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Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61c Airplanes within Thunderstorms. III - July 12, 1946 to July 18, 1946 at Orlando, Florida, Part 3, July 12, 1946 to July 18, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: The gust and draft velocities evaluated from acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA instruments installed in P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 9, 10, and 11 of July 12, 1946, July 17, 1946, and July 18, 1946, respectively, are presented in references 1 and 2 for previous flights. In accordance with a recent discussion with a member of the U.S. Weather Bureau staff, motion-picture records of the pilots' instrument panels for the present flights were inspected to note variations in the readings of a milliammeter used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature. The inspection indicated that the instrument read zero throughout all traverses.
Date: November 5, 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning Tunnel Tests of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: A spin investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane, The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal-fighter condition. The investigation also included tests for the take-off fighter condition (wing-tip tanks plus fuel added) spin-recovery parachutes, and simulated pilot escape. In general, for the normal-fighter condition, the model was extremely oscillatory in roll, pitch, and yaw. The angles of the fuselage varied from extremely flat to inverted attitudes, and the model rotated with the rudder in a series of short turns and glides. Recoveries by rudder reversal were rapid but the model would immediately go into a spin in the other direction. Recoveries by merely neutralizing the rudder were satisfactory when the elevator and ailerons were set to neutral, the ensuing flight path being a steep glide. Thus, it is recommended that all controls be neutralized for safe recovery from spins obtained on the airplane. With the external wing-tip tanks installed, the spins were somewhat less oscillatory in roll but recovery could not be obtained unless full-down elevator was used in conjunction with the rudder. If a spin is entered inadvertently with the full-scale airplane with external wing-tip tanks installed and if recovery is not imminent after a recovery attempt is made, it is recommended that the tanks be jettisoned and the controls neutralized.
Date: November 5, 1946
Creator: Klinar, Walter J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Tests of an Alternate Hull Form for the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 Airplane

Description: Tests have been made in Langley tank no. I of a dynamic model of the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 airplane. These tests were made using an alternate hull form, the purpose of which was to reduce the bow spray and eliminate the landing instability which are objectionable features of the production design. The major differences from the PB2Y-3 hull included a deeper step to improve the landing stability , and a lengthened forebody and increased beam to reduce the sway in the propellers and on the flaps. The tests showed that the spray characteristics of the revised hull form were much better than that ot the production design. In addition the take-off and landing stability of the model with the alternate hull were satisfactory.
Date: November 6, 1946
Creator: Land, Norman S. & Posner, Jack
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Icing and Heated-air De-icing Characteristics of the R-2600-13 Induction System

Description: A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 ...
Date: November 11, 1946
Creator: Chapman, Gilbert E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Tests of 1/5.5-Scale Forward Dynamic Model of the Columbia XJL-1 Amphibian - Langley Tank Model 208, TED No. NACA 2336

Description: Tests of a powered dynamic model of the Columbia XJL-1 amphibian were made in Langley tank no.1 to determine the hydrodynamic stability and spray characteristics of the basic hull and to investigate the effects of modifications on these characteristics. Modifications to the forebody chime flare, the step, and the afterbody, and an increase in the angle of incidence of the wing were included in the test program. The seaworthiness and spray characteristics were studied from simulated taxi runs in smooth and rough water. The trim limits of stability, the range of stable positions of the enter of gravity for take-off, and the landing stability were determined in smooth water. The aerodynamic lift, pitching moment, and thrust were determined at speeds up to take-off speed.
Date: November 13, 1946
Creator: Havens, Robert F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Fuel Composition, Engine Operating Variables, and Spark-Plug Type and Condition on Preignition-Limited Performance of an R-2800 Cylinder

Description: The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and condition, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-limited performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition limit was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition limits of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order ...
Date: November 15, 1946
Creator: Pfender, John F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Wing Flaps and Wing Duct Inlet on the Lift and Stalling Characteristics of a 1/4-Scale Partial-Span Model of the Republic XF-12 Airplane in the Langley 19-Foot Pressure Tunnel

