An investigation of the characteristics of a wing with an aspect ratio of 9.0 and an NACA 65-210 airfoil section has been made at Mach number up to 0.925. The wing tested has a taper ratio of 2.5:1.0, no twist, dihedral, or sweepback, and 20-percent - chord 37.5-percent-semispan plain ailerons. The results showed that serious changes in the normal-force characteristics occurred when the Mach number was increased above 0.74 at angles of attack between 4 deg. and 10 deg. and above 0.80 at 0 deg. angle of attack.Because of small outboard shifts in the lateral center of load, the bending moment at the root for conditions corresponding to a 3g pull-out at an altitude of 35,000 feet increased by approximately 5% when the Much number was increased beyond 0.83 the negative pitching moments for the high angles of attack increased, whereas those for the low angles of attack decreased with a resulting large increase in the negative slope of the pitching-moment curves. A large increase occurred in the values of the drag coefficients for the range of lift coefficients needed for level flight at an altitude of 35,000 feet when the Mach number was increased beyond a value of 0.80. The wakes at a station 2.82 root chords behind the wing quarter-chord line extended approximately a chord above the wing chord line for the angles of attack required to recover from high-speed dives at high Mach numbers.
Strength tests were made of a number of 24S-T and Alclad 75S-T aluminum-alloy shear webs to determine the effect of rivet or bolt holes on the shear strength. Data were obtained for webs which approached a condition of pure shear stress as well as for webs with well-developed diagonal tension. The rivet factor, (pitch minus diameter) divided by pitch, was varied from approximately 0.81 to 0.62. These tests indicated that the shear stresses on the gross section were nearly constant for all values of the rivet factor investigated if the other properties of the web were not changed.
This paper presents the results of flight tests to determine the lateral and directional stability and control characteristics of the Grumman F8F-1 airplane with three vertical-tail configurations. The data presented herein have no bearing on the performance characteristics of the airplane, which were not measured but which were considered to be exceptionally good. The conclusions reached regarding the lateral and directional stability and control characteristics may be summarized as follows: 1. It was found that the directional stability was poor with the production vertical tail. Addition of a 12-inch extension to the vertical fin and rudder produced a desirable improvement in directional stability and control characteristics. However, further enlargement of the vertical tail would be required to make the directional stability satisfactory in all respects. 2. There was a tendency for the rudder control force to overbalance at large angles of right sideslip with the modified vertical tails. There was no such tendency with the production tail configuration which included a dorsal fin. It was concluded that the dorsal fin should have been retained on the modified vertical tails. 3. The aileron control characteristics were better than those of many comparable airplanes which have been tested. However, the ailerons did not satisfy the Navy requirements for satisfactory flying qualities with regard to either control forces or rolling effectiveness. 4. The power of the rudder trimming tab proved to be inadequate and the tab should be enlarged and/or be provided with an increased deflection range.
Tables I and II of this report summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm flights 25 and 26 of August 21, 1946 and August 22, 1946, respectively. These dta were evaluated from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from motion-picture records of the instrument and include all cases in which variations in the instrument indications were noted during the present flights.
A flight test was conducted at the Flight Test Station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallops Island, Va., to determine the longitudinal control and stability characteristics of a 0.5-scale model of the Fairchild Lerk Pilotless aircraft with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 15 degrees. The data were obtained by the use of a telemeter and also by radar tracking. The results show an increase of effectiveness of the longitudinal control in producing normal accelerations up to a Mach number of 0.75 where this effectiveness gradually decreased becoming negative at a Mach number of 0.89. Previous tests with wing flaps undeflected an increase in effectiveness up to Mach number of 0.93 where a sudden loss of control occurred. The model was dynamically stable throughout the speed range. The data confirmed the drag increase at the critical Mach number for large angles of attack is indicated in high-speed wind-tunnel tests.
The XF-12 airplane is a high performance, photo-reconnaissance aircraft designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for Army Air Forces. A series of tests of a 1/8.33-scale powered model was conducted in the Langley 9-foot pressure tunnel to obtain information relative to the aerodynamic design of the airplane. This report presents the results of tests to determine the static longitudinal stability and stalling characteristics of the model. From this investigation it was indicated that the airplane will possess a positive static margin for all probable flight conditions. The stalling characteristics are considered satisfactory in that the stall initiates near the root section and progresses toward the tips. Early root section stalling occurs, with the flaps retracted and may cause undesirable tail buffeting and erratic elevator control in the normal flight range. From considerations of sinking speed landing flap deflections of 40 degrees may be preferable to 55 degrees of 65 degrees.
