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The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptor for measuring principal strains with Tuckerman strain gage

Description: Report discussing an adapter which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.
Date: June 1943
Creator: Mcpherson, A E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbulent flow between rotating cylinders

Description: The turbulent air flow between rotating cylinders was investigated. The distributions of mean speed and of turbulence were measured in the gap between a rotating inner and a stationary outer cylinder. The measurements led to the conclusion that the turbulent flow in the gap cannot be considered two dimensional, but that a particular type of secondary motion takes place. It is shown that the experimentally found velocity distribution can be fully understood under the assumption that this secondary motion consists of three-dimensional ring-shape vortices. The vortices occur only in pairs, and their number and size depend on the speed of the rotating cylinder; the number was found to decrease with increasing speed. The secondary motion has an essential part in the transmission of the moment of momentum. In regions where the secondary motion is negligible, the momentum transfer follows the laws known for homologous turbulence. Ring-shape vortices are known to occur in the laminar flow between rotating cylinders, but it was hitherto unknown that they exist even at speeds that are several hundred times the critical limit.
Date: March 1, 1943
Creator: Shih-I, Pai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

Description: Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr & Jones, Anthony W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of aluminum-alloy stiffened-sheet specimens cut from an airplane wing

Description: The specimens used in the present tests were cut from an actual airplane wing of the stressed-skin type. The specimens thus obtained were not representative of the usual type of laboratory specimens because the stiffeners were not exactly parallel nor evenly spaced and, in one case, the skin consisted of pieces of sheet of different thicknesses. The test data obtained indicate that the buckling strain of stiffened curved sheet can be computed with reasonable accuracy by the equation given by Wenzek. The ultimate loads of the specimens when tested as flat sheet were within +/-11 percent of the product of the compressive yield strength and the cross-sectional area of the stiffeners. A rivet spacing equal to 98 times the sheet thickness was a source of weakness, and rivet spacings up to 36 times the sheet thickness appeared satisfactory.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Holt, Marshall
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A portable calibrator for dynamic strain gages

Description: A portable device for calibrating dynamic strain gages is described. The device contains a motor-driven cam, which applies alternating tensile loads to a metal strip 5/8 inch wide and 6 1/4 inches long. The cam is designed to produce a nearly sinusoidal variation of strain with time. Dynamic strain gages with gage lengths up to 5 inches may be calibrated by mounting them on the strip and by changing the frequency and the amplitude of the tensile load. The frequency may be varied from 15 to 30 cycles per second and the strain amplitude from 0 to 10x10-4 in steps of 2x10-4.
Date: February 1, 1943
Creator: Mcpherson, Albert E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface

Description: An iteration method is employed to obtain the flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface. The first approximation which leads to the Prandtl-Glauert rule, is based on the assumption that the flow differs but little from a pure translation. The iteration process then consists in improving this first approximation in order that it will apply to a flow differing from pure translatory motion to a greater degree. The method fails when the Mach number of the undisturbed stream reaches unity but permits a transition from subsonic to supersonic conditions without the appearance of a compression shock. The limiting value at which potential flow no longer exits is indicated by the apparent divergence of the power series representing the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the solid boundary.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bearing strengths of some wrought-aluminum alloys

Description: Although a number of investigations of the bearing strength of aluminum alloys have been made, the problem remains one of considerable interest to the aircraft industry. For this reason it has seemed advisable to make additional tests of the commonly used aircraft alloys in an effort to establish a better basis for the selection of allowable bearing values. Current design practice does not recognize the effect of edge distance upon bearing strengths, and for this reason edge distance was one of the principal variables considered in this investigation. The increasing emphasis being placed upon permanent set limitations makes it essential that more information on bearing yield phenomena be obtained. The object of this investigation was to determine bearing yield and ultimate strengths of the following aluminum alloy products: 17S-T, 24S-T, Alclad 24S-T, 24S-RT, 52S-0, 52S-1/2H, 52S-H, 53S-T, and 61S-T extrusions. Ratios of these bearing properties to tensile properties were also determined.
Date: August 1, 1943
Creator: Moore, R L & Wescoat, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bearing tests of magnesium-alloy sheet

