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Flight Tests to Determine the Effect of Length of a Conical Windshield on the Drag of a Bluff Body at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Flight tests were conducted to determine the effect of length of a conical windshield on the drag of a bluff body moving at supersonic speeds. A comparison is made between results obtained and results of previous drag tests of body-windshield combinations.The effect of increasing the length of the windshield is discussed.
Date: January 29, 1947
Creator: Alexander, Sidney R. & Katz, Ellis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental static aerodynamic forces and moments at high subsonic speeds on a missile model during simulated launching from the midsemispan location of a 45 degree sweptback wing-fuselage-pylon combination

Description: An investigation was made at high subsonic speeds in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the static aerodynamic forces and moments on a missile model during simulated launching from the midsemispan location of a 45 degree sweptback wing-fuselage-pylon combination. The results indicated significant variations in all the aerodynamic components with changes in chordwise location of the missile. Increasing the angle of attack caused increases in the induced effects on the missile model because of the wing-fuselage-pylon combination. Increasing the Mach number had little effect on the variations of the missile aerodynamic characteristics with angle of attack except that nonlinearities were incurred at smaller angles of attack for the higher Mach numbers. The effects of finite wing thickness on the missile characteristics, at zero angle of attack, increase with increasing Mach number. The effects of the pylon on the missile characteristics were to causeincreases in the rolling-moment variation with angle of attack and a negative displacement of the pitching-moment curves at zero angle of attack. The effects of skewing the missile in the lateral direction relative to and sideslipping the missile with the wing-fuselage-pylon combination were to cause additional increments in side force at zero angle of attack. For the missile yawing moments the effects of changes in skew or sideslip angles were qualitatively as would be expected from consideration of the isolated missile characteristics, although there existed differences in theyawing-moment magnitudes.
Date: January 10, 1957
Creator: Alford, William J & King, Thomas, Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental investigation of effects of moderate sideslip on the flow fields near a 45 degree swept-wing-fuselage combination at low speed

Description: The flow fields near a 45 degree swept-wing-fuselage combination at moderate angles of sideslip (plus-or-minus 8 degrees), as determined experimentally at low speed, are presented as variations with chordwise distance for various spanwise and vertical locations and angles of attack. The results indicated that for positions close to the fuselage (on and near the plane of symmetry) changes in the angle of sideslip caused large changes in the flow-field characteristics and particularly in the local angles of sideslip, which in some cases were nearly double the static angle of sideslip. In general, the effects of changing the angle of sideslip on the flow-field characteristics for all of the outboard underwing locations were qualitatively similar, although conditions at the more inboard and outboard locations were somewhat more severe for lifting conditions than at the one-half semispan location. The chordwise gradients in the flow parameters for the underwing locations were more severe than for the fuselage locations although the effect of changing the angle of sideslip was less severe, in that the incremental changes in the local angles of sideslip were approximately equal to the static angle of sideslip. Flow conditions near the wing tip were found to be critically dependent on vertical location, with the largest sideslip-induced variations occurring at the nearest vertical locations. The results also indicated that for the outboard underwing locations the wing was the predominant factor in disturbing the field of flow for the conditions investigated.
Date: July 12, 1957
Creator: Alford, William J , Jr & King, Thomas J , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Static Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of a 0.15-Scale Model of the Hermes A-1E2 Missile at High Subsonic Mach Numbers

Description: The static longitudinal stability characteristics of a 0.15-scale model of the Hermes A-lE2 missile have been determined in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.98, corresponding to Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 12.3 x 10(exp 6) to 17.1 x 10(exp 6). This paper presents results obtained with body alone and body-fins combinations at 0 degrees (one set of fins vertical and the other set horizontal) and 45 degree angle of roll. The results indicate that the addition of the fins to the body insures static longitudinal stability and provides essentially linear variations of the lift and pitching moment at small angles of attack throughout the Mach number range. The slopes of the lift and pitching-moment curves vary slightly with Mach number and show only small effects due to the angle of roll.
Date: September 11, 1952
Creator: Alford, William J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Transonic Investigation of the Effects of Partial-Span Leading-Edge Camber on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 50 Deg 38' Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 2.98