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel to determine the lift, drag, pitching-moment and stalling characteristics fo a 1/4 -scale partial-span model of the left wing of the Republic XF-12 airplane. The effects of a duct inlet, located between the nacelles at the leading edge of the wing, on those characteristics were also investigated. The Reynolds numbers for the investigation covered a range from 4,500,000 to 8,600,000. The results of the investigation indicated that maximum lift coefficients of 1.36, 1.71, and 2.11 were measured on the model with flaps neutral and deflected 20 deg and 55 deg, respectively at a Reynolds number of 8,600,000. When the duct inlet was replaced by a basic airfoil nose the flap-neutral maximum-lift coefficient was increased from 1.36 to 1.41. The results also showed that at maximum lift with flaps neutral or deflected 55 deg. most of the area between the nacelles were stalled while only small areas on other portions of the model were stalled; when the duct inlet was replaced by the basic airfoil nose the stall was delayed to a slightly higher angle of attack but the nature of the stall was relatively unaffected.
Date: November 18, 1946
Creator: Graham, Robert R.; Martina, Albert P. & Salmi, Reino J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of 19XB-2A Gas Turbine, 1, Effect of Pressure Ratio and Inlet Pressure on Turbine Performance for an Inlet Temperature of 800 degree R

Description: An investigation of the 19XB-2A gas turbine is being conducted at the Cleveland laboratory to determine the effect on turbine performance of various inlet pressures, inlet temperatures, pressure ratios, and wheel speeds. The engine of which this turbine is a component is designed to operate at an air flow of 30 pounds per second at a compressor rotor speed of 17,000 rpm at sea-level conditions. At these conditions the total-pressure ratio is 2.08 across the turbine and the turbine inlet total temperature is 2000 degrees R. Runs have been made with turbine inlet total pressures of 20, 30, 40, and 45 inches of mercury absolute for a constant total pressure ratio across the turbine of 2.40, the maximum value that could be obtained. Additional runs have been made with total pressure ratios of 1.50 and 2.00 at an inlet total pressure of 45 inches of mercury absolute. All runs were made with an inlet total temperature of 800 degrees R over a range of corrected turbine wheel speeds from 40 to 150 percent of the corrected speed at the design point. The turbine efficiencies at these conditions are presented.
Date: November 18, 1946
Creator: Kohl, Robert C. & Larkin, Robert G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Speed Longitudinal-Stability and Control Characteristics of the Consolidated Vultee Lark Missile as Predicted from Wind-Tunnel Tests (TED No. NACA 2391)

Description: A high-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a full-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee Lark indicates that the missile possesses satisfactory longitudinal-stability and-control characteristics throughout the Mach number range from 0.2 to 0.85, but that the maximum lift coefficients developed are not high enough to insure interception of the target at high altitudes. A reduction in wing loading appears advisable. Although the static longitudinal stability at zero angle of attack changes with Mach number and with lift coefficient, satisfactory control should be possible at all times as the tails retain their relatively large effectiveness throughout the range of Mach numbers and lift coefficients tested. Minimum stability and maximum maneuverability occur around 0.80 Mach number and 0.2 lift coefficient, which corresponds to level flight conditions of the missile. The optimum ratio of tail-to-wing deflection is 0.4.
Date: November 19, 1946
Creator: Axelson, John A. & Martin, Andrew
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loading, 2, Curtiss 838-1C2-18R1 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance of a Curtiss propeller with four 838-lC2-lSRl blades on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and engine powers. The study was made for a range of power coefficients between 0.30 and 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and 0.50. The results of the force measurements indicate primarily the trend of propeller efficiency for changes in power coefficient or advance-diameter ratio, inasmuch as corrections for the effects of tunnel-wall constriction on the installation have not been applied. Slip-stream pressure surveys across the propeller disk are presented to illustrate blade thrust load distribution for several operating conditions. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.40, nearly constant peak efficiencies were obtained at power coefficients from 0.30 to 0.70. A change in power coefficient from 0.70 to 0.90 reduced the peak efficiency about 5 percent. Blade stall at the tip sections became evident for a power coefficient of 0.91 when the advance-diameter ratio was reduced to 1.87. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.50, the highest propeller efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients from 0.80 to 1.00 at advance-diameter ratios above 2.90. At advance-diameter ratios below 2.90, the highest efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients of 0.60 and 0.70. The envelope of the efficiency curves decreased about 12 percent between advance-diameter ratios of 2.60 and 4.20. Local compressibility effects became evident for a power coefficient of 0.40 when the advance-diameter ratio was decreased to 1.75.
Date: November 26, 1946
Creator: Wallner, Lewis E. & Sorin, Solomon M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loadings, 4, Curtiss 732-1C2-0 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the performance of a Curtiss 732-1C2-0 four-blade propeller on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and engine power. Propeller characteristics were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and .50.
Date: November 26, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Sorin, Solomon M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation of a new type of supersonic inlet