This report presents the results obtained from gust and draft velocity measurements within thunderstorms for the period August 23, 1946 to September 4, 1946 at Orlando, Florida. These data are summarized in tables I end II and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. In several of the surveys, indications of ambient air temperature were obtained from photo-observer records. These data are summarized in table III.
The results of tests made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a solid brake, a slotted brake, and a dive-recovery flap mounted on a high aspect ratio wing at high Mach numbers are presented. The data were obtained in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel for corrected Mach numbers up to 0.940. The results have been analyzed with regard to the suitability of dive-control devices for a proposed high-speed airplane in limiting the airplane terminal Mach number by the use of dive brakes and in achieving favorable dive-recovery characteristics by the use of a dive-recovery flap. The analysis of the results indicated that the slotted brake would limit the proposed airplane terminal Mach number to values below 0.880 for altitudes up to 35,000 feet and a wing loading of 80 pounds per square foot and the dive-recovery flap would produce trim changes required for controlled pull-outs at 25,000 feet for a Mach number range from 0.800 to 0.900. Basic changes in spanwise loading are presented to aid in the evaluation of the wing strength requirements.
Knock-limited performance data were obtained for three fuels on an R-1830-75 engine in a B-24D airplane at engine speeds of 1800, 2250, and 2600 rpm, a spark advance of 25 degrees B.T.C., and carburetor-air temperatures of 85 F for 1800 and 2250 rpm and 100 F for 2600 rpm. The test fuels were a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 20 percent triptane (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL/gal), a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 15 percent toluene (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL / gal), and 28-R fuel. The knock-limited manifold pressure of the toluene blend depreciated more in the lean region than the triptane blend or 28-R fuel. The knock-limited brake horsepower for the triptane blend varied from 16 to 25 percent higher than 28-R in the lean region and 18 to 30 percent higher in the rich region. The knock-limited brake horsepower of the toluene blend was approximately 15 percent higher than that of 28-R in the rich region and varied from 2 to 10 percent higher in the lean region. Knock limits of the triptane blend and 28-R fuel tested in the R-1830-75 engine agreed with limits for the same fuels determined with the R-1830-94 engine for engine speeds of 1800 and 2250 rpm.
An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics and the oil delivery critical altitude of the oil-cooler installation of an XTB2D-1 airplane. The investigation was made with the propeller removed end with the engine operating at 1800 brake horsepower, an altitude of 15,000 feet (except for tests of oil-delivery critical altitude), oil-cooler flap deflections from -20 degrees to 20 degrees and inclinations of the thrust axis of 0 degrees, 1.5 degrees, and 6 degrees. At an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and with the propeller operating, the total-pressure recovery coefficient at the face of the oil cooler varied from 0.84 to 1.10 depending on the flap deflection. With the propeller removed, the best pressure recovery at the face of the oil cooler was obtained at an inclination of the thrust axis of 1.5 degrees. Air-flow separation occurred on the inner surface of the upper lip of the oil-cooler duct inlet at an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and on the inner surface of the lower lip at 6 degrees. Static pressure coefficients over the duct lips were sufficiently low that no trouble from compressibility would be encountered in level flight. The oil-delivery critical altitude at cruising power (2230 rpm, 1675 bhp) was approximately 18,500 feet for the oil system tested.
An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of three design modifications of the original NACA injection impeller on the performance of an R-3350 engine. Different methods of injecting the fuel into the impeller air stream were studied and evaluated from the individual cylinder fuel-air ratios and the resulting cylinder temperatures. Each impeller was tested for a range of engine powers normally used in flight operation. The relatively simple design of the original injection impeller produced approximately the same mixture- and temperature-distribution characteristics as the modified impellers of more complex design. None of the modifications appreciably affected the manifold pressure, the combustion-air flow, nor the throttle angle required to maintain a given engine power,.
Tests were performed on a partial span of the wing of a McDonnell XFD-1 airplane to determine a combination of sealed internal balance and spring-tab stiffness for the aileron that would give satisfactory stick-force characteristics for the airplane. Two sealed internal balances were tested in combination with spring tabs of various stiffnesses. One of the combinations was tested at several speeds to determine the variation of stick force with speed. Estimates, based on the results of the tests, indicate that for this airplane any reduction of stick force by use of the spring tab reduces the helix angle pb/2V below the required value of 0.09. The estimates show that, of the configurations tested, the most satisfactory combination for obtaining a stick force of 30 pounds at 300 miles per hour indicated airspeed is a 0.48-chord internal balance in combination with a spring-tab stiffness of 500 pounds per inch. With this combination, a wing-tip helix angle of 0.078 is estimated. Stick-force curves for all configurations show a rapid increase in stick force above approximately 20 deg. total aileron deflection.
