This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
From Summary: "If a propeller is mounted directly on the of a modern high-speed airplane engine, the outer airfoil sections of the propeller travel at speeds approaching the speed of sound. It is possible by the use of gearing and a somewhat larger propeller to reduce the speed of the propeller sections, but only at the expense of additional weight and some frictional loss of power. This report presents the results of this work."
Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the President, Congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, bibliographies, and financial report.
We first undertook experiments with air, devoted principally to the investigation of the disturbances due to the differences in the nature of the flow to the nozzle. The difficulty of measuring the air, however, caused us to experiment with water. Due to the possibility of measuring the capacity of the container, this method was much more accurate than measuring with Pitot tobes.
This report groups in a uniform manner the aerodynamic properties of commonly used wing sections as determined from tests in various wind tunnels. The data have been collected from reports of a number of laboratories. Where necessary, transformation has been made to the absolute system of coefficients and tunnel wall interference corrections have been applied. Tables and graphs present the data in the various forms useful to the engineer in the selection of a wing section.
In the present study it is proposed to provide an equipment permitting the study of the propagation of the region of reaction in mixtures of air and carbureted gases enclosed within a cylinder. Ignition is produced at the end of compression by an electric spark. With this apparatus it is proposed to determine: 1) the influence of the richness of the explosive mixture on the rate of flame propagation; 2) the influence of the degree of volumetric compression on one of the hydrocarbons; 3) the influence of the variation of initial temperature of the mixture before compression; 4) the influence of tetraethyl-lead on the propagation - notably on the formation of the explosive wave.
This report presents the results of an investigation undertaken in the 20-foot Propeller Research Tunnel at Langley Field on the cowling of radial air-cooled engines. A portion of the investigation has been completed, in which several forms and degrees of cowling were tested on Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine mounted in the nose of a cabin fuselage. The cowlings varied from the one extreme of an entirely exposed engine to the other in which the engine was entirely inclosed. Cooling tests were made and each cowling modified, if necessary, until the engine cooled approximately as satisfactorily as when it was entirely exposed. Drag tests were then made with each form of cowling, and the effect of the cowling on the propulsive efficiency determined with a metal propeller. The propulsive efficiency was found to be practically the same with all forms of cowling. The drag of the cabin fuselage with uncowled engine was found to be more than three times as great as the drag of the fuselage with engine removed and nose rounded. The conventional forms of cowling, in which at least the tops of the cylinder heads and valve gear are exposed, reduce the drag somewhat, but the cowling entirely covering the engine reduces it 2.6 times as much as the best conventional one. The decrease in drag due to the use of spinners proved to be almost negligible. The use of the cowling completely covering the engine seems entirely practical as regards both cooling and maintenance under service conditions. It must be carefully designed, however, to cool properly. With cabin fuselages its use should result in a substantial increase in high speed over that obtained with present forms of cowling on engines similar in contour to the J-5. (author).
This report gives the results of the second portion of an investigation in the twenty-foot Propeller Research Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on the cowling and cooling of a "Whirlwind" J-5 radial air-cooled engine. The first portion pertains to tests with a cabin fuselage. This report covers tests with several forms of cowling, including conventional types, individual fairings behind the cylinders, individual hoods over the over the cylinders, and the new N. A. C. A. complete cowling, all on an open cockpit fuselage. Drag tests were also made with a conventional engine nacelle, and with a nacelle having the new complete cowling. In the second part of the investigation the results found in the first part were substantiated. It was also found that the reduction in drag with the complete cowling over that with conventional cowling is greater with the smaller bodies than with the cabin fuselage; in fact, the gain in the case of the completely cowled nacelle is over twice that with the cabin fuselage. The individual fairings and hoods did not prove effective in reducing the drag. The results of flight tests on AT-5A airplane has been analyzed and found to agree very well with the results of the wind tunnel tests. (author).