Description: A small-scale transonic investigation of two semispan wings of the same plan form was made in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel through a Mach number range of 0.70 to 1.10 and a mean-test Reynolds number range of 745,000 to 845,000 to determine the effects of partial-span leading-edge camber on the aerodynamic characteristics of a swept-back wing. This paper presents the results of the investigation of wing-alone and wing-fuselage configurations of the two wings; one, was an uncambered wing and the other had the forward 45 percent of the chord cambered over the outboard 55 percent of the span. The semispan wings had 50deg 38ft sweepback of their quarter-chord lines, aspect ratio of 2.98, taper ratio of 0.45, and modified NACA 64A-series airfoil sections tapered in thickness ratio. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and root-bending moment were obtained for these configurations. The results indicated that, for the wing-alone configuration, use of the partial-span leading-edge camber provided an increase in maximum lift-drag ratios up to a Mach number of 0.95, after which no gain was realized. For the wing-fuselage combination, the partial-span leading-edge camber appeared to cause no gain in maximum lift-drag ratio throughout the test range of Mach numbers. The lift-curve slopes of the partial-span leading-edge camber configurations indicated no significant change over the basic configurations in the subsonic range but resulted in slight reductions at the higher Mach numbers. No significantly large changes in pitching-moment-curve slopes or lateral center of additional loading were indicated because of the modification.
Date: June 23, 1952
Creator: Alford, William J., Jr. & Byrnes, Andrew L., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Some Aspects of the Aerodynamic Problems Associated with Missiles Carried Externally in Positions Near Airplane Wings

Description: A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation has been made of some aspects of the aerodynamic problems associated with the use of air-to-air missiles when carried externally on aircraft. Measurements of the forces and moments on a missile model for a range of positions under the mid-semispan location of a 45deg sweptback wing indicated longitudinal and lateral forces with regard to both carriage and release of the missiles. Surveys of the characteristics of the flow field in the region likely to be traversed by the missiles showed abrupt gradients in both flow angularity and in local dynamic pressure. Through the use of aerodynamic data on the isolated missile and the measured flow-field characteristics, the longitudinal forces and moments acting on the missile while in the presence of the wing-fuselage combination could be estimated with fair accuracy. Although the lateral forces and moments predicted were qualitatively correct, there existed some large discrepancies in absolute magnitude.
Date: December 27, 1954
Creator: Alford, William J., Jr.; Silvers, H. Norman & King, Thomas J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of flow over inclined bodies of revolution

Description: Experimental force, moment, and center-of-pressure variations for a large number of bodies of revolution have been compared with the calculated characteristics based on the approximate theory developed in NACA-RM-A9I26. The bodies varied in fineness ratio from 4.5 to 21.1, from blunt unboattailed bodies to airship hulls, and the experimental results are given for widely varying Mach number ranges of angle of attack. It is shown that the lift and drag characteristics are fairly accurately predicted by the theory but that the actual center of pressure is more rearward than the theory indicates. Experimental pressure distributions and visual-flow studies which have been used to investigate the characteristics of the cross flow for inclined bodies of revolution have demonstrated that the development of the cross flow with distance along the body on a long body of constant about a circular cylinder impulsively started from rest. This factor assists in explaining the observed differences between center-of-pressure location determined from experiment and that calculated using the approximate theory.
Date: March 5, 1951
Creator: Allen, H Julian & Perkins, Edward W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Motion and Aerodynamic Heating of Missiles Entering the Earth's Atmosphere at High Supersonic Speeds

Description: A simplified analysis is made of the velocity and deceleration history of missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds. It is found that, in general, the gravity force is negligible compared to the aerodynamic drag force and, hence, that the trajectory is essentially a straight line. A constant drag coefficient and an exponential variation of density with altitude are assumed and generalized curves for the variation of missile speed and deceleration with altitude are obtained. A curious finding is that the maximum deceleration is independent of physical characteristics of a missile (e.g., mass, size, and drag coefficient) and is determined only by entry speed and flight-path angle, provided this deceleration occurs before impact. This provision is satisfied by missiles presently of more usual interest.
Date: August 25, 1953
Creator: Allen, H. Julian & Eggers, A. J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department