Spin tests have been performed in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/18-scale model of the Fairchild XNQ-1 airplane. The spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal gross-weight loading and for two variations from this loading - center of gravity moved rearward and relative mass distribution increased along the fuselage. These tests were performed for two vertical-tail plan forms. The investigation also included simulated pilot-escape tests and rudder-force tests. The recovery characteristics of the model were satisfactory for all conditions tested by full reversal of the rudder and by simultaneous neutralization of the rudder and elevator. It was indicated that if necessary to escape from the spinning airplane, the pilot should jump from the outboard side of the fuselage and as far rearward as possible. Aa determined from spin model tests, the rudder pedal force required to reverse the rudder for recovery from the spin will be light.
Because the results of preliminary flight tests had indicated. the P-63A-1 airplane possessed insufficient directional stability, the NACA and the manufacturer (Bell Aircraft Corporation) suggested three vertical-tail modifications to remedy the deficiencies in the directional characteristics. These modifications included an enlarged vertical tail formed by adding a tip extension to the original vertical tail, a large sharp-edge ventral fin, and a small dorsal fin. The enlarged vertical tail involved only a slight increase in total vertical-tail area from 23.73 to 26.58 square feet but a relatively much larger increase in geometric aspect ratio from 1.24 to 1.73 based on height and area above the horizontal tail. At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces, flight tests were made to determine the effect of these modifications and of some combinations of these modifications on the directional stability and control characteristics of the airplane, In all, six different vertical-tail. configurations were investigated to determine the lateral and directional oscillation characteristics of the airplane, the sideslip characteristics, the yaw due to ailerons in rudder-fixed rolls from turns and pull-outs, the trim changes due to speed changes; and the trim changes due to power changes. Results of the tests showed that the enlarged vertical tail approximately doubled the directional stability of the airplane and that the pilots considered the directional stability provided by the enlarged vertical tail to be satisfactory. Calculations based on sideslip data obtained at an indicated airspeed of 300 miles per hour showed that the directional stability of the airplane with the original vertical tail corresponded to a value of 0(sub n beta) of -0.00056 whereas for the enlarged vertical tail the estimated va1ue of C(sub n beta) was -0.00130, The ventral fin was found to increase by a moderate amount the directional stability of the airplane with ...
The cooling characteristics of three R-1830-94 engines, two of which were mounted in a test stand and the other in a B-24D airplane, were investigated and the results were compared. The flight tests were made at a pressure altitude of 7000 feet; the test-stand runs were made at ground-level atmospheric conditions. Three cooling runs were made for each engine: variable cooling-air pressure drop, variable carburetor-air flow, and variable fuel-air ratio. Actual cylinder temperatures of the three engines at nearly the same operating conditions of charge-air flow, fuel-air ratio, and cooling-air pressure drop paralleled predicted temperatures for the same conditions. This result was found to be true for a limited period of engine running time, this period coinciding with the time during which the cooling-correlation data were taken.
The data obtained from cooling tests of an R-2800-21 engine installed in a p-47G airplane were studied to determine which engine and airplane operation variables were mainly responsible for the extremely uneven temperature distribution among the 18 engine cylinders obtained at the medium and high engine-power conditions. The tests consisted of flights at altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet for the normal range of engine and airplane operation. The results of the study showed that a flow condition in the induction system associated with the wide-open throttle position, which affected either the fuel air or charge distribution, was primarily responsible for the uneven temperature distribution. For the range of fuel-air ratios tested (0.080 to 0.102), the temperature distribution remained essentially unchanged. The individual effects of thrust-axis inclination, cowl-flap opening, and quantity of auxiliary air were found to be secondary in importance. At low angles of throttle opening, engine speed was found to have little effect on the temperature pattern.
Flight tests were conducted on a R-2800-21 engine in the P-47G airplane to determine the effect on the wall temperatures of cylinder 10 of throttling the charge in the intake pipe and of injecting a water-ethanol coolant into the intake pipe. Cylinder 10 was chosen for this investigation because it runs abnormally hot (head temperatures of the order of 45 F higher than those of the next hottest cylinder) at the medium and high-power conditions. Tests with interchanged cylinders showed that the excessive temperatures of cylinder 10 were inherent in the cylinder location and were not due to the mechanical condition of the cylinder assembly. Throttling the charge in the intake pipe is a simpler method than coolant injection into the intake pipe particularly when only one cylinder is considerably hotter than any other. Coolant injection into the individual cylinders is a more efficient method than throttling in the intake pipe and is warranted when several cylinders are to be cooled or when parts of the complex equipment required are already available.
