The mutual influences of compression shocks and friction boundary layers were investigated by means of high speed wind tunnels.Schlieren optics provided a clear picture of the flow phenomena and were used for determining the location of the compression shocks, measurement of shock angles, and also for Mach angles. Pressure measurement and humidity measurements were also taken into consideration.Results along with a mathematical model are described.
This report presents a treatment of the effects of the tunnel walls on the flow velocity and direction in a compressible medium at subsonic speed by an approximate method. Calculations are given for the rotationally symmetric and two- dimensionl problems of the flow past bodies, as well for the downwash effect in the tunnel with circular cross section.
The present report concerns a method of computing the velocity and pressure distributions on bodies of revolution in axially symmetrical flow in the subsonic range. The differential equation for the velocity potential Phi of a compressible fluid motion is linearized tn the conventional manner, and then put in the form Delta(Phi) = 0 by affine transformation. The quantity Phi represents the velocity potential of a fictitious incompressible flow, for which a constant superposition of sources by sections is secured by a method patterned after von Karman which must comply with the boundary condition delta(phi)/delta(n) = 0 at the originally specified contour. This requirement yields for the "pseudo-stream function" psi a differential equation which must be fulfilled for as many points on the contour as source lengths are assumed. In this manner, the problem of defining the still unknown source intensities is reduced to the solution of an inhomogeneous equation system. The pressure distribution is then determined with the aid of Bernoulli's equation and adiabatic equation of state. Lastly, the pressure distributions in compressible and incompressible medium are compared on a model problem.
In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.
The calculation of infinitesimal conical supersonic flow has been applied first to the simplest examples that have also been calculated in another way. Except for the discovery of a miscalculation in an older report, there was found the expected conformity. The new method of calculation is limited more definitely to the conical case.
It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.
The present report deals with the effect of turbulence on the propagation of the flame. Being based upon experiments with laminar as well as turbulent Bunsen flames, both the physico-chemical and the hydro-dynamical aspects of the problem are analyzed. A number of new deductions, interesting from the point of view of engine combustion and other very rapidly changing flame reactions, are made.
The Russian AM 35 and AM 38 aircraft engines have superchargers with a swirl throttle, which appears to be a purely Russian development. This paper gives the results of test runs of the two engines, including the effects of the swirl throttle on engine performance.
Axial blowers are gaining importance as aircraft engine superchargers. However, the pressure head obtainable per stage is small. Due to the necessary great number of stages, the physical length of the blower becomes too great for an airworthy device. This report discusses several types of construction that permit a reduction in the length of the blower.
"Considerable progress has, in recent times, been attained in the development of the high-pressure axial blower by well-planned research. The efforts are directed toward improving the efficiencies, which are already high for the axial blower, and in particular the delivery pressure heads. For high pressures multistage arrangements are used. Of fundamental importance is the careful design of all structural parts of the blower that are subject to the effects of the flow. In the present report, several recent results and experiences are reported, which are based on results of German engine research" (p. 1).
It is known that compression shocks which lead from supersonic to subsonic velocity cause the flow to separate on impact on a rigid wall. Such shocks appear at bodies with circular symmetry or wing profiles on locally exceeding sonic velocity, and in Laval nozzles with too high a back pressure. The form of the compression shocks observed therein is investigated.
A selection of measurements obtained on experimental impellers for axial blowers will be reported. In addition to characteristic curves plotted for low and for high peripheral velocities, proportions and blade sections for six different blower models and remarks on the design of blowers will be presented.
There are investigated the problems of the flow of a supersonic jet out of a vessel with plane side walls and the problem of the supersonic flow about a wedge when there is a zone of local subsonic velocities ahead of the wedge.
