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Considerations of the Total Drag of Supersonic Airfoil Sections

Description: The results of calculations of the viscous and pressure drags of some two-dimensional supersonic airfoils at zero lift are presented. The results indicate that inclusion of viscous drag alters many previous results regarding the desirability of certain airfoil shapes for securing low drags at supersonic speeds. At certain Reynolds and Mach numbers, for instance, a circular-arc airfoil may theoretically have less drag than the previously advocated symmetrical wedge-shape profile; although under different conditions, the circular-arc airfoil may have a higher drag.
Date: July 1947
Creator: Ivey, H. Reese & Klunker, E. Bernard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of lateral-control research

Description: A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Toll, Thomas A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Ram-Jet Engine for Fighters

Description: Simple and accurate calculations are made of the flow process in a continuous compressorless Lorin jet-propulsion unit. Experimental confirmation is given from towing tests on an airplane at flying speeds up to 200 miles per second. An analysis is made of the performance of a fighter-type airplane designed for utilization of this propulsion system.
Date: October 1, 1947
Creator: Sanger, E & Bredt, I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Force and pressure-distribution measurements on a rectangular wing with a slotted droop nose and with either plain and split flaps in combination or a slotted flap.

Description: Force measurements and pressure distribution measurements on the midsection were made on a rectangular wing with slotted droop nose and end plates, on which could be placed a choice of either a plain flap-split flap combination or a slotted flap. (author).
Date: March 1, 1947
Creator: Lemme, H G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of characteristics for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows.

Description: An approximation method for three-dimensional axially symmetrical supersonic flows is developed; it is based on the characteristics theory (represented partly graphically, partly analytically). Thereafter this method is applied to the construction of rotationally symmetrical nozzles. (author).
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Sauer, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of a Fuselage on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 42 Degree Sweptback Wing at Reynolds Numbers to 8,000,000

Description: Wind-tunnel investigations were made in pitch and yaw with and without split flaps. Presence of the fuselage had negligible effect on values of maximum lift coefficient and slope of lift curve, but caused a destabilizing shift in the rate of change of pitching moment with lift. Effects of fuselage position on drag characteristics were small for wings without flaps, but were appreciable when split flaps were on.
Date: June 10, 1947
Creator: Salmi, Reino J.; Conner, D. William & Graham, Robert R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The stability of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid

Description: Report is a continuation of a theoretical investigation of the stability of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid. An approximate estimate for the minimum critical Reynolds number, or stability limit, is obtained in terms of the distribution of the kinematic viscosity and the product of the mean density and mean vorticity across the boundary layer. The extension of the results of the stability analysis to laminar boundary-layer gas flows with a pressure gradient in the direction of the free stream is discussed. (author).
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Lees, Lester
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical study of air forces on an oscillating or steady thin wing in a supersonic main stream

Description: A theoretical study, based on the linearized equations of motion for small disturbance, is made of the air forces on wings of general plan forms moving forward at a constant supersonic speed. The boundary problem is set up for both the harmonically oscillating and the steady conditions. Two types of boundary conditions are distinguished, which are designated "purely supersonic" and "mixed supersonic." the method is illustrated by applications to a number of examples for both the steady and the oscillating conditions. The purely supersonic case involves independence of action of the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil and present analysis is mainly concerned with this case. A discussion is first given of the fundamental or elementary solution corresponding to a moving source. The solutions for the velocity potential are then synthesized by means of integration of the fundamental solution for the moving source. The method is illustrated by applications to a number of examples for both the steady and the oscillating cases and for various plan forms, including swept wings and rectangular and triangular plan forms. The special results of a number of authors are shown to be included in the analysis.
Date: July 1, 1947
Creator: Garrick, I E & Rubinow, S I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Voltera's solution of the wave equation as applied to three-dimensional supersonic airfoil problems