An investigation was made in the Cleveland Altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance of an Aeroproducts H20C-162-X11M2 four-blade propeller on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and high engine powers. The propeller characteristics were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and 0.50. The results of the force measurements are indicative only of trends in propeller efficiency with changes in power coefficient and advance-diameter ratio because unknown interference effects existed during the investigation. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.40, the envelopes of the efficiency curves decreased about 11% between advance-diameter ratios of 2.40 and 4.40. An increase in power coefficient from 0.30 to 0.80 at an advance-diameter ratio of 2.40 had little effect on the propeller efficiency. A change in power coefficient from 0.40 to 1.00 at an advance-diameter ratio of 4.40 increased the propeller efficiency by about 40%. For conditions below the stall the thrust loading on the outboard blade sections increased more rapidly than on the inboard sections as the power coefficient was increased or as the advance-diameter ratio was decreased. For conditions beyond the stall, the thrust loading decreased on the outboard sections and increased on the inboard sections.
The results of an investigation of a 1/3-scale model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 airplane in the Langley full-scale tunnel are presented in this report. The maximum lift and stalling characteristics of several model configurations, the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model, and the effectiveness of the control surfaces were determined with the propellers removed. The propulsive characteristics, the effect of propeller operation on the lift, and the static thrust of the model propellers were determined at several propeller-blade angles. The results with the propellers removed showed that the maximum lift coefficient of the complete model configuration was only 0.97 was compared with the value of 1.31 for the model configuration in which the engine-air ducts and canopy are removed. The model with the propellers removed (normal center-of-gravity position) has a positive static margin, stick fixed, varying from 5 to 13 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The unit horizontal tail is sufficiently powerful to trim the airplane with the propellers removed throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The peak propulsive efficiencies for beta = 20 degrees and beta = 30 degrees were increased 7 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.67 and 20 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.74, respectively, with the propellers rotating upward in the center than with the propellers rotating downward in the center. Indications are that the minimum forward-flight speed of the airplane for full-power operation at sea level will be about 90 miles per hour. Decreasing the weight and increasing the power reduced this value of minimum speed and there were no indications from the results of a lower limit to the minimum speed.
An investigation was conducted in the Langley impact basin of the water loads on a half scale model of the XJL-1 hull whose forebody has a vee bottom with exaggerated chine flare. The impact loads, moments, and pressures were determined for a range of landing conditions. A normal full-scale landing speed of 86 miles per hour was represented with effective flight paths ranging from 0.6deg to 11.6deg. Landings were made with both fixed trim and free-to-trim mounting of the float over a trim range of -15deg to 12deg into smooth water and into waves having equivalent full-scale length. of 120 feet and heights ranging from 1 to 4 feet. All data and results presented in this report are given in terms of equivalent full-scale values. Summary tables and illustrative plots are used in presenting the material. The following maximum values of load and pressure are those which are apropos for effective flight paths less than 6.5deg which was the maximum value obtained in tests with the XJL-1 hull model representing full-scale landings with vertical velocity of 4.5 feet per second into 4-foot waves. The maximum local pressure on the flat portion of the bottom is 130 pounds per square inch which was measured on a 2-inch-diameter circular area near the step. The maximum local pressure obtained in the curved area near the chines is 200 pounds per square inch. This pressure was also measured near the step.
During the first flight tests of the Republic XP-84 airplane it was discovered that there was a complete lack of stall warning. A short series of development tests of a suitable stall-warning device for the airplane was therefore made on a 1/5-scale model in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel. Two similar stall-warning devices, each designed to produce early root stall which would provide a buffet warning, were tested. It appeared that either device would give a satisfactory buffet warning in the flap-up configuration, at the cost of an increase of 8 or 10 miles per hour in minimum speed. Although neither device seemed to give a true buffet warning in the flaps-down configuration, it appeared that either device would improve the flaps-down stalling characteristics by lessening the severity of the stall and by maintaining better control at the stall. The flaps-down minimum-speed increase caused by the devices was only 1 or 2 miles per hour.
This paper presents the results of the aileron investigation and includes rolling-moment, yawing-moment, and aileron hinge-moment coefficients and pressure coefficients across the aileron-balance seal through a range of angle of attack, tab deflection, and aileron deflection with flaps neutral and deflected 20 degrees and 55 degrees. Some of the effects of wing roughness and balance seal leakage on the aileron and tab characteristics are also presented.