The evaporation velocity of liquid droplets under various conditions is theoretically calculated and a number of factors are investigated which are neglected in carrying out the fundamental equation of Maxwell. It is shown that the effect of these factors at the small drop sizes and the small weight concentrations ordinarily occurring in fog can be calculated by simple corrections. The evaporation process can be regarded as quasi-stationary in most cases. The question at hand, and also the equivalent question of the velocity of growth of droplets in a supersaturated atmosphere, is highly significant in meteorology and for certain industrial purposes. Since the literature concerning this is very insufficient and many important aspects either are not considered at all or are reported incorrectly, it seems that a short discussion is not superfluous. A special consideration will be given to the various assumptions and neglections that are necessary in deriving the fundamental equation of Maxwell. The experimental work available, which is very insufficient and in part poorly dependable, can be used as an accurate check on the theory only in very few cases.
Freedom from inertia, erosion of electrodes, and reaction make the leakage current particularly appropriate for the measurement of flow velocities in gases. Apparatus previously described has now been improved by reducing the size of the electrodes by one -thousandth, as is necessary aerodynamically, and by increasing the magnitude of the current from 1000 to 10,000 times; the latter result was obtained.by use of mercury high-pressure lamps set up at the one focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector with the cathodes arranged at the other focal point or by use of suitable X-ray radiation. Families of calibration curves were taken with a number of vivid tests conditions of the greatest variety and the operating properties of the instrument were widely elucidated by calculation of the sensitivity to fluctuation; this was done at first for operation at stationary conditions only; due to the freedom from inertia the instationary conditions were thus also given. Accordingly, the leakage current anemometer ought to be appropriate for investigations of turbulence,.
In the following, high-speed measurements on a swept-back wing are reported. The curves of lift, moment, and drag have been determined up to Mach numbers of M = 0.87, and they are compared to a rectangular wing. Through measurements of the total-head loss behind the wing and through schlieren pictures, an insight into the formation of the compression shock at high Mach numbers has been obtained.
This report addresses a method for the approximate calculation of compressible flows about profiles with local regions of supersonic velocity. The flow around a slender profile is treated as an example.
The turbulent flow in a conical diffuser represents the type of turbulent boundary layer with positive longitudinal pressure gradient. In contrast to the boundary layer problem, however, it is not necessary that the pressure distribution along the limits of the boundary layer(along the axis of the diffuser) be given, since this distribution can be obtained from the computation. This circumstance, together with the greater simplicity of the problem as a whole, provides a useful basis for the study of the extension of the results of semiempirical theories to the case of motion with a positive pressure gradient. In the first part of the paper,formulas are derived for the computation of the velocity and.pressure distributions in the turbulent flow along, and at right angles to, the axis of a diffuser of small cone angle. The problem is solved.
In the case of cones in axially symmetric flow of supersonic velocity, adiabatic compression takes place between shock wave and surface of the cone. Interpolation curves betwen shock polars and the surface are therefore necessary for the complete understanding of this type of flow. They are given in the present report by graphical-numerical integration of the differential equation for all cone angles and airspeeds.
As a turbine rotor turns, the blades traverse the wake zones of the nozzle vanes. A periodic fluctuation of the pressure distribution around the circumference of the rotor blade is therefore caused. It was desired to investigate quantitatively this effect. At the same time, the magnitude of the force acting upon one profile of the rotor-blade lattice at various positions of this lattice relative to the nozzle lattice was to be determined.
The condensation of water vapor in an air consequences: acquisition of heat (liberated heat vaporization; loss of mass on the part of the flowing gas (water vapor is converted to liquid); change in the specific gas constants and of the ratio k of the specific heats (caused by change of gas composition). A discontinuous change of state is therefore connected with the condensation; schlieren photographs of supersonic flows in two-dimensional Laval nozzles show two intersecting oblique shock fronts that in the case of high humidities may merge near the point of intersection into one normal shock front.
The present report contains three-component forces and mass-flow measurements on a jet nacelle at small inlet-velocity ratios v(sub A)/v(sub o) < 1. The mass-flow measurement on two cross sections of the nacelle demonstrate the local-velocity distribution with varying flow and angle of attack.
