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The Variation of Yawing Moment Due to Rolling
The aerodynamical constants of an airplane necessary for the discussion of stability are partly observed and partly calculated. Among the calculated coefficients is n(p), which is the variation of yawing moment due to rolling. (author).
Airplane dopes and doping
Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.
The airplane tensiometer
Certain parts of an airplane are subjected not only to the stresses imposed by the aerodynamic or flying load, but also to the initial stresses, caused by the tension in the stay and drift wires. Report describes a tensiometer that measures such stresses which is simple in construction, accurate, and easily and quickly operated even by inexperienced persons. Two sizes of the instrument are available. One is suitable for wires up to one-fourth inch in diameter and the other for wires from one-fourth to three-eights inch in diameter.
The Design of Wind Tunnels and Wind Tunnel Propellers
Report discusses the theory of energy losses in wind tunnels, the application of the Drzewiecki theory of propeller design to wind tunnel propellers, and the efficiency and steadiness of flow in model tunnels of various types.
Effect of Compression Ratio, Pressure, Temperature, and Humidity on Power
Among other factors which affect the horsepower of an airplane engine are the atmospheric pressure, and consequently the altitude at which the engine is working, and the compression ratio, or cylinder volume divided by clearance volume. The tests upon which this report is based were selected from a large number of runs made during the intercomparison of various gasolines to determine the variation of horsepower with altitude at three different compression ratios. The test results and conclusions are presented in this report.
General Analysis of Airplane Radiator Problems
Report embodies the results of a very extensive research, both theoretical and experimental, into the problems involved in the dissipation of heat by means of the airplane radiator.
General Discussion of Test Methods for Radiators
Report describes the methods and apparatus developed and used in the extensive experimental research into the problems involved in the dissipation of heat by means of the airplane radiator.
The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes
This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.
The Limiting Velocity in Falling from a Great Height
The purpose of this report is to give a simple treatment of the problem of calculating the final or limiting velocity of an object falling in vertical motion under gravity in a resisting medium. The equations of motion are easily set up and integrated when the density of the medium is constant and the resistance varies as the square of the velocity. The results show that the fundamental characteristics of the vertical motion under gravity in a resisting medium is the approach to a terminal or limiting velocity, whether the initial downward velocity is less or greater than the limiting velocity. This method can be used to calculate the terminal velocity of a bomb trajectory.
Metering Characteristics of Carburetors
Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.
Temperatures in Spark Plugs Having Steel and Brass Shells
This investigation was conducted at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Brass has often been assumed superior to steel for spark plug shells because of its greater heat conductivity. The measurements described in this report prove the contrary, showing that the interior of a spark plug having a brass shell is from 50 degrees to 150 degrees c. (90 degrees to 270 degrees f.) hotter than that of a similar steel plug. Consistent results were obtained in both an aviation and a truck engine, and under conditions which eliminated all other sources of difference between the plugs. It is to be concluded that steel is to be preferred to brass for spark plug shells. This report embodies the results of measurements taken of electrodes and a comparison of brass and steel insulators of spark plugs while they were in actual operation. The data throw considerable light upon the problem of the proper control of temperatures in these parts.
The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing
The object of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of various types of wings having sufficient depth to entirely inclose the wing bracing, and also to provide data for the further design of such sections. This type of wing is of interest because it eliminates the resistance of the interplane bracing, a portion of the airplane that sometimes absorbs one-quarter of the total power required to fly, and because these wings may be made to give a very high maximum lift. Results of the investigation of the following subjects are given: (1) effect of changing the upper and lower camber of thick aerofoils of uniform section; (2) effect of thickening the center and thinning the tips of a thin aerofoil; (3) effect of adding a convex lower surface to a tapered section; (4) effect of changing the mean thickness with constant center and tip sections; and (5) effect of varying the chord along the span.