This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of different amounts and kinds of cowling on the performance and cylinder temperatures of a standard Wright J-5 engine. These tests were conducted in conjunction with drag and propeller tests in which the same cowlings were used. Four different cowlings were investigated varying from the one extreme of no cowling on the engine to the other extreme of the engine completely cowled and the cooling air flowing inside the cowling through an opening in the nose and out through an annular opening at the rear of the engine. Each cowling was tested at air speeds of approximately 60, 80, and 100 miles per hour.
This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of different supercharger capacities on the performance of an airplane and its engine . The tests were conducted on a DH4-M2 airplane powered with a Liberty 12 engine. In this investigation four supercharger capacities, obtained by driving a roots type supercharger at 1.615, 1.957, 2.4, and 3 time engine speed, were used to maintain sea-level pressure at the carburetor to altitudes of 7,000, 11,500, 17,000, and 22,000 feet, respectively. The performance of the airplane in climb and in level flight was determined for each of the four supercharger drive ratios and for the unsupercharged condition. The engine power was measured during these tests by means of a calibrated propeller. It was found that very little sacrifice in sea-level performance was experienced with the larger supercharger drive ratios as compared with performance obtained when using the smaller drive ratios. The results indicate that further increase in supercharger capacity over that obtained when using 3:1 drive ratio would give a slight increase in ceiling and in high-altitude performance but would considerably impair the performance for an appreciable distance below the critical altitude. As the supercharger capacity was increased, the height at which sea-level high speeds could be equaled or improved became a larger percentage of the maximum height of operation of the airplane.
This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.
The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions. The results of the pressure measurements on the hull indicate that the forces on the forebody of an airship are relatively small. The tail surface measurements show conclusively that the forces caused by gusts are much greater than those caused by horizontal maneuvers. In this investigation the tail surface loadings caused by gusts closely approached the designed loads of the tail structure. The turning and drag characteristics will be reported in separate reports.
The tests described in this report furnished data on the actual aerodynamic forces, and the resulting stresses and bending moments in the hull of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" during as severe still-air maneuvers as the airship would normally be subjected to, and in straight flight during as rough air as is likely to occur in service, short of squall or storm conditions. The maximum stresses were found to be within the limits provided for in accepted practice in airship design. Normal flight in rough air was shown to produce forces and stresses about twice as great as the most severe still-air maneuvers. No light was thrown upon the forces which might occur in extreme or exceptional conditions, such as the storm which destroyed the "Shenandoah". The transverse aerodynamic forces on the hull proper were found to be small and irregular. Owing to the necessity of conserving helium, it was impossible to fly the airship in a condition of large excess of buoyancy or weight in order to determine the air pressure distribution at a fixed angle of pitch. However, there is every reason to believe that in that condition the forces on the actual airship are as close to the wind-tunnel results as can be determined by present type of pressure measuring apparatus. It is considered that most important data obtained are the coefficients of tail-surface forces and hull-bending moments. These are tabulated in this report.
Part I gives a general method for finding the steady-flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. Part II, applying this steady-flow method, finds the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms, and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. Part III finds the pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight. Part IV derives general equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid, and in some cases compares the moment values with those found for bodies moving in air. Part V furnishes ready formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms. Thence are derived tables giving numerical values of those coefficients for a comprehensive range of shapes.
This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.
This paper present a description of the method employed and results obtained in full-scale turning trials on the rigid airship U. S. S. "Los Angeles". The results of this investigation are not sufficiently comprehensive to permit definite conclusions as to the variation of turning characteristics with changes in speed and rudder angle. They indicate however, that the turning radius compares favorably with that for other large airships, that the radius is independent of the speed, that the position of the point of zero yaw is nearly independent of the rudder angle and air speed, and that a theoretical relation between radius and angle of yaw in a turn gives a close approximation to actuality.
Tests were conducted on the 6-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to form a part of a research on open-throat wind tunnels. The primary object of this part of the research was to study a type of air pulsation which has been encountered in open-throat tunnels, and to find the most satisfactory means of eliminating such pulsations. In order to do this it was necessary to study the effects of different variable on all of the important characteristics of the tunnel. This paper gives not only the results of the study of air pulsations and methods of eliminating them, but also the effects of changing the exit-cone diameter and flare and the effects of air leakage from the return passage. It was found that the air pulsations in the 6-inch wind tunnel could be practically eliminated by using a moderately large flare on the exit cone in conjunction with leakage introduced by cutting holes in the exit cone somewhat aft of its minimum diameter.