This article explains results developed from the following research: 'The Stability of Plates and Shells beyond the Elastic Limit.' A significant improvement is found in the derivation of the relations between the stress factors and the strains resulting from the instability of plates and shells. In a strict analysis, the problem reduces to the solution of two simultaneous nonlinear partial differential equations of the fourth order in the deflection and stress function, and in the approximate analysis to a single linear equation of the Bryan type. Solutions are given for the special cases of a rectangular plate buckling into a cylindrical form, and of an arbitrarily shaped plate under uniform compression. These solutions indicate that the accuracy obtained by the approximate method is satisfactory.
In the present paper is examined the method of investigating the stability of plates and shells beyond the elastic limit, that proceeds from the generalization of the Hencky-Mises theory of elastico-plastic deformations given in the works of Smirnov-Alyayev, Schmidt, and in our papers.
This report presents comprehensive pressure-distribution measurements on four (4) swept-back wings (phi = 0 deg, 15 deg, 30 deg, and 45 deg) of constant chord and over a large range of angles of attack with symmetrical air flow. The distributions, experimentally obtained, were compared with theoretical ones calculated by the methods of Weissinger and Multhopp.
The problem of turbulence in aerodynamics is at present being attacked both theoretically and experimentally. In view of the fact however that purely theoretical considerations have not thus far led to satisfactory results the experimental treatment of the problem is of great importance. Among the different measuring procedures the hot wire methods are so far recognized as the most suitable for investigating the turbulence structure. The several disadvantages of these methods however, in particular those arising from the temperature lag of the wire can greatly impair the measurements and may easily render questionable the entire value of the experiment. The name turbulence is applied to that flow condition in which at any point of the stream the magnitude and direction of the velocity fluctuate arbitrarily about a well definable mean value. This fluctuation imparts a certain whirling characteristic to the flow.
Calculations and test results are given about the feed-power requirement of airplanes with boundary-layer control. Curves and formulas for the rough estimate of pressure-loss and feed-power requirement are set up for the investigated arrangements which differ structurally and aerodynamically. According to these results the feed power for three different designs is calculated at the end of the report.
"Results of measurements are given as a supplement to earlier tests for a laminar profile with nose flap; magnitude, form, and angle of attack of the flap were systematically changed. The experiments were carried out at an effective Reynolds number of 8.2 x 10(exp 5). A comparison with measurements on other profiles shows that the effect of a nose flap is essentially dependent upon magnitude of the nose radius coefficient of the profile" (p. 1).
Measurements are described which were taken in the large wind tunnel of the AVA on a rectangular wing "Mustang 2" with nose flap of a chord of 10 percent. Besides force measurements the results of pressure-distribution measurements are given and compared with those on the same profile "without" nose flap.
After defining the aims and requirements to be set for a control system of gas-turbine power plants for aircraft, the report will deal with devices that prevent the quantity of fuel supplied per unit of time from exceeding the value permissible at a given moment. The general principles of the actuation of the adjustable parts of the power plant are also discussed.
The basic principles of the control of TL ongincs are developed on .the basis of a quantitative investigation of the behavior of these behavior under various operating conditions with particular consideration of the simplifications pormissible in each case. Various possible means of control of jet engines are suggested and are illustrated by schematic designs.
On the basis of the investigations so far completed on the behavior of PTL power plants under various operating conditions, in which the influence of the propeller characteristics is of considerable importance, the most important aspects of a control system for turbine-propeller jet power plants are deduced. A simple possible means for its concrete realization, which is also applicable to TL [NACA comment: TL, jet] power plants, is presented by means of examples. A control device of this kind is now being developed.