An investigation of a 1/7-scale powered model of the Kaiser Fleetwing all-wing airplane was made in the Langley full-scale tunnel to provide data for an estimation of the flying qualities of the airplane. The analysis of the stability and control characteristics of the airplane has been made as closely as possible in accordance with the requirements of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department's specifications, and a summary of the more significant conclusions is presented as follows. With the normal center of gravity located at 20 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord, the airplane will have adequate static longitudinal stability, elevator fixed, for all flight conditions except for low-power operation at low speeds where the stability will be about neutral. There will not be sufficient down-elevator deflection available for trim above speeds of about 130 miles per hour. It is probable that the reduction in the up-elevator deflections required for trim will be accompanied by reduced elevator hinge moments for low-power operation at low flight speeds. The static directional stability for this airplane will be low for all rudder-fixed or rudder-free flight conditions. The maximum rudder deflection of 30 deg will trim only about 15 deg yaw for most flight conditions and only 10 deg yaw for the condition with low power at low speeds. Also, at low powers and low speeds, it is estimated that the rudders will not trim the total adverse yaw resulting from an abrupt aileron roll using maximum aileron deflection. The airplane will meet the requirements for stability and control for asymmetric power operation with one outboard engine inoperative. The airplane would have no tendency for directional divergence but would probably be spirally unstable, with rudders fixed. The static lateral stability of the airplane will probably be about neutral for the high-speed flight conditions and will ...
Summaries of the gust and draft velocities evaluated from acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA instruments installed n P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 12 and 13 of July 19, 1946, and July 20, 1946, respectively, are presented in tables I and II herein. These data are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Inspection of the motion picture records of the pilots' instrument panels for the present flights indicated that the milliameter connected to equipment for measuring ambient air temperature read zero throughout all traverses.
In.order to determine the aerodynamic effects of an auxiliary belly fuel tank on the Grumman F8F-1 airplane, a wind-tunnel investigation was made on a l/5 - scale model of the Grumman XF8F-1 airplane. Pitch and yaw tests were made with the model in the cruising and landing configurations for windmilling and take-off power conditions. Tuft studies and static-pressure measurements were also made to determine the flow characteristics in the region of the fuel tank. It was found that, at low speed, the auxiliary fuel tank test conditions, especially with power on in the landing configuration at high lift coefficients. The static directional stability was decreased for most test conditions, but the addition of a fairing between the fuselage and fuel tank improved the directional stability slightly in the power-on clean condition. The effective dihedral and lateral force were increased for most of the conditions tested. The tuft studies and pressure measurements indicated that the removal of the away braces would improve the.flow characteristics considerably in the region of the fuel tank end might also decrease the buffeting of the belly tank at high speeds.
The results obtained from an evaluation for gust and draft velocities of acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA recording instruments installed in P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 6, 7, and 8 of July 9, 1946, July 10, 1946, and July 11, 1946, respectively, are presented herein. These data are summarized in tables I and II. In accordance with a recent discussion with a member of the U.S. Weather Bureau staff, the tabulated results for the present flight include in addition to data of the type presented in reference 1, the initial heading of the airplane for each traverse, the pressure altitude at the start of each traverse in increments of 500 feet, and the gust gradient distance when it could be evaluated. The cloud entry and exit times for the present data were taken from motion-picture records of the pilot's instrument panels whenever such records were available while the length fo the traverses in seconds and feet was taken from the airspeed-altitude records. In many cases, however, poor agreement is indicated between the duration of the cloud traverses as obtained from the motion-picture records and from the airspeed-altitude records. This result is believed to be due to camera stoppages, inaccurate spring mechanisms of the clocks, and loss of motion-picture record in exposure or development. With reference to the evaluation of gust data, the nominal threshold was about 2 feet per second. In making gust counts to this threshold, some gusts below that threshold have been included due to limitations of the procedure used. Thus, it will be noted that in some instances gust counts are given in table I although now corresponding gust velocities are listed.
The gust and draft velocities evaluated from acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA instruments installed in P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 9, 10, and 11 of July 12, 1946, July 17, 1946, and July 18, 1946, respectively, are presented in references 1 and 2 for previous flights. In accordance with a recent discussion with a member of the U.S. Weather Bureau staff, motion-picture records of the pilots' instrument panels for the present flights were inspected to note variations in the readings of a milliammeter used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature. The inspection indicated that the instrument read zero throughout all traverses.