The altitude laboratory for the test of aircraft engines
Report presents descriptions, schematics, and photographs of the altitude laboratory for the testing of aircraft engines constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Aluminum and its light alloys
Report is a summary of research work which has been done here and abroad on the constitution and mechanical properties of the various alloy systems with aluminum. The mechanical properties and compositions of commercial light alloys for casting, forging, or rolling, obtainable in this country are described.
Annual report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (4th).administrative report including Technical Reports nos. 24 to 50
Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the President, Congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, expenditures, problems, recommendations, and a compilation of technical reports produced.
Annual report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (5th).administrative report including Technical Reports nos. 51 to 82
Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the President, Congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, expenditures, and a compilation of technical reports produced.
Bomb trajectories
The report is a mathematical treatise dealing with the trajectories of bombs of high terminal velocity, dropped from a great altitude.
Calculation of low-pressure indicator diagrams
Report develops a fundamental conception and partial application of a method for calculating the pressure-volume relationships to be expected for any given engine design. It outlines a method of computing and interpreting low-pressure indicator cards.
Carbureting conditions characteristics of aircraft engines
Tests were conducted at the altitude laboratory erected at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the changes in engine performance with changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure at various levels above the earth's surface, with special reference to (a) the variables affecting the functioning of the carburetor and (b) the changes in performance resulting from variables in the carburetor itself. This report constitutes a concise statement of the difficulties to be encountered in this branch of carburetion.
Characteristics of high-tension magnetos
This report gives the results of an investigation made into the fundamental physical characteristics of high-tension ignition magnetos, and also describes the methods used for measuring the quantities involved.
Comparison of United States and British standard pitot tubes
The results shown in this report give a comprehensive comparison of the accuracy of United States and British standard pitot tubes.
Construction of models for tests in wind tunnels
Report deals with the methods of constructing aerofoils and all other parts of a model airplane, including discussion of the degree of accuracy.
Development of air speed nozzles
Report describes the development of a suitable speed nozzle for the first few thousand airplanes made by the United States during the recent war in Europe, and to furnish a basis for more mature instruments in the future. Requirements for the project were to provide a suitable pressure collector for aircraft speed meters and to develop a speed nozzle which would be waterproof, powerful, unaffected by slight pitch and yaw, rugged and easy to manufacture, and uniform in structure and reading, so as not to require individual calibration.
Effect of altitude on radiator performance
As an airplane rises to high altitudes the decrease in the density and the temperature of the air have important effects on the performance of the radiator. This report gives the results of a study of the effect of reduced pressure and temperature upon the capacity of airplane radiators. A method is presented by which the performance of a radiator at an altitude may be estimated for a particular speed of the airplane at a particular altitude.
The effect of kiln drying on the strength of airplane woods
This report is a very complete treatise on the comparative strength of air and kiln dried wood. The series of tests includes 26 species of wood, approximately 100 kiln runs, and over 10,000 mechanical tests.
Effect of temperature and pressure on the sparking voltage
This report presents the results of an investigation which was to determine how the voltage necessary to produce the proper spark discharge varies with the pressure and temperature of the gas in which the discharge takes place.
Experimental research on air propellers II
This report is a continuation of NACA Technical Report 14. It presents the results of an experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers which was divided into five parts, as follows: (1) Tests under conditions of flight on 16 model propellers of different forms, sections, or pitch ratios from those of Technical Report 14; (2) Tests under conditions of flight on one model propeller of variable pitch; (3) Tests under conditions of flight on three sets of right and left hand model propellers in series; (4) Tests on 12 model propellers to determine brake effect or negative thrust at negative slip; (5) Standing thrust and power tests of 67 model propellers.
Experimental research on air propellers III
Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of propellers that examined the influence of the following characteristics: (1) nominal pitch ratio 1.3 combined with a certain number of the more common or standard forms and proportions; (2) driving face slightly rounded or convex; (3) change in the location of the maximum thickness ordinate of the blade section; (4) pushing forward the leading edge of the blade, thus giving a rounded convex surface on the leading side of the driving face. (5) a series of values for the constant "angle of attack" in forming propellers with radially increasing pitch. In accordance with these purposes tests were carried out on 28 propellers.