The numerous patent applications on arrow-stabilized projectiles indicate that the idea of projectiles without spin is not new, but has appeared in various proposals throughout the last decades. As far as projectiles for subsonic speeds are concerned, suitable shapes have been developed for sometime, for example, numerous grenades. Most of the patent applications, though, are not practicable particularly for projectiles with supersonic speed. This is because the inventor usually does not have any knowledge of aerodynamic flow around the projectile nor any particular understanding of the practical solution. The lack of wind tunnels for the development of projectiles made it necessary to use firing tests for development. These are obviously extremely tedious or expensive and lead almost always to failures. The often expressed opinion that arrow-stabilized projectiles cannot fly supersonically can be traced to this condition. That this is not the case has been shown for the first time by Roechling on long projectiles with foldable fins. Since no aerodynamic investigations were made for the development of these projectiles, only tedious series of firing tests with systematic variation of the fins could lead to satisfactory results. These particular projectiles though have a disadvantage which lies in the nature cf foldable fins. They occasionally do not open uniformly in flight, thus causing unsymmetry in flow and greater scatter. The junctions of fins and body are very bad aerodynamically and increase the drag. It must be possible to develop high-performance arrow-stabilized projectiles based on the aerodynamic research conducted during the last few years at Peenemuende and new construction ideas. Thus the final shape, ready for operational use, could be developed in the wind tunnel without loss of expensive time in firing tests. The principle of arrow-stabilized performance has been applied to a large number of caliburs which were stabilized by various means ...
This is the second of a series of six reports dealing with three- and six-component measurements on the tapering series at small aspect ratio. The present report concerns the trapezoidal wing with fuselage.
The report UM No. 1023/1 which presented the results of measurements for a series of trapezoidal wings was the beginning of a series on wings with aspect ratio 1 to 3 and various contours. In report No. 1023/1 the aspect ratio (Lambda = 4/3) remained the same; the tapering was modified. The present report gives the results of the series of elliptic wings. Here the aspect ratio varies from 1 to 2 with the sweepback. The contour is formed by elliptic arcs. The influence of sweepback and contour upon the neutral point is shown.
The previous measurements on airfoils with hinged nose disclosed a comparatively large low-pressure peak at the bend of the hinged nose; which favored the separation of flow. It was therefore attempted to reduce these low-pressure peaks by reducing the camber of the forward profile and thereby ensure a longer adherence of the flow and a maximum lift increase. The forces were measured on a rectangular wing with double-hinged nose and end plates, the pressure distributions were measured in the center section of the wing. The measurements disclosed that the highest lift attained with a single-hinged nose cannot be increased by a double-hinged nose. The sum of the deflection angles of both hinged noses related to the maximum lift is about equal to the corresponding angle of the single-hinge nose (approx. 30 deg to 40). The respective angle of attack in both cases amounts to approx. 21 deg. Even the low-pressure peak is about the same in both cases (P/q approx. -5.5). Therefore, a milder curvature of the forward portion of the profile affords no definite increase of the maximum lift.
Force measurements and pressure distribution measurements on the midsection were made on a rectangular wing with slotted droop nose and end plates, on which could be placed a choice of either a plain flap-split flap combination or a slotted flap.
"The present report contains the results of a series of observations obtained for a wing of symmetrical profile for different angles of yaw. The shock tunnel with 0.4m x 0.4m cross section, of the Institute for Gas Dynamics at L.F.A. - Braunchweig was available for this work. The profile used was a 9 percent, thick hyperbolic profile with maximum thickness 40 percent aft, which was calculated by the method of F. Ringleb (2). Since the conformal transformation of this profile is known, the theoretical pressure distribution could be determined exactly for the case of incompressible flow. Then by the use of the Prandtl rule one may extend the comparison of theory and experiment to the case of higher velocity of incident flow" (p. 1).
In the vicinity of a body in a wind tunnel the displacement effect of the wake, due to the finite dimensions of the stream, produces a pressure gradient which evokes a change of drag. In incompressible flow this change of drag is so small, in general, that one does not have to take it into account in wind-tunnel measurements; however, in compressible flow it beoomes considerably larger, so that a correction factor is necessary for measured values. Correction factors for a closed tunnel and an open jet with circular cross sections are calculated and compared with the drag - corrections already bown for high-speed tunnnels.