Description: Bearing tests of AM-3S, AM-52S, and AM-C57S magnesium-alloy sheet in various thicknesses and tempers were made. Bearing yield and ultimate strengths were determined and compared for various edge distances and for various ratios of loading-pin diameter to sheet thickness. Tensile strengths were determined and ratios of average bearing yield and ultimate strength to tensile strength are given. The results of the tests indicated that ultimate bearing strengths increased with edge distances up to 1.5 to 2 times the diameter of the loading pin; that ultimate bearing strengths are a function of the ratio of pin diameter to sheet thickness; and that these properties are effected only slightly by increases in edge distance greater than 1.5 diameters.
Date: June 1, 1943
Creator: Sharp, W H & Moore, R L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some investigations of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders VII : stiffened metal cylinders subjected to combined bending and torsion

Description: This report summarizes the work that has been carried on in the experimental investigation of the problem of the general instability of stiffened metal cylinders subjected to combined bending and torsion at the C.I.T. This part of the investigation included tests on 26 sheet-covered specimens. An interaction curve for the case of combined bending and torsion is presented. The results of tests of 17 specimens subjected to pure torsion are also given.
Date: November 1, 1943
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-deflection theory for end compression of long rectangular plates rigidly clamped along two edges

Description: The von Karman equations for flat plates are solved beyond the buckling load up to edge strains equal to eight time the buckling strain, for the extreme case of rigid clamping along the edges parallel to the load. Deflections, bending stresses, and membrane stresses are given as a function of end compressive load. The theoretical values of effective width are compared with the values derived for simple support along the edges parallel to the load. The increases in effective width due to rigid clamping drops from about 20 percent near the buckling strain to about 8 percent at an edge strain equal to eight times the buckling strain. Experimental values of effective width in the elastic range reported in NACA Technical Note No. 684 are between the theoretical curves for the extremes of simple support and rigid clamping.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Levy, Samuel & Krupen, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Torsion of flanged members with cross sections restrained against warping

Description: The longitudinal stresses and the stiffness of flange members - I-beams, channels, and Z-bars - were investigated when these members were subjected to torque with constraint against cross-sectional warping. Measured angles of rotation agreed with corresponding calculated values in which the torsion bending factor of the cross section was involved; the agreement was better for the I-beam and the Z-bar than for the channel. Longitudinal stresses measured at the mid-span were found to agree with the calculated values that involved unit warping as well as the torsion-bending factors: the channel showed the greatest discrepancy between measured and calculated values. When commonly given expressions for rotations and maximum longitudinal stresses in a twisted I-beam were applied to the channel and to the Z-bar, values were obtained that were in reasonably good agreement with values obtained by the method of torsion-bending constant and unit warping.
Date: March 1, 1943
Creator: Hill, H N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Round heat-treated chromium-molybdenum-steel tubing under combined loads

Description: The results of tests of round heat-treated chromium-molybdenum-steel tubing are presented. Tests were made on tubing under axial load, bending load, torsional load, combined bending and axial load, combined bending and torsional load, and combined axial, bending, and torsional load. Tensile and compressive tests were made to determine the properties of the material. Formulas are given for the evaluation of the maximum strength of this steel tubing under individual or combined loads. The solution of an example is included to show the procedure to be followed in designing a tubular cantilever member to carry combined loads.
Date: July 1, 1943
Creator: Osgood, William R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The strength of thin-wall cylinders of D cross section in combined pure bending and torsion

Description: The results of tests of 56 cylinders of D cross section conducted in the Aeronautical Laboratory of the University of Maryland are presented in this report. These cylinders were subjected to pure bending and torsional moments of varying proportions to give the strength under combined loading conditions. The average buckling stress of these cylinders has been related to that of circumscribing circular cylinders for conditions of pure torsion and pure bending and the equation of the interaction curve has been determined for conditions of combined loading.
Date: September 1, 1943
Creator: Sherwood, A W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-deflection theory of curved sheet

Description: Equations are given for the elastic behavior of initially curved sheets in which the deflections are not small in comparison with the thickness, but at the same time small enough to justify the use of simplified formulas for curvature. These equations are solved for the case of a sheet with circular cylindrical shape simply supported along two edges parallel to the axis of the generating cylinder. Numerical results are given for three values of the curvature and for three ratios of buckle length to buckle width. The computations are carried to buckle deflections of about twice the sheet thickness. It was concluded that initial curvature may cause an appreciable increase in the buckling load but that, for edge strains which are several times the buckling strain, the initial curvature causes a negligibly small change in the effective width.
Date: May 1, 1943
Creator: Levy, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department