description: This report presents the results of tests conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, Va., to determine some of the characteristics of the fuel sprays obtained from an 0.008-inch and a 0.020-inch open nozzle when injection pressures from 100 to 500 pounds per square inch were used. Fuel oil and gasoline were injected into air at densities of atmospheric land 0.325 pound per cubic foot. It was found that the penetration rate at these low pressures was about the same as the rate obtained with higher pressures. Spray cone-angles were small and individual oil drops were visible in all the sprays. Gasoline and fuel oil sprays had similar characteristics.
Date: November 1, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some characteristics of fuel sprays from open nozzles

Description: The penetration and cone-angle of fuel sprays from open nozzles were recorded with the NACA Spray Photography Equipment. The results show that for injection systems in which the rate of pressure rise at the discharge orifice is high, open nozzles give spray-tip velocities and penetrations which compare favorably with those of closed nozzles. The spray cone-angle was the same for all tests, although open nozzles having different orifice diameters were used, and one nozzle was used both as an open and as a closed nozzle. In designing a fuel system using open nozzles, particular care must be taken to avoid air pockets. The check valve should be placed close to the discharge orifice.
Date: November 1, 1930
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Lee, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limitations of the pilot in applying forces to airplane controls

Description: Measurements were made to determine the relative maximum forces a pilot can exert on the controls of an airplane with the view of obtaining systematic data upon which to base the location of controls within the cockpit and the design of the control surfaces. A cockpit model of generous proportions, capable of being rotated to any attitude, was built with the location of the control stick and rudder pedals adjustable over a wide range of positions with respect to the seat. Besides measurements of maximum forces obtainable with various control locations and with the pilot in several attitudes, estimates of forces within the range normally encountered in flight were made to gain an indication of the accuracy of estimating control forces. The maximum aileron forces measured were of the order of 90 pounds, maximum elevator 200 pounds, and maximum rudder 450 pounds. The average forces applied with the controls in the neutral position for the various cockpit attitudes were of the order of 35, 95, and 400 pounds, respectively, for the ailerons, elevators, and rudder.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gough, M. N. & Beard, A. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of calculating the performance of controllable propellers with sample computations

Description: This paper contains a series of calculations showing how the performance of controllable propellers may be derived from data on fixed-pitch propellers given in N.A.C.A. Technical Report No. 350, or from similar data. Sample calculations are given which compare the performance of airplanes with fixed-pitch and with controllable propellers. The gain in performance with controllable propellers is shown to be largely due to the increased power available, rather than to an increase in efficiency. Controllable propellers are of particular advantage when used with geared and with supercharged engines. A controllable propeller reduces the take-off run, increases the rate of climb and the ceiling, but does not increase the high speed, except when operating above the design altitude of the previously used fixed-pitch propeller or when that propeller was designed for other than high speed.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration and lag of a Friez type cup anemometer

Description: Tests on a Friez type cup anemometer have been made in the variable density wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to calibrate the instrument and to determine its suitability for velocity measurements of wind gusts. The instrument was calibrated against a Pitot-static tube placed directly above the anemometer at air densities corresponding to sea level, and to an altitude of approximately 6000 feet. Air-speed acceleration tests were made to determine the lag in the instrument reading. The calibration results indicate that there should be an altitude correction. It is concluded that the cup anemometer is too sluggish for velocity measurements of wind gusts.
Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Loss, Velocity Distribution, and Temperature Distribution for a Baffled Cylinder Model

Description: A study has been made of the important principles involved in the operation of a baffle for an engine cylinder and shows that cooling can be improved by 20 percent by using a correctly designed baffle. Such a gain is as effective as a 65 percent increase in pressure drop across the standard baffle, which had a 1/4 inch clearance between baffle and fin tips.
Date: October 1, 1937
Creator: Brevoort, Maurice J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department