National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 4,145 Matching Results

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Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces

Description: From Summary: "Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory."
Date: 1940
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Katzoff, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-Layer Transition on the N.A.C.A. 0012 and 23012 Airfoils in the 8-Foot High-Speed Wind Tunnel

Description: Report presenting determinations of boundary-layer transition on the NACA 0012 and 23012 airfoils in the high-speed wind tunnel over a range of Reynolds numbers. For all of the lift coefficients that testing occurred at, transition occurred in the region of estimated laminar separation at low Reynolds numbers and approached the point of minimum static pressure as a forward limit at high Reynolds numbers.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Becker, John V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-Layer Transition on the N.A.C.A. 0012 and 23012 Airfoils in the 8-Foot High-Speed Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Description: Determinations of boundary-layer transition on the NACA 0012 and 2301 airfoils were made in the 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel over a range of Reynolds Numbers from 1,600,000 to 16,800,000. The results are of particular significance as compared with flight tests and tests in wind tunnels of appreciable turbulence because of the extremely low turbulence in the high-speed tunnel. A comparison of the results obtained on NACA 0012 airfoils of 2-foot and 5-foot chord at the same Reynolds Number permitted an evaluation of the effect of compressibility on transition.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Becker, John V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constant-pressure blowers

Description: The conventional axial blowers operate on the high-pressure principle. One drawback of this type of blower is the relatively low pressure head, which one attempts to overcome with axial blowers producing very high pressure at a given circumferential speed. The Schicht constant-pressure blower affords pressure ratios considerably higher than those of axial blowers of conventional design with approximately the same efficiency.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Sörensen, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of cooling data from an air-cooled cylinder and several multicylinder engines

Description: The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of electrical strain gages

Description: The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance strain gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the strain gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: De Forest, A V & Leaderman, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DFS dive-control brakes for gliders and airplanes ; and, Analytical study of the drag of the DFS dive-control brake

Description: These two reports are surveys on the progress and present state of development of dive-control flaps for gliders and airplanes. The second article describes how on the basis of wind tunnel and free-flight tests, the drag increase on brake flaps of the type DFS, can be predicted. Pressure records confirm a two-dimensional load distribution along the brake-flap surface Aerodynamically, the location of the brake flaps along the span is of importance for reasons of avoidance of vibration and oscillation phenomena on control and tail surfaces; statically, because of the magnitude of the frontal drag in diving with respect to the bending moments, which may become decisive for the dimensions of the wing attachment and for the wing covering.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Jacobs, Hans & Wanner, Adolf
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of wing loading, aspect ratio, and span loading of flight performances

Description: An investigation is made of the possible improvements in maximum, cruising, and climbing speeds attainable through increase in the wing loading. The decrease in wing area was considered for the two cases of constant aspect ratio and constant span loading. For a definite flight condition, an investigation is made to determine what loss in flight performance must be sustained if, for given reasons, certain wing loadings are not to be exceeded. With the aid of these general investigations, the trend with respect to wing loading is indicated and the requirements to be imposed on the landing aids are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Gothert, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective gust structure at low altitudes as determined from the reactions of an airplane

Description: Measurements of gust structure and gust intensity were made in the lower levels of the atmosphere (0 to 3,500 ft.). An Aeronca C-2 airplane was used as the measuring instrument, the gust structure being derived from the recorded motions of the airplane. Data were also obtained on wind velocities and temperatures as functions of altitude for use in attempting to correlate the gust-structure data with various meteorological quantities. The results indicated little or no correlation between the gust velocity and the gradient distance. The data, however, did indicate that an airplane the size of the Aeronca will respond most frequently to gusts having gradient distance of the order of 30 feet. The maximum true gust velocity measured during the investigation was 25 feet per second.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Donely, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flame speeds and energy considerations for explosions in a spherical bomb