Description: A supersonic inlet with supersonic deceleration of the flow entirely outside of the inlet is considered. A particular arrangement with fixed geometry having a central body with a circular annular intake is analyzed, and it is shown theoretically that this arrangement gives high pressure recovery for a large range of Mach number and mass flow and therefore is practical for use on supersonic airplanes and missiles. For some Mach numbers the drag coefficient for this type of inlet is larger than the drag coefficient for the type of inlet with supersonic compression entirely inside, but the pressure recovery is larger for all flight conditions. The differences in drag can be eliminated for the design Mach number. Experimental results confirm the results of the theoretical analysis and show that pressure recoveries of 95 percent for Mach numbers of 1.33 and 1.52, 92 percent for a Mach number of 1.72, and 86 percent for a Mach number oof 2.10 are possible with the configurations considered. If the mass flow decreases, the total drag coefficient increases gradually and the pressure recovery does not change appreciably.
Date: November 27, 1946
Creator: Ferri, Antonio & Nucci, Louis M
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loadings V - Curtiss 836-14C2-18R1 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An investigation of the performance of several propellers on the YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces. As part of the program, a study was made of a Curtiss 836-14C2-18R1 four-blade propeller. The investigation was made for a range of power coefficients from 0.10 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50 for density altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet, engine powers from 150 to 2500 brake horsepower, and for engine speeds from 1000 to 2900 rpm. The propeller efficiencies were obtained from force measurements and the blade thrust load distribution was obtained by two diametrically opposed slipstream survey rakes shown in this paper.
Date: December 2, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Wallner, Lewis E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Pressure-Loss Characteristics of the Westinghouse X24-C-2 Inlet Screen, TED No. NACA 0447

Description: At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, investigations of the static-pressure losses and total-head distributions of the Westinghouse X24-C-2 inlet screen were made in the induction aerodynamics laboratory at Langley. The screen was investigated in two configurations, both before and after rounding the leading edges of the vanes. Investigations were conducted through air flows up to about pounds per second. The results of the investigations indicate that maximum lift coefficients of 1.36, 1.71 and 2.11 were measured on the model with flaps neutral and deflected 20 deg. and 55 deg, respectively, at a reynolds number of 8,600,000. When the duct inlet was replaced by a basic airfoil nose the flap neutral maximum lift coefficient was increased from 1.36 to 1.41. The results also showed that at maximum lift with flaps neutral or deflected 55 deg most of the area between the nacelles was stalled while only small areas on other portions of the model were stalled; when the duct inlet was replaced by the basic airfoil nose the stall was delayed to a slightly higher angle of attack but the nature of the stall was relatively unaffected.
Date: December 2, 1946
Creator: Lankford, John L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ditching Tests of a 1/9-Size Model of the Army P-38 Airplane in Langley Tank No. 2 and at the Outdoor Catapult

Description: A dynamically similar model of the Army P-38 airplane was tested to determine the best way to land this airplane on the water and to determine its probable ditching performance. The tests consisted of ditching the model at various landing attitudes, flap settings, speeds, weights, and conditions of simulated damage. The model was ditched in calm water from the tank towing carriage and a few ditching were made in both calm and rough water at the outdoor catapult. The performance of the model was determined by making visual observations, by recording lengths of run and time histories of decelerations, and by taking motion pictures of the ditchings.
Date: December 3, 1946
Creator: Jarvis, George A. & Cederborg, Gibson A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Measurements of the Directional Stability and Control of a P-51D Airplane with a Horn-Balanced Rudder as Compared with Previously Tested Vertical-Tail Configurations

Description: At the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces, flight tests were conducted on a P-5lD-20-NA (AAF No. 44-63826) airplane equipped with a horn-balanced rudder. This rudder was fitted with an unbalancing tab as was the original product fan rudder. Tests were made both with the unbalancing tab in operation and with the unbalancing tab locked. The modification to the original vertical tail consisted of removing the cap from the top of the fin and adding 1.91 square feet of area to the rudder as the horn balance and 0.82 square foot of area to the top of the rudder aft of the hinge line. A comparison of the directional stability and control characteristics of the P-51D airplane with three different vertical-tail configurations - the horn balance, original production, and extended tail (with unbalancing tab locked) configurations are presented herein. The tests of the horn-balanced rudder were conducted at the Langley Laboratory in 1945. The tests of the original-tail configuration were previously conducted at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. Tests of the extended-tail configuration were conducted at the Langley Laboratory and are reported.
Date: December 3, 1946
Creator: Mungall, Robert G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Tests of a 1/7-Size Powered Dynamic Model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian: Spray Characteristics, Take-Off and Landing Stability in Smooth Water - Langley Tank Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378