Fabric fastenings
The study of aeronautical fabrics has led to a consideration of the best methods of attaching and fastening together such materials. This report presents the results of an investigation upon the proper methods of attaching fabrics to airplane wings. The methods recommended in this report have been adopted by the military services.
The ferrosilicon process for the generation of hydrogen
Report describes the generation of hydrogen by the reaction between ferrosilicon, sodium hydroxide, and water. This method known as the ferrosilicon method is especially adapted for use in the military field because of the relatively small size and low cost of the generator required to produce hydrogen at a rapid rate, the small operating force required, and the fact that no power is used except the small amount required to operate the stirring and pumping machinery. These advantages make it possible to quickly generate sufficient hydrogen to fill a balloon with a generator which can be transported on a motor truck. This report gives a summary of the details of the ferrosilicon process and a critical examination of the means which are necessary in order to make the process successful.
Fuselage stress analysis
Report analyzes the stresses in a fuselage of the built-up type in which the shear is taken by diagonal bracing wires. Tests are conducted for landing, flying, and thrust loads.
The general theory of blade screws including propellers, fans, helicopter screws, helicoidal pumps, turbo-motors, and different kinds of helicoidal blades
Report presents a theory which gives a complete picture and an exact quantitative analysis of the whole phenomenon of the working of blade screws, but also unites in a continuous whole the entire scale of states of work conceivable for a blade screw. Chapter 1 is devoted to the establishment of the system of fundamental equations relating to the blade screw. Chapter 2 contains the general discussion of the 16 states of work which may establish themselves for a blade screw. The existence of the vortex ring state and the whirling phenomenon are established. All the fundamental functions which enter the blade-screw theory are submitted to a general analytical discussion. The general outline of the curve of the specific function is examined. Two limited cases of the work of the screw, the screw with a zero constructive pitch and the screw with an infinite constructive pitch, are pointed out. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of the propulsive screw or propeller. (author).
Glues used in airplane parts
This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and presents the results of investigations conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service on the manufacture, preparation, application, testing and physical properties of the different types of glues used in wood airplane parts.
Head resistance due to radiators
Part 1 deals with the head resistance of a number of common types of radiator cores at different speeds in free air, as measured in the wind tunnel at the bureau of standards. This work was undertaken to determine the characteristics of various types of radiator cores, and in particular to develop the best type of radiator for airplanes. Some 25 specimens of core were tested, including practically all the general types now in use, except the flat plate type. Part 2 gives the results of wind tunnel tests of resistance on a model fuselage with a nose radiator. Part 3 presents the results of preliminary tests of head resistance of a radiator enclosed in a streamlined casing. Special attention is given to the value of wing radiator and of the radiator located in the open, especially when it is provided with a properly designed streamlined casing.
Heat energy of various ignition sparks
This report describes a method developed at the Bureau of Standards for measuring the total energy liberated as heat in a spark gap by an ignition system. Since this heat energy is obtained from the electromagnetic energy stored in the windings of the magneto or coil, it is a measure of the effectiveness of the device as an electric generator. Part 2 gives the results of measurements in absolute units of the total heat supplied to a spark gap by ignition systems of different types operating at various speeds, under conditions substantially equivalent to those in the cylinder of a high-compression aviation engine.
An Introduction to the Laws of Air Resistance of Aerofoils
Report presents methods of calculating air resistance of airfoils under certain conditions of flow phenomena around the airfoil.