It will be shown that by the use of the concept of similarity a simple representation of the characteristic curves of a compressor operating in combination with a turbine may be obtained with correct allowance for the effect of temperature. Furthermore, it bec~mes possible to simplify considerably the rather tedious investigations of the behavior of gas-turbine power plants under different operating conditions. Characteristic values will be derived for the most important elements of operating behavior of the power plant, which will be independent of the absolute valu:s of pressure and temperature. At the same time, the investigations provide the basis for scale-model tests on compressors and turbines.
Since stability problems have come into the field of vision of engineers, energy methods have proved to be one of the most powerful aids in mastering them. For finding the especially interesting critical loads special procedures have evolved that depart somewhat from those customary in the usual elasticity theory. A clarification of the connections seemed desirable,especially with regard to the post-critical region, for the treatment of which these special methods are not suited as they are. The present investigation discusses this question-complex (made important by shell construction in aircraft) especially in the classical example of the Euler strut, because in this case - since the basic features are not hidden by difficulties of a mathematical nature - the problem is especially clear. The present treatment differs from that appearing in the Z.f.a.M.M. (1938) under the title "Uber die Behandlung von Stabilittatsproblemen mit Hilfe der energetischen Methode" in that, in order to work out the basic ideas still more clearly,it dispenses with the investigation of behavior at large deflections and of the elastic foundation;in its place the present version gives an elaboration of the 6th section and (in its 7 th and 8th secs.)a new example that shows the applicability of the general criterion to a stability problem that differs from that of Euler in many respects.
The problem of the intake of air is treated for a missile flying at supersonic speeds and of changing the kinetic energy of the air into pressure with the least possible losses. Calculations are carried out concerning the results which can be attained. After a discussion of several preliminary experiments, the practical solution of the problem at hand is indicated by model experiments. The results proved very satisfactory in view of the results which had been attained previously and the values which were anticipated theoretically.
Memorandum presenting investigation on reductions of friction on wings, especially by means of boundary-layer suction. The report is broken up into several sections, including: causes of transition, laminar profiles with the transition taking place, laminar boundary-layer suction, investigation of the laminar pressure increase, investigation of the slot flow for laminar boundary-layer suction with single slots, tests about keeping a boundary layer for high Reynolds laminar with the aid of boundary-layer suction, and an investigation of a slightly-cambered laminar suction profile of 10.5-percent thickness.
The present treatise reports on theoretical investigations and test-stand measurements which were carried out in the BMW Flugmotoren GMbH in developing the hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines. As an introduction the temperature variation and the stress on a turbine blade for a gas temperature of 900 degrees and circumferential velocities of 600 meters per second are discussed. The assumptions onthe heat transfer coefficients at the blade profile are supported by tests on an electrically heated blade model. The temperature distribution in the cross section of a blade Is thoroughly investigated and the temperature field determined for a special case. A method for calculation of the thermal stresses in turbine blades for a given temperature distribution is indicated. The effect of the heat radiation on the blade temperature also is dealt with. Test-stand experiments on turbine blades are evaluated, particularly with respect to temperature distribution in the cross section; maximum and minimum temperature in the cross section are ascertained. Finally, the application of the hollow blade for a stationary gas turbine is investigated. Starting from a setup for 550 C gas temperature the improvement of the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption are considered as well as the increase of the useful power by use of high temperatures. The power required for blade cooling is taken into account.
With an approach of the velocity of flight of a ship to the velocity of sound, there occurs a considerable increase of the drag. The reason for this must be found in the boundary layer separation caused by formation of shock waves. It will be endeavored to reduce the drag increase by suction of the boundary layer. Experimental results showed that drag increase may be considerably reduced by this method. It was, also, observed that, by suction, the position of shock waves can be altered to a considerable extent.
The tests on the Russian airfoil 2315 Bis were continued. This airfoil shows, according to Moscow tests, good laminar flow characteristics. Several tests were prepared in the large wind tunnel at Gottingen; partial results were obtained.
Some aerodynamic relations are derived which exist between two infinitely long airfoils if one is in a straight flow and the other in oblique flow, and both present the same profile in the direction of flow.
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