This report contains the wind-tunnel test data obtained in the United States on a 36 by 6 inch R.A.F. 15 airfoil model prepared by the British Aeronautical Research Committee for International Trials. Tests were made in cooperation with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Bureau of Standards, Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and McCook field. In addition to brief descriptions of the various wind tunnels and methods of testing, the report contains an analysis of the test data. It is shown that while in general the agreement is quite satisfactory there are two cases in which it is unsatisfactory. Since the lack of agreement in the latter is probably explained by errors known to be inherent in the methods of determining and applying corrections in these particular tests, it is concluded that the agreement obtained is more a matter of technique than a wind tunnel characteristic. (author).
The hot-wire anemometer suggests itself as a promising method for measuring the fluctuating air velocities found in turbulent flow. The only obstacle is the presence of a lag due to the limited energy input which makes even a fairly small wire incapable of following rapid fluctuations with accuracy. This paper gives the theory of the lag and describes an experimental arrangement for compensating for the lag for frequencies up to 100 or more per second when the amplitude of the fluctuation is not too great. An experimental test of the accuracy of compensation and some results obtained with the apparatus in a wind-tunnel air stream are described. While the apparatus is very bulky in its present form, it is believed possible to develop a more portable arrangement. (author).
This report describes and develops methods by which the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil may be calculated with sufficient accuracy for use in airplane design. These methods for prediction are based on the present aerodynamic theory and on empirical formulas derived from data obtained in the N. A. C. A. variable density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number corresponding approximately to full scale. (author).
The usual type of altimeter contains a pressure element, the deflections of which are approximately proportional to pressure changes. An evenly divided altitude scale is secured by using a mechanism between the pressure element and pointer which gives the required motion of the pointer. A temperature-compensated altimeter was constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department which contained a manually operated device for controlling the multiplication of the mechanism to the extent necessary for temperature compensation. The introduction of this device made it difficult to adjust the multiplying mechanism to fit an evenly divided altitude scale. To meet this difficulty a pressure element was designed and constructed which gave deflections which were proportional to altitude; that is, to the logarithm of the pressure. The element consisted of a metal bellows of the sylphon type coupled to an internal helical spring which was designed so as to have a variable number of active coils. This report presents a description of and laboratory data relating to the special pressure element for the altimeter. In addition equations which apply generally to springs and pressure elements of constant logarithmic stiffness are developed, including the deflection and the spacing between the coils in terms of the constants of the helical spring and pressure elements. (author).
The object was to evaluate the factors which control the rate of heat transfer to a moving current of air from finned metal surfaces similar to those used on aircraft engine cylinders. The object was to establish data which will enable the finning of cooling surfaces to be designed to suit the particular needs of any specific application. Most of the work was done on flat copper specimens 6 inches square, upon which were mounted copper fins with spacings varying from 1/2 inch to 1/12 inch. All fins were 1 inch deep, 6 inches long, and .020 inch thick. The results of the investigation are given in the form of curves included here. In general, it was found that for specimens of this kind, the effectiveness of a given fin does not decrease very rapidly until its distance from adjacent fins has been reduced to 1/9 or 1/10 of an inch. A formula for the heat transfer from a flat surface without fins was developed, and an approximate formula for the finned specimens is suggested.
The trials reported in this report were instigated by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department for the purpose of determining accurately the speed and resistance of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" with and without water recovery apparatus, and to clear up the apparent discrepancies between the speed attained in service and in the original trials in Germany. The trials proved very conclusively that the water recovery apparatus increases the resistance about 20 per cent, which is serious, and shows the importance of developing a type of recovery having less resistance. Between the American and the German speed trials without water recovery there remains an unexplained discrepancy of nearly 6 per cent in speed at a given rate of engine revolutions. Warping of the propeller blades and small cumulative errors of observation seem the most probable causes of the discrepancy. It was found that the customary resistance coefficients C, are 0.0242 and 0.0293 without and with the water recovery apparatus, respectively. The corresponding values of the propulsive coefficient K, are 56.7 and 44.6. If there is an error in these figures, it is probably in a slight overestimate of C, and an underestimate of K. The maximum errors are almost certainly less than 5 per cent. No scale effect was detected indicating variation of C with respect to velocity (author).