Description: Tests of a model of the XJR2F-Y amphibian were made in Langley tank no. to determine the spray characteristics and the take-off and landing stability. At a gross load of 22,000 pounds full size, spray entered the propeller disk only at a very narrow range of speeds. The spray striking the flaps was not excessive and no appreciable wetting of the tail surfaces was noted. The trim limits of stability appeared to be satisfactory and the upper-limit porpoising was not violent. The stable range of center-of-gravity locations with flaps set 20deg was well aft of the desired operating range. However, with flaps up, the forward limit was about 18 percent mean aerodynamic chord and the aft limit about 28.5 percent mean aerodynamic chord at a load of 26,000 pounds and with elevators deflected -10deg. Under these conditions the location of the step is considered satisfactory. Tests showed that the effect of water in the nose-wheel well would be to move the forward limit aft about 2-percent mean aerodynamic chord. Without ventilation of the main step, the model skipped during landing at most trims, but this skipping was not violent. With the ventilation, the model skipped lightly only at trims where the afterbody keel was approximately parallel to the water (around 7.5 deg).
Date: December 4, 1946
Creator: Land, Norman S. & Zeck, Howrad
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel tests of a 1/26th scale model of the Douglas XTB2D-1 airplane

Description: A spin-tunnel investigation of a 1/26 scale model of the Douglas XTB2D-1 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect- and inverted-spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for various loading conditions. Tests were also performed to determine the effects of various tail modifications. The investigation included emergency spin-recovery parachute tests as well as crew-escape and rudder- and elevator-force tests. All tests were performed at an equivalent spin altitute of 20,000 feet. The recovery characteristics of the model in the original design were found to be unsatisfactory. Installation of a large ventral fin, installation of tip fins on the horizontal tail, or installation of a small ventral fin in combination with antispan fillets and a spanwise extension of the horizontal-tail surfaces satisfactorily improved the recovery characteristics of the model.
Date: December 5, 1946
Creator: Stone, Ralph W & Berman, Theodore
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Three Modifications on Performance of Auxiliary-Stage Supercharger for V-1710-93 Engine

Description: Three modifications of the auxiliary-stage supercharger for the V-1710-93 engine were designed and tested as part of an investigation to improve the power output and the altitude performance of the engine. A 12-vane diffuser was substituted for the standard 11-vane diffuser, and a vaneless discharge passage and a modified scroll were designed to increase the flow capacity of the supercharger and thereby to increase the performance at the high volume flows required by the engine. With the 12-vane diffuser installed and the carburetor replaced by an adapter, the equivalent volume flow at the peak efficiency point was increased 25 percent at the lowest speed investigated and 9.5 percent at the highest speed. When the carburetor was used, any increase in equivalent volume flow was masked by choking in the carburetor. A small decrease in the peak adiabatic efficiency resulted from using the 12-vane diffuser. At the high volume flows where the supercharger is required to operate, the performance was improved by the 12-vane diffuser. With the vaneless discharge passage, the surge-free range of the supercharger was increased 35 percent at the lowest tip speed investigated by increasing the maximum air flow. The maximum air flow at high tip speeds was again limited by choking in the carburetor, which masked the effect of the vaneless discharge passage on the maximum air flow. At the high volume flows near the operating point of the supercharger, the performance with the vaneless discharge passage was better than that with the standard 11-vane diffuser. At the low volume flows when the standard 11-vane diffuser gave better performance. The modified scroll gave performance characteristics that were practically the same as those of the standard scroll except at high tip speeds, where the peak performance was improved.
Date: December 6, 1946
Creator: Downing, Richard M. & Finger, Harold B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical and Experimental Data for a Number of NACA 6A-Series Airfoil Sections

Description: The NACA 6A-series airfoil sections were designed to eliminate the trailing-edge cusp which is characteristic of the NACA 6-series sections. Theoretical data are presented for NACA 6A-series basic thickness forms having the position of minimum pressure at 30-, 40-, and 50-percent chord and with thickness ratios varying from 6 percent to 15 percent. Also presented are data for a mean line designed to maintain straight sides on the cambered sections. The experimental results of a two dimensional wind tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of five NACA 64A-series airfoil sections and two NACA 63A-series airfoil sections are presented. An analysis of these results, which were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3 x 10(exp 6), 6 x 10(exp 6), and 9 x 10(exp 6), indicates that the section minimum drag and maximum lift characteristics of comparable NACA 6-series and 6A-series airfoil sections are essentially the same. The quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients and angles of zero lift of NACA 6A-series airfoil sections are slightly more negative than those of corresponding NACA 6-series airfoil sections. The position of the aerodynamic center and the lift-curve slope of smooth NACA 6-series sections. The addition of standard leading-edge roughness causes the lift-curve slope of the newer sections to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness ratio.
Date: December 6, 1946
Creator: Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Stability of the Jettisonable Nose Section of the X-3 Airplane