A spin investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane, The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal-fighter condition. The investigation also included tests for the take-off fighter condition (wing-tip tanks plus fuel added) spin-recovery parachutes, and simulated pilot escape. In general, for the normal-fighter condition, the model was extremely oscillatory in roll, pitch, and yaw. The angles of the fuselage varied from extremely flat to inverted attitudes, and the model rotated with the rudder in a series of short turns and glides. Recoveries by rudder reversal were rapid but the model would immediately go into a spin in the other direction. Recoveries by merely neutralizing the rudder were satisfactory when the elevator and ailerons were set to neutral, the ensuing flight path being a steep glide. Thus, it is recommended that all controls be neutralized for safe recovery from spins obtained on the airplane. With the external wing-tip tanks installed, the spins were somewhat less oscillatory in roll but recovery could not be obtained unless full-down elevator was used in conjunction with the rudder. If a spin is entered inadvertently with the full-scale airplane with external wing-tip tanks installed and if recovery is not imminent after a recovery attempt is made, it is recommended that the tanks be jettisoned and the controls neutralized.
Tests have been made in Langley tank no. I of a dynamic model of the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 airplane. These tests were made using an alternate hull form, the purpose of which was to reduce the bow spray and eliminate the landing instability which are objectionable features of the production design. The major differences from the PB2Y-3 hull included a deeper step to improve the landing stability , and a lengthened forebody and increased beam to reduce the sway in the propellers and on the flaps. The tests showed that the spray characteristics of the revised hull form were much better than that ot the production design. In addition the take-off and landing stability of the model with the alternate hull were satisfactory.
A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 ...
Tests of a powered dynamic model of the Columbia XJL-1 amphibian were made in Langley tank no.1 to determine the hydrodynamic stability and spray characteristics of the basic hull and to investigate the effects of modifications on these characteristics. Modifications to the forebody chime flare, the step, and the afterbody, and an increase in the angle of incidence of the wing were included in the test program. The seaworthiness and spray characteristics were studied from simulated taxi runs in smooth and rough water. The trim limits of stability, the range of stable positions of the enter of gravity for take-off, and the landing stability were determined in smooth water. The aerodynamic lift, pitching moment, and thrust were determined at speeds up to take-off speed.
The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and condition, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-limited performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition limit was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition limits of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order ...
An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel to determine the lift, drag, pitching-moment and stalling characteristics fo a 1/4 -scale partial-span model of the left wing of the Republic XF-12 airplane. The effects of a duct inlet, located between the nacelles at the leading edge of the wing, on those characteristics were also investigated. The Reynolds numbers for the investigation covered a range from 4,500,000 to 8,600,000. The results of the investigation indicated that maximum lift coefficients of 1.36, 1.71, and 2.11 were measured on the model with flaps neutral and deflected 20 deg and 55 deg, respectively at a Reynolds number of 8,600,000. When the duct inlet was replaced by a basic airfoil nose the flap-neutral maximum-lift coefficient was increased from 1.36 to 1.41. The results also showed that at maximum lift with flaps neutral or deflected 55 deg. most of the area between the nacelles were stalled while only small areas on other portions of the model were stalled; when the duct inlet was replaced by the basic airfoil nose the stall was delayed to a slightly higher angle of attack but the nature of the stall was relatively unaffected.
An investigation of the 19XB-2A gas turbine is being conducted at the Cleveland laboratory to determine the effect on turbine performance of various inlet pressures, inlet temperatures, pressure ratios, and wheel speeds. The engine of which this turbine is a component is designed to operate at an air flow of 30 pounds per second at a compressor rotor speed of 17,000 rpm at sea-level conditions. At these conditions the total-pressure ratio is 2.08 across the turbine and the turbine inlet total temperature is 2000 degrees R. Runs have been made with turbine inlet total pressures of 20, 30, 40, and 45 inches of mercury absolute for a constant total pressure ratio across the turbine of 2.40, the maximum value that could be obtained. Additional runs have been made with total pressure ratios of 1.50 and 2.00 at an inlet total pressure of 45 inches of mercury absolute. All runs were made with an inlet total temperature of 800 degrees R over a range of corrected turbine wheel speeds from 40 to 150 percent of the corrected speed at the design point. The turbine efficiencies at these conditions are presented.
A high-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a full-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee Lark indicates that the missile possesses satisfactory longitudinal-stability and-control characteristics throughout the Mach number range from 0.2 to 0.85, but that the maximum lift coefficients developed are not high enough to insure interception of the target at high altitudes. A reduction in wing loading appears advisable. Although the static longitudinal stability at zero angle of attack changes with Mach number and with lift coefficient, satisfactory control should be possible at all times as the tails retain their relatively large effectiveness throughout the range of Mach numbers and lift coefficients tested. Minimum stability and maximum maneuverability occur around 0.80 Mach number and 0.2 lift coefficient, which corresponds to level flight conditions of the missile. The optimum ratio of tail-to-wing deflection is 0.4.