In Technical Report no. 247 of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics theoretical formulas are given from which was computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. In that report, the table gave incompressible and adiabatic stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour and for some even-speed intervals in knots per hour. Table II of the present report extends the above-mentioned table by including the stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour, feet per-second, knots per hour, kilometers per hour, and meters per second. The pressure values in table II are also more exact than values given in the previous table. To furnish the aeronautical engineer with ready numerical formulas for finding the pressure of air on coming to rest, table I has been derived for the standard values specified below it. This table first presents the theoretical pressure-speed formulas and their working forms in C. G. S. Units as given in NACA Technical Report No. 247, then furnishes additional working formulas for several special units of speed. (author).
This report describes the tests of five adjustable blade metal model propellers both in a free wind stream and in combination with a model fuselage with stub wings. The propellers are of the same form and cross section but have variations in radial distributions of pitch. By making a survey of the radial distribution of air velocity through the propeller plane of the model fuselage it was found that this velocity varies from zero at the hub center to approximately free stream velocity at the blade tip. The tests show that the efficiency of a propeller when operating in the presence of the airplane is, over the working range, generally less than when operating in a free wind stream, but that a propeller with a radial distribution of pitch of the same nature as the radial distribution of air velocity through the propeller plane suffers the smallest loss in efficiency.
This report gives the results of the tests of seven 2 by 12 foot airfoils (Clark Y, smooth and corrugated, Gottingen 398, N.A.C.A. M-6, and N.A.C.A. 84). The tests were made in the propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Reynolds numbers up to 2,000,000. The Clark Y airfoil was tested with three degrees of surface smoothness. Corrugating the surface causes a flattening of the lift curve at the burble point and an increase in drag at small flying angles.
Within recent years a great variety of approximate torsion formulas and drafting-room processes have been advocated. In some of these, especially where mathematical considerations are involved, the results are extremely complex and are not generally intelligible to engineers. The principal object of this investigation was to determine by experiment and theoretical investigation how accurate the more common of these formulas are and on what assumptions they are founded and, if none of the proposed methods proved to be reasonable accurate in practice, to produce simple, practical formulas from reasonably correct assumptions, backed by experiment. A second object was to collect in readily accessible form the most useful of known results for the more common sections. Formulas for all the important solid sections that have yielded to mathematical treatment are listed. Then follows a discussion of the torsion of tubular rods with formulas both rigorous and approximate.
This report describes a simple method for calculating the position of the elastic axis of a wing structure having any number of spars. It is shown that strong drag bracing near the top and bottom of a wing greatly increases the torsional strength. An analytical procedure for finding the contribution of the drag bracing to the torsional strength and stiffness is described, based upon the principle of least work, and involving only one unknown quantity. A coefficient for comparing the torsional rigidity of different wings is derived in this report.
This is the second of a series of investigations to determine water pressure distribution on various types of seaplane floats and hulls, and was conducted on a twin-float seaplane. It consisted of measuring water pressures and accelerations on a TS-1 seaplane during numerous landing and taxiing maneuvers at various speeds and angles. The results show that water pressures as great as 10 lbs. per sq. in.may occur at the step in various maneuvers and that pressures of approximately the same magnitude occur at the stern and near the bow in hard pancake landings with the stern way down. At the other parts of the float the pressures are less and are usually zero or slightly negative for some distance abaft the step. A maximum negative pressure of 0.87 lb. Per square inch was measured immediately abaft the step. The maximum positive pressures have a duration of approximately one-twentieth to one-hundredth second at any given location and are distributed over a very limited area at any particular instant.