Description: A surface integral is developed which yields solutions of the linearized partial differential equation for supersonic flow. These solutions satisfy boundary conditions arising in wing theory. Particular applications of this general method are made, using acceleration potentials, to flat surfaces and to uniformly loaded lifting surfaces. Rectangular and trapezoidal plan forms are considered along with triangular forms adaptable to swept-forward and swept-back wings. The case of the triangular plan form in sideslip is also included. Emphasis is placed on the systematic application of the method to the lifting surfaces considered and on the possibility of further application.
Date: September 1, 1947
Creator: Heslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard & Jones, Arthur L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Tunnel Development of Means to Alleviate Buffeting of the North American XP-82 Airplane at High Speeds

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of a 0.22-scale model of the North American XP-82 airplane with several modifications designed to reduce the buffeting of the airplane. The effects of various modifications on the air flow over the model are shown by means of photographs of tufts. The drag, lift, and pitching-moment coefficients of the model with several of the modifications are shown. The result indicate that, by reflexing the trailing edge of the center section of the wing and modifying the radiator air-scoop gutter and the inboard lower-surface wing fillets, the start of buffeting can be delayed from a Mach number of 0.70 to 0.775, and that the diving tendency of the airplane would be eliminated up to a Mach number of 0.80.
Date: January 9, 1947
Creator: Anderson, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine, 3, Pressure and Temperature Distributions

Description: An altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of a TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine was performed. Pressure and temperature data were obtained at altitudes from 5000 to 35000 feet, compressor inlet ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.17, and engine speeds from 800 to 13000 rpm. The effect of engine speed, shaft horsepower, and compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio on pressure and temperature distribution at each measuring station are presented graphically.
Date: November 13, 1947
Creator: Geisenheyner, Robert M. & Berdysz, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine, 4, Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics

Description: As part of an investigation of the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine, conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel, the performance characteristics of the compressor and the turbine were obtained. The data presented were obtained at a compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio of 1.00 for altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm, and turbine-inlet temperatures from 1400 to 2100R. The highest compressor pressure ratio was 6.15 at a corrected air flow of 23.7 pounds per second and a corrected turbine-inlet temperature of 2475R. Peak adiabatic compressor efficiencies of about 77 percent were obtained near the value of corrected air flow corresponding to a corrected engine speed of 13,000 rpm. This maximum efficiency may be somewhat low, however, because of dirt accumulations on the compressor blades. A maximum adiabatic turbine efficiency of 81.5 percent was obtained at rated engine speed for all altitudes and turbine-inlet temperatures investigated.
Date: November 13, 1947
Creator: Wallner, Lewis E. & Saari, Martin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of an Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a TG-100A Gas Turbine-Propeller Engine II - Windmilling Characteristics

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the operational and performance characteristics of the TG-100A gas turbine-propeller engine II. Windmilling characteristics were deterined for a range of altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, true airspeeds from 100 to 273 miles per hour, and propeller blade angles from 4 degrees to 46 degrees.
Date: August 4, 1947
Creator: Conrad, E. W. & Durham, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the 19XB 10-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor with Altered Blade Angles

Description: Previous performance data of the 19XB axial-flow compressor indicated that the outlet guide vanes and possibly the inlet guide vanes were stalling. Calculations were made to determine if these adverse conditions could be eliminated and if the manufacturer's design specifications could be more nearly approached by altering the blade angles of the first few compression stages as well as the outlet guide vanes. With the blade angles altered, experimental data were taken at compressor speeds of 8500 to 17,000 rpm with inlet-air conditions of 7.4 inches of mercury absolute and 59 0 F. The temperature-rise efficiency increased with speed from 0.70 at 8500 rpm to 0.74 at 13,600 rpm and dropped gradually to 0.70 at 17,000 rpm. At the design speed of 17,000 rpm, the pressure ratio at the peak efficiency point was 3.63. The maximum pressure ratio at design speed was 4.15 at an equivalent weight flow of 29.8 pounds per second. The altered compressor operated very .near the design specifications of pressure ratio and equivalent weight flow. At the high speeds, the peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency was increased 0.02 to 0,06 by altering the blade angles. The peak pressure ratio was increased 0.29 at design speed (17,000 rpm) and 0.05 and 0.13 at 11,900 and 13,600 rpm, respectively. The equivalent weight flow through the altered compressor was reduced 2 pounds per second at 15,300 and 17,000 rpm, as was expected from the design calculations. As extreme caution was taken not to surge the compressor violently, the point of minimum air flow may not have been reached in the present investigation and in a previous investigation. A true comparison of the pressure ratios obtained at the high speeds therefore cannot be made.
Date: January 21, 1947
Creator: Downing, Richard M.; Finger, Harold B. & Roepcke, Fay A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of 10-Stage Axial-Flow X24C-2 Compressor, 1, Performance at Inlet Pressure of 21 Inches Mercury Absolute and Inlet Temperature of 538 R