An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance of a Curtiss propeller with four 838-lC2-lSRl blades on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and engine powers. The study was made for a range of power coefficients between 0.30 and 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and 0.50. The results of the force measurements indicate primarily the trend of propeller efficiency for changes in power coefficient or advance-diameter ratio, inasmuch as corrections for the effects of tunnel-wall constriction on the installation have not been applied. Slip-stream pressure surveys across the propeller disk are presented to illustrate blade thrust load distribution for several operating conditions. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.40, nearly constant peak efficiencies were obtained at power coefficients from 0.30 to 0.70. A change in power coefficient from 0.70 to 0.90 reduced the peak efficiency about 5 percent. Blade stall at the tip sections became evident for a power coefficient of 0.91 when the advance-diameter ratio was reduced to 1.87. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.50, the highest propeller efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients from 0.80 to 1.00 at advance-diameter ratios above 2.90. At advance-diameter ratios below 2.90, the highest efficiencies were obtained for power coefficients of 0.60 and 0.70. The envelope of the efficiency curves decreased about 12 percent between advance-diameter ratios of 2.60 and 4.20. Local compressibility effects became evident for a power coefficient of 0.40 when the advance-diameter ratio was decreased to 1.75.
An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the performance of a Curtiss 732-1C2-0 four-blade propeller on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and engine power. Propeller characteristics were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and .50.
A supersonic inlet with supersonic deceleration of the flow entirely outside of the inlet is considered. A particular arrangement with fixed geometry having a central body with a circular annular intake is analyzed, and it is shown theoretically that this arrangement gives high pressure recovery for a large range of Mach number and mass flow and therefore is practical for use on supersonic airplanes and missiles. For some Mach numbers the drag coefficient for this type of inlet is larger than the drag coefficient for the type of inlet with supersonic compression entirely inside, but the pressure recovery is larger for all flight conditions. The differences in drag can be eliminated for the design Mach number. Experimental results confirm the results of the theoretical analysis and show that pressure recoveries of 95 percent for Mach numbers of 1.33 and 1.52, 92 percent for a Mach number of 1.72, and 86 percent for a Mach number oof 2.10 are possible with the configurations considered. If the mass flow decreases, the total drag coefficient increases gradually and the pressure recovery does not change appreciably.
An investigation of the performance of several propellers on the YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces. As part of the program, a study was made of a Curtiss 836-14C2-18R1 four-blade propeller. The investigation was made for a range of power coefficients from 0.10 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50 for density altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet, engine powers from 150 to 2500 brake horsepower, and for engine speeds from 1000 to 2900 rpm. The propeller efficiencies were obtained from force measurements and the blade thrust load distribution was obtained by two diametrically opposed slipstream survey rakes shown in this paper.
At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, investigations of the static-pressure losses and total-head distributions of the Westinghouse X24-C-2 inlet screen were made in the induction aerodynamics laboratory at Langley. The screen was investigated in two configurations, both before and after rounding the leading edges of the vanes. Investigations were conducted through air flows up to about pounds per second. The results of the investigations indicate that maximum lift coefficients of 1.36, 1.71 and 2.11 were measured on the model with flaps neutral and deflected 20 deg. and 55 deg, respectively, at a reynolds number of 8,600,000. When the duct inlet was replaced by a basic airfoil nose the flap neutral maximum lift coefficient was increased from 1.36 to 1.41. The results also showed that at maximum lift with flaps neutral or deflected 55 deg most of the area between the nacelles was stalled while only small areas on other portions of the model were stalled; when the duct inlet was replaced by the basic airfoil nose the stall was delayed to a slightly higher angle of attack but the nature of the stall was relatively unaffected.
A dynamically similar model of the Army P-38 airplane was tested to determine the best way to land this airplane on the water and to determine its probable ditching performance. The tests consisted of ditching the model at various landing attitudes, flap settings, speeds, weights, and conditions of simulated damage. The model was ditched in calm water from the tank towing carriage and a few ditching were made in both calm and rough water at the outdoor catapult. The performance of the model was determined by making visual observations, by recording lengths of run and time histories of decelerations, and by taking motion pictures of the ditchings.
At the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces, flight tests were conducted on a P-5lD-20-NA (AAF No. 44-63826) airplane equipped with a horn-balanced rudder. This rudder was fitted with an unbalancing tab as was the original product fan rudder. Tests were made both with the unbalancing tab in operation and with the unbalancing tab locked. The modification to the original vertical tail consisted of removing the cap from the top of the fin and adding 1.91 square feet of area to the rudder as the horn balance and 0.82 square foot of area to the top of the rudder aft of the hinge line. A comparison of the directional stability and control characteristics of the P-51D airplane with three different vertical-tail configurations - the horn balance, original production, and extended tail (with unbalancing tab locked) configurations are presented herein. The tests of the horn-balanced rudder were conducted at the Langley Laboratory in 1945. The tests of the original-tail configuration were previously conducted at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. Tests of the extended-tail configuration were conducted at the Langley Laboratory and are reported.