Investigation of the muffling problem for airplane engines
The experimentation presented in this report falls in two divisions: first, the determination of the relation between back pressure in the exhaust line and consequent power loss, for various combinations of speed and throttle positions of the engine; second, the construction and trial of muffler designs covering both type and size. Report deals with experiments in the development of a muffler designed on the principle which will give the maximum muffling effect with a minimum loss of power. The main body of the work has been done on a Curtiss OX eight-cylinder airplane engine, 4 by 5 inches, rated 70 horsepower at 1,200 revolutions per minute. For estimation of the muffling ability and suppression of "bark" of individual exhausts, the "Ingeco" stationary, single cylinder, 5 1/2 by 10 inch, throttling governed gasoline engine, and occasionally other engines were used.
A new process for the production of aircraft-engine fuels
Report describes experiments conducted on a new method of producing high-grade aviation gasoline at a test laboratory established at Charleston, W. Va. For the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Nomenclature for aeronautics
Report defines the principal terms which have come into use in the development of aeronautics. It was prepared in cooperation with a committee engaged upon a similar undertaking in Great Britain. As a result this nomenclature is in substantial agreement with the one which has been adopted by the aeronautical authorities of Great Britain.
The Parker variable camber wing
This report deals with the problem of increasing the speed range of an airplane by varying the camber of a wing surface. The variable camber wing offers many advantages over the variable incidence type of speed range.
Power characteristics of fuels for aircraft engines
Report presents the summation of results obtained in the testing of fuels of various compositions and characteristics in the altitude laboratory. The data upon which this report is based has had an important influence upon the writing of specifications for the various grades of aviation fuels.
Preliminary report on free flight tests
Results are presented for a series of tests made by the Advisory Committee's staff at Langley Field during the summer of 1919 with the objectives of determining the characteristics of airplanes in flight and the extent to which the actual characteristics differ from those predicted from tests on models in the wind tunnel, and of studying the balance of the machines and the forces which must be applied to the controls in order to maintain longitudinal equilibrium.
Properties and preparation of ceramic insulators for spark plugs
Report describes in detail the preliminary experiments which were made on the conductivity of spark-plug insulators in order to develop a satisfactory comparative method for testing various spark-plug materials. Materials tested were cements, porcelain, feldspar, and quartz.
Results of tests on radiators for aircraft engines
Part 1 is to present the results of tests on 56 types of core in a form convenient for use in the study of the performance of and possible improvements in existing designs. Working rules are given by which the data contained in the report may be used, and the most obvious conclusions as to the behavior of cores are summarized. Part 2 presents the results of tests made to determine the pressure necessary to produce water flows up to 50 gallons per minute through an 8-inch square section of radiator core. These data are of special value in evaluating the hydraulic head against which the circulating pump is required to operate.
Self-luminous materials
Report outlines specifications for the preparation and application of self-luminous materials to be used for the illumination of various instruments, especially those used for aeronautics.
Slip-stream corrections performance computation
This report is an analysis of experiments performed by Eiffel on the air velocity in slip stream of a propeller, and also includes a theoretical discussion of the magnitude of the velocity in different propellers.
Spark plug defects and tests
The successful operation of the spark plug depends to a large extent on the gas tightness of the plug. Part 1 of this report describes the method used for measuring the gas tightness of aviation spark plugs. Part 2 describes the methods used in testing the electrical conductivity of the insulation material when hot. Part 3 describes the testing of the cold dielectric strength of the insulation material, the resistance to mechanical shock, and the final engine test.
Stability of the parachute and helicopter
This report deals with an extension of the theory of stability in oscillation to the case of aircraft following a vertical trajectory, and particularly to the oscillations of parachutes.
The steadiness factor in engine sets
No Description Available.
The strength of one-piece solid, build-up and laminated wood airplane wing beams
The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of all wood airplane wing beams tested to date in the Bureau of Standards Laboratory in order that the various kinds of wood and methods of construction may be compared. All beams tested were of an I section and the majority were somewhat similar in size and cross section to the front wing beam of the Curtiss JN-4 machine. Construction methods may be classed as (1) solid beams cut from solid stock; (2) three-piece beams, built up of three pieces, web and flanges glued together by a tongue-and-groove joint and (3) laminated beams built up of thin laminations of wood glued together.