Description: Because previous work has indicated that jettisonable nose sections of airplanes may be inherently unstable, and thus may cause dangerous centripetal accelerations on a pilot after jettisoning during high-speed flight, an investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the behavior in descent of a model of the jettisonable nose section of the Douglas X-3 airplane. The effects of varying the center-of-gravity position, of attaching fins of various sizes, and of installing a stabilizing parachute were investigated. In the investigation the model descended with its front and trimmed 36 deg above the horizontal and rotated about a vertical wind axis while rolling about its longitudinal body axis. The nose section was made to descend in a stable front-down attitude when stabilizing fins were installed in conjunction with movement of the center of gravity forward or when a stable parachute was attached to the model.
Date: December 8, 1946
Creator: Scher, Stanley H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61c Airplanes within Thunderstorms August 7, 1946 to August 13, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: This report presents the results obtained from gust and draft velocity measurements within thunderstorms for the period August 7, 1946 to August, 13, 1946 at Orlando Florida. In several of the surveys, indications of ambient air temperature were obtained from photo-observer records. These data are summarized in the report.
Date: December 9, 1946
Creator: Tolefson, Harold B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knock-Limited Performance of Triptane and Xylidines Blended with 28-R Aviation Fuel at High Compression Ratios and Maximum-Economy Spark Setting

Description: An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of utilizing the high-performance characteristics of triptane and xylidines blended with 28-R fuel in order to increase fuel economy by the use of high compression ratios and maximum-economy spark setting. Full-scale single-cylinder knock tests were run with 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark settings at compression ratios of 6.9, 8.0, and 10.0, and with two inlet-air temperatures. The fuels tested consisted of triptane, four triptane and one xylidines blend with 28-R, and 28-R fuel alone. Indicated specific fuel consumption at lean mixtures was decreased approximately 17 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 and maximum-economy spark setting, as compared to that obtained with a compression ratio of 6.9 and normal spark setting. When compression ratio was increased from 6.9 to 10.0 at an inlet-air temperature of 150 F, normal spark setting, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.065, 55-percent triptane was required with 28-R fuel to maintain the knock-limited brake power level obtained with 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.9. Brake specific fuel consumption was decreased 17.5 percent at a compression ratio of 10.0 relative to that obtained at a compression ratio of 6.9. Approximately similar results were noted at an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. For concentrations up through at least 20 percent, triptane can be more efficiently used at normal than at maximum-economy spark setting to maintain a constant knock-limited power output over the range of compression ratios tested.
Date: December 12, 1946
Creator: Held, Louis F. & Pritchard, Ernest I.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loadings, 6, Hamilton Standard 6507A-2 Four- and Three-Blade Propellers

Description: An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the performance of Hamilton Standard 6507A-2 four-blade and three-blade propellers on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and high engine powers. Characteristics of the four-blase propeller were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.10 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.20, 0.30, 0.40. Characteristics of the three-blade propeller were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at a free-stream Mach number of 0.40. Results of the force measurements indicate primarily the trend of propeller efficiency for changes in power coefficient or advance-diameter ratio because no corrections for the effects of tunnel-wall constriction on the installation were applied. Slipstream surveys are presented to illustrate blade thrust load distribution for certain operating conditions. Within the range of advance-diameter ratios investigated at each free-stream Mach number, the efficiency of the four-blade propeller decreased as the power coefficient was increased from 0.10 to 1.00. For the three-blade propeller, nearly constant maximum efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients from 0.32 to 0.63 at advance-diameter ratios between 1.90 and 3.00. In general, for conditions below the stall and critical tip Mach number, the maximum thrust load shifted from the inboard sections toward the tip sections as the power coefficient was increased or as the advance-diameter ratio was decreased. For conditions beyond the stall or critical tip Mach number, losses in thrust occurred on the outboard blade sections owing to flow break-down; the thrust load increased slightly on the inboard sections.
Date: December 19, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Sorin, Solomon M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department