Description: Simultaneous measurements were made of the speed of flame and the rise in pressure during explosions of mixtures of carbon monoxide, normal heptane, iso-octane, and benzene in a 10-inch spherical bomb with central ignition. From these records, fundamental properties of the explosive mixtures, which are independent of the apparatus, were computed. The transformation velocity, or speed at which flame advances into and transforms the explosive mixture, increases with both the temperature and the pressure of the unburned gas. The rise in pressure was correlated with the mass of charge inflamed to show the course of the energy developed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Fiock, Ernest F; Marvin, Charles F , Jr; Caldwell, Frank R & Roeder, Carl H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The frequencies of cantilever wings in beam and torsional vibrations

Description: From Summary: "Methods are described for calculating the period and frequency of vibration of cantilever wings and similar structures in which the weight and moment of inertia vary along the span. Both the beam and torsional frequencies may be calculated by these methods. The procedure is illustrated by examples."
Date: January 1940
Creator: Burgess, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Section

Description: This report gives the exact treatment of the problem of determining the 2-dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any type. The treatment is based directly on the solution of this problem as advanced by Theodorsen in NACA-TR-411. The problem condenses into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process.
Date: 1940
Creator: Theodorsen, T. & Garrick, I. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigations on the incompletely developed plane diagonal-tension field

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knocking in an internal-combustion engine

Description: The question remains open of the relation between the phenomena of knocking in the engine and the explosion wave. The solution of this problem is the object of this paper. The tests were conducted on an aircraft engine with a pyrex glass window in the cylinder head. Photographs were then taken of various combinations of fuels and conditions.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Sokolik, A & Voinov, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Longitudinal stability and control with special reference to slipstream effects

Description: Report presents the results of a study of data obtained in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel concerning the effects of interference and of propeller operation on longitudinal stability and control. The data include pitching moments for various power conditions for airplanes with tails removed and with tails set at various stabilizer and elevator angles. A number of surveys of the dynamic pressure and the flow direction in the region of the horizontal tail surface are also included. Results are given for eight airplanes, including a model of a four-engine airplane tested both as a tractor and as a pushed and a model of two-engine pusher. The effects are shown of propeller operation on the downwash angles and the dynamic pressures at the tail and on the pitching-moment contribution of the propeller and the wing.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Katzoff, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of flush-riveted joints

Description: Report discusses the strength of several types of flush-riveted joints, including single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens. The stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio are provided. Dimpled joints were found to be the strongest, but their strength was heavily influenced by the details of their construction.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Bruggeman, Wm. C. & Roop, Frederick C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

Description: The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, dimpled joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomicrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Brueggeman, W C & Roop, Frederick C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is undertaking an investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes. The work consists in the determination of the significant qualities susceptible of measurement, the development of the instruments required to make the measurements, and the accumulation of data on the flying qualities of existing airplanes, which data are to serve as a basis for quantitative specifications for the flying qualities of future designs. A tentative schedule of measurable flying qualities has been prepared and the instruments needed for their measurements have been assembled. A trial of the schedule and the instruments has been made using the Stinson SR-8e airplane. The results showed that, although the original schedule and instruments are basically satisfactory some further development is required to eliminate nonessential items and to expedite flight testing. The report describes and discusses the work done with this airplane.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Soule, H A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Harris, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propeller rotation noise due to torque and thrust

Description: Sound pressure of the first four harmonics of rotation from a full-scale two-blade propeller were measured and are compared with values calculated from theory. The comparison is made (1) for the space distribution with constant tip speed and (2) for fixed space angles with variable tip speed. A relation for rotation noise from an element of radius developed by Gutin is given showing the effect of number of blades on the rotation noise.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Deming, Arthur F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears

Description: A theoretical study was made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called kinematic shimmy. Experimental checks, use being made of a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and the spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy are given. A new method of avoiding shimmy -- lateral freedom -- is introduced.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static thrust and power characteristics of six full-scale propellers

Description: Static thrust and power measurements were made of six full-scale propellers. The propellers were mounted in front of a liquid-cooled-engine nacelle and were tested at 15 different blade angles in the range from -7 1/2 degrees to 35 degrees at 0.75r. The test rig was located outdoors and the tests were made under conditions of approximately zero wind velocity.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Hartman, Erwin P & Biermann, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department