National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 167 Matching Results

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Adaptation of aeronautical engines to high altitude flying

Description: Report discussing Issues and techniques relative to the adaptation of aircraft engines to high altitude flight. Covered here are the limits of engine output, modifications and characteristics of high altitude engines, the influence of air density on the proportions of fuel mixtures, methods of varying the proportions of fuel mixtures, the automatic prevention of fuel waste, and the design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying. Summary: 1. Limits of engine output. 2. High altitude engines. 3. Influence of air density on proportions of mixture. 4. Methods of varying proportions of mixture. 5. Automatic prevention of fuel waste. 6. Design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying.
Date: May 1923
Creator: Kutzbach, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model supports and their effects on the results of wind tunnel tests

Description: The airflow about a model while being tested is often sufficiently affected by the model support to lead to erroneous conclusions unless appropriate corrections are used. In this paper some new material on the subject is presented, together with a review of the airfoil support corrections used in several other laboratories.
Date: February 1, 1923
Creator: Bacon, David L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The N.A.C.A. recording tachometer and angle of attack recorder

Description: This note contains photos and descriptions of airplane flight apparatus for use in conjunction with a recording galvanometer. In measuring the angle of attack a variable resistance is used, being controlled by a vane in the airstream. Thus it is only necessary to measure the change of resistance.
Date: August 1, 1923
Creator: Reid, H J E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The flexible mounting of an airplane engine

Description: Discussed here is the suggested installation of the 'unbalanced' 8-cylinder VE-engine. The suggestion was that a flexible mounting be used instead of bolting the engine rigidly to the airplane structure. It was concluded that a flexible connection between the engine and the airplane is probably possible. A flexible connection primarily diminishes the vibrations due to inertia and, to a lesser degree, those due to torque variation. However, engines vibrate more when freely suspended than when rigidly mounted, and this vibration has a detrimental effect on all connections between the engine and the airplane. Therefore, in view of the relatively insignificant advantages which may be derived from the elastic suspension of the engine, the present rigid mounting is to be preferred. Vibration reduction can be achieved by incorporating in the fuselage as many of the rigid airplane parts as possible.
Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Kutzbach, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speed measurements made by Division "A" of the airplane director

Description: The various speeds of an airplane can only be measured in horizontal flight, since there are no means for measuring the angle of ascent or descent. The measurements must be corrected for the density of the air. This is obtained by simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements during flight. Calculation from the mean yearly values in accordance with Everling's suggestion can only be considered an approximation, since the distribution of pressure and temperature in the individual strata at different altitudes undergoes such large variations that the yearly mean gives inaccurate values. Thermographs of the present form are useless for temperature measurements of an airplane. In altitude data, the following are to be distinguished: the height above the earth, the barometric altitude, and the altitude corresponding to the yearly mean air density. Variometers are not suited for the mechanical control of high altitude flight.
Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Heidelberg, V & Hoelzel, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Notes on the design of ailerons

Description: Recent data have shown that certain forms or types of ailerons that are in extensive use are in reality quite inefficient and entirely unsuited for the high speeds now realized. The same data indicate that two forms (both shown here) are efficient and satisfactory in every way. The most important characteristics of ailerons are effectiveness under all flight conditions, small moments about the hinge, high efficiency (small yawing moment opposing turn), and simplicity in construction. Information required for the design of ailerons is given for chord, span, area, and plan form.
Date: June 1, 1923
Creator: Diehl, W S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An instrument for recording the position of airplane control surfaces

Description: N.A.C.A. has developed an instrument which makes a continuous record of the angular position of the control surfaces of an airplane, not only in steady flight but during acrobatics as well. It has proven useful in researches into stability and controllability, and from records obtained from it many otherwise obscure details of piloting technique have been available for the instruction of pilots, from novices to seasoned experts.
Date: August 1, 1923
Creator: Ronan, K M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The decay of a simple eddy

Description: The principal result obtained in this report is a generalization of Taylor's formula for a simple eddy. The discussion of the properties of the eddy indicates that there is a slight analogy between the theory of eddies in a viscous fluid and the quantum theory of radiation. Another exact solution of the equations of motion of viscous fluid yields a result which reminds one of the well-known condition for instability in the case of a horizontally stratified atmosphere.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Bateman, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The six-component wind balance

Description: Dr. Zahm's report is a description of the six-component wind-tunnel balance in use at the Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard. The description of the balance gives the mechanical details and the method of operation, and is accompanied by line drawings showing the construction of the balance. The balance is of particular interest, as it allows the model to be set up quickly and accurately in roll, pitch, and yaw, without stopping the wind. It is possible to measure automatically, directly, and independently the drag, cross-wind force, and lift; also the rolling, pitching, and yawing moments. It is also possible to make the balance self-recording.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard atmosphere

Description: This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Gregg, Willis Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests on air propellers in yaw

Description: This report contains the results of tests to determine the thrust (pull) and torque characteristics of air propellers in movement relative to the air in a line oblique to the line of the shaft, and specifically when such angle of obliquity is large, as in the case of helicopter flight with the propeller serving for both sustentation and traction.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal stresses in laminated construction

Description: This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Heim, A L; Knauss, A C & Seutter, Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental research on air propellers V

Description: In previous reports on experimental research on air propellers, by W. F. Durand and E. P. Lesley, as contained in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics reports nos. 14, 30, and 64, the investigations were made progressively and each without reference to results given in preceding reports and covering only information relating to forms perhaps adjacent in geometrical form and proportion. This report is a review of the entire series of results of the preceding reports with a view of examining through graphical and other appropriate means the nature of the history of the characteristics of operation as related to the systematic variations in characteristics of forms, etc., through the series of such characteristics.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damping coefficients due to tail surfaces in aircraft

Description: The object of the investigation described in this report was to compare the damping coefficients of an airfoil as calculated from a knowledge of the static characteristics of the section with those obtained experimentally with an oscillation. The damping coefficients as obtained, according to the conventional notation, can be considered either as due to pitching or as due to yawing, the oscillation in these experiments being so arranged that the surfaces oscillate about a vertical axis. This is in reality the case when the influence is yawing about the standard Z-axis, but it can also be considered as a pitching motion when the model is so rigged that its standard Y-axis becomes vertical. The horizontal oscillation has the advantage of eliminating the gravity action and avoiding the use of counterweights, whose presence in the wind tunnel is undesirable because of their interference with the air flow. The real point of the investigation was to separate the damping due to rotation from that due to translation. By varying the distance between the center of pressure and the center of rotation on the oscillator, the variation of damping moment can be observed and the rotational and translational effects can be separated.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Chu, Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

Description: For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.
Date: November 1, 1923
Creator: Weiselsberger, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of experimental flights at high altitudes with Daimler, Benz and Maybach engines to determine mixture formation and heat utilization of fuel

Description: The experimental flights described herein were made with the object of obtaining information regarding the following two questions, which as yet have not been sufficiently elucidated. These are: 1. What effect has altitude upon the formation of the mixture? 2. What alteration takes place, with increasing altitude, in the utilization of the heat contained in the fuel?.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Kutzbach, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department