This investigation covers force tests through a large range of angle of attack on a series of monoplane and biplane wing models. The tests were conducted in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The models were arranged in such a manner as to make possible a determination of the effects of variations in tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweep back, and airfoil profile. The arrangements represented most of the types of wing systems in use on modern airplanes. The effect of each variable is illustrated by means of groups of curves. In addition, there are included approximate autorotational characteristics in the form of calculated ranges of "rotary instability." a correction for blocking in this tunnel which applies to monoplanes at large angles of attack has been developed, and is given in an appendix. (author).
Discussed here are problems with the use of cowlings with radial air cooled engines. An XF7C-1 airplane, equipped with service cowling and with narrow ring, wide ring, and exhaust collector ring cowlings over the service cowling, was used. For these four cowling conditions, the rate of climb and high speed performance were determined, the cylinder conditions were measured, and pictures to show visibility were taken. The level flight performance obtained with an engine speed of 1900 r.p.m. for the service type, the narrow ring, the wide ring, and the exhaust collector ring was 144.4, 146.6, 152.8, and 155 mph, respectively. The rate of climb was practically the same for each type tested. The visibility was not materially impaired by the use of the wide or the narrow cowlings. With the narrow ring and exhaust collector ring cowlings there was an increase in cylinder temperature. However, this increase was not enough to affect the performance of the engine. The use of an exhaust collector ring incorporated into the cowling is practical where the problem of visibility does not enter.
This report presents methods determining the hardness and tensile strength of metals by showing the effect and dependence of the hardness numbers on the strain-hardening. Relations between the hardness numbers and the ordinary stress-strain diagrams and tensile strength are given. Procedures for finding the Brinell strength are also presented.
This note describes tests of an adjustable blade metal model propeller, both in a free wind stream and in combination with a model fuselage, at four settings of the blades. The model propeller is designed for a uniform nominal pitch/diameter ratio of .7 and the blade settings used correspond to nominal pitch/diameter ratios of .5, .7, .9, and 1.1 at the .6 radius. The tests show that propellers of this type may be considerably changed in setting from the designed pitch angles and yet give excellent performance. The efficiency realized and power absorbed when blades are set at other than the designed angle, are little different than would be obtained from a propeller with uniform pitch equal to the mean pitch of the propeller under test.
According to one of the main propositions of the boundary layer theory the scarcely noticeable boundary layer may, under certain conditions, have a decisive influence on the form of the external flow by causing it to separate from the wing surface. These phenomena are known to be caused by a kind of stagnation of the boundary layer at the point of separation. The present report deals with similar phenomena. It is important to note that usually the cause (external interference) directly affects only the layer close to the wall, while its indirect effect extends to a large portion of the external flow.
The preliminary tests described here were made to determine the extent to which wing tip floating ailerons might be effective in reducing airplane spinning tendencies. The tests showed that initial spinning tendencies and rates of stable spinning could doubtless be reduced by the use of tip floating ailerons on an airplane. It also appears to be desirable to reduce to a minimum the interference between wing and aileron. This would serve to maintain uniformity of action at all angles of attack and enable calculation of the aileron characteristics.
This investigation shows the attempt to improve the electrodynamomoter designed by Mr. Villey. The force to be measured acts on a flexible steel plate which is placed in front of a fixed plate. The deformation varies the original thickness of the layer of air between the two plates, thus causing a more rapid variation in the coefficient of electrostatic attraction of the two plates than in the capacity of the condenser formed by the dynamometer. The measurements are made by a differential method. The capacity of the test dynamometer is compared with that of a similar instrument of constant capacity, this comparison being made by means of an electrometer. Diagrams are shown of the dynamometer, the electrometer, and the electrical connections.
The present report contains the results thus far obtained and is intended to form the basis of further tests on using the momentum method. The method of testing is presented in detail and the photographs taken during these tests are interpreted.
The purpose of this section is to survey the present status of scientific knowledge of the causes which produce drag, in order, if possible, to establish the relation between the individual results and the actual phenomena which demonstrate the fundamental importance of surface conditions. A discussion of the boundary layer is followed by: relations between frictional and form drag, application to profile-drag measurements, and different kinds of roughness. High-pressure wind tunnel tests are discussed along with roughness and maximum lift.
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