Description: The performance at inlet pressure of 21 inches mercury absolute and inlet temperature of 538 R for the 10-stage axial-flow X24C-2 compressor from the X24C-2 turbojet engine was investigated. the peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency for a given speed generally occurred at values of pressure coefficient fairly close to 0.35.For this compressor, the efficiency data at various speeds could be correlated on two converging curves by the use of a polytropic loss factor derived.
Date: July 15, 1947
Creator: Schum, Harold J. & Buckner, Howard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Rim Cracking in Turbine Wheels with Welded Blades

Description: Rim cracking in turbine wheels with welded blades was evaluated. The problem is explained on the basis of the occurrence of plastic flow in the rim during transient starting conditions when thermal compressive stresses resulting from high-temperature gradients exceed the proportional elastic limit of the material.
Date: February 12, 1947
Creator: Millenson, M. B. & Manson, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Sea-Level Performance of I-16 Turbojet Engine at Zero Ram with XFR-1 Intake Duct Shroud, and Tail Pipe

Description: The sea-level performance of I-16 turbojet engine at zero ram was investigated to determine the effects of an intake duct, shroud, and tail pipe intended for installation in an XFR-1 airplane. Engine speeds ranged from 8000 to 16,500 rpm for several variations of the intake duct and tail pipes.
Date: August 1, 1947
Creator: Dowman, Harry W. & Anderson, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stick-Fixed Stability and Control Characteristics of the Consolidated Vultee Model 240 Airplane as Estimated from Tests of a 0.092-Scale Powered Model

Description: Estimates of the static stick-fixed stability and control characteristics of the Consolidated Vultee model 240 airplane are presented in this report. The estimates are based on tests of a 0.092-scale powered model in the 10-foot wind tunnel of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. Results of the analysis are evaluated in terms of the Army specifications for stability and control characteristics which are more specific and, in general, equal to or more rigid than the Civil Aeronautics Administration requirements. The stick-fixed stability and control characteristics of the Consolidated Vultee model 240 were found to be satisfactory except for the following: 1) Marginal longitudinal stability in the landing approach (flaps 30 deg, 50% minimum continuous power) with aft center of gravity (31% M.A.C.); 2) Marginal rudder control to hold zero sideslip in a climb after take-off with asymmetric power (flaps 30 deg, left engine inoperative, right engine delivering take-off power) with maximum rudder throw limited to +/- 18 deg; 3) Marginal dihedral effect with flaps 40 deg and engines delivering maximum continuous power.
Date: June 27, 1947
Creator: McCullough, George B.; Weiberg, James A. & Gault, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Submerged Duct Installation on the Ryan FR-1 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

Description: An investigation of an NACA submerged intake installation on the Ryan FR-1 was conducted to determine the full-scale aerodynamic characteristics of this installation. In addition, tests were conducted on the submerged inlet with revised entrance lips and deflectors to determine the configuration which would result in the best dynamic pressure recovery measured at the inlet for this installation without a major rework of the entrance. Stalling of the air flow over the inner lip surface created excessive dynamic pressure losses with the original entrance. The revised entrance produced a 12-percent increase in dynamic pressure recovery at the design high-speed inlet-velocity ratio and resulted in an improvement of thte critical-speed characteristics of the entrance lip. A complete redesign of the entrance including a decrease in ramp angle and adjustment of lip camber is necessary to secure optimum results from this submerged duct installation.
Date: April 23, 1947
Creator: Martin, Norman J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department