Tests of a model of the XJR2F-Y amphibian were made in Langley tank no. to determine the spray characteristics and the take-off and landing stability. At a gross load of 22,000 pounds full size, spray entered the propeller disk only at a very narrow range of speeds. The spray striking the flaps was not excessive and no appreciable wetting of the tail surfaces was noted. The trim limits of stability appeared to be satisfactory and the upper-limit porpoising was not violent. The stable range of center-of-gravity locations with flaps set 20deg was well aft of the desired operating range. However, with flaps up, the forward limit was about 18 percent mean aerodynamic chord and the aft limit about 28.5 percent mean aerodynamic chord at a load of 26,000 pounds and with elevators deflected -10deg. Under these conditions the location of the step is considered satisfactory. Tests showed that the effect of water in the nose-wheel well would be to move the forward limit aft about 2-percent mean aerodynamic chord. Without ventilation of the main step, the model skipped during landing at most trims, but this skipping was not violent. With the ventilation, the model skipped lightly only at trims where the afterbody keel was approximately parallel to the water (around 7.5 deg).
A spin-tunnel investigation of a 1/26 scale model of the Douglas XTB2D-1 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect- and inverted-spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for various loading conditions. Tests were also performed to determine the effects of various tail modifications. The investigation included emergency spin-recovery parachute tests as well as crew-escape and rudder- and elevator-force tests. All tests were performed at an equivalent spin altitute of 20,000 feet. The recovery characteristics of the model in the original design were found to be unsatisfactory. Installation of a large ventral fin, installation of tip fins on the horizontal tail, or installation of a small ventral fin in combination with antispan fillets and a spanwise extension of the horizontal-tail surfaces satisfactorily improved the recovery characteristics of the model.
Three modifications of the auxiliary-stage supercharger for the V-1710-93 engine were designed and tested as part of an investigation to improve the power output and the altitude performance of the engine. A 12-vane diffuser was substituted for the standard 11-vane diffuser, and a vaneless discharge passage and a modified scroll were designed to increase the flow capacity of the supercharger and thereby to increase the performance at the high volume flows required by the engine. With the 12-vane diffuser installed and the carburetor replaced by an adapter, the equivalent volume flow at the peak efficiency point was increased 25 percent at the lowest speed investigated and 9.5 percent at the highest speed. When the carburetor was used, any increase in equivalent volume flow was masked by choking in the carburetor. A small decrease in the peak adiabatic efficiency resulted from using the 12-vane diffuser. At the high volume flows where the supercharger is required to operate, the performance was improved by the 12-vane diffuser. With the vaneless discharge passage, the surge-free range of the supercharger was increased 35 percent at the lowest tip speed investigated by increasing the maximum air flow. The maximum air flow at high tip speeds was again limited by choking in the carburetor, which masked the effect of the vaneless discharge passage on the maximum air flow. At the high volume flows near the operating point of the supercharger, the performance with the vaneless discharge passage was better than that with the standard 11-vane diffuser. At the low volume flows when the standard 11-vane diffuser gave better performance. The modified scroll gave performance characteristics that were practically the same as those of the standard scroll except at high tip speeds, where the peak performance was improved.
The NACA 6A-series airfoil sections were designed to eliminate the trailing-edge cusp which is characteristic of the NACA 6-series sections. Theoretical data are presented for NACA 6A-series basic thickness forms having the position of minimum pressure at 30-, 40-, and 50-percent chord and with thickness ratios varying from 6 percent to 15 percent. Also presented are data for a mean line designed to maintain straight sides on the cambered sections. The experimental results of a two dimensional wind tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of five NACA 64A-series airfoil sections and two NACA 63A-series airfoil sections are presented. An analysis of these results, which were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3 x 10(exp 6), 6 x 10(exp 6), and 9 x 10(exp 6), indicates that the section minimum drag and maximum lift characteristics of comparable NACA 6-series and 6A-series airfoil sections are essentially the same. The quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients and angles of zero lift of NACA 6A-series airfoil sections are slightly more negative than those of corresponding NACA 6-series airfoil sections. The position of the aerodynamic center and the lift-curve slope of smooth NACA 6-series sections. The addition of standard leading-edge roughness causes the lift-curve slope of the newer sections to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness ratio.
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