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The calculation of span LCAD distributions of swept-back wings

Description: Span load distributions of swept-back wings have been calculated. The method used was to replace the wing with a bound vortex at the quarter-chord line and to calculate the downwash due to the system of bound and trailing vortices to conform at the three-quarter-chord line to the slope of the flat-plate wing surface. Results are given for constant-chord and 5:1 tapered plan forms, for sweep-back angles of 0 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees, and for aspect ratios of 3, 6, and 9. Some comments on the stalling of swept-back wings are included.
Date: December 1, 1941
Creator: Mutterperl, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Vee-Type and Conventional Tail Surfaces in Combination with Fuselage and Wing in the Variable-Density Tunnel

Description: The pitching and the yawing moments of a vee-type and a conventional type of tail surface were measured. The tests were made in the presence of a fuselage and a wing-fuselage combination in such a way as to determine the moments contributed by the tail surfaces. The results showed that the vee-type tail tested, with a dihedral angle of 35.3 deg, was about 71 percent as effective in pitch as the conventional tail and had a yawing-moment to pitching-moment ratio of 0.3. The conventional tail, the panels of which were all congruent to those of the vee-type tail, had a yawing-moment to pitching-moment ratio of 0.48. These ratios are in fair agreement with values calculated by methods shown in this and previous reports. The values of the measured moments were reduced from 15 to 25 percent of the calculated value by fuselage interference.
Date: July 1, 1941
Creator: Greenberg, Harry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of analyzing wind-tunnel data for dynamic flight conditions

Description: The effects of power on the stability and the control characteristics of an airplane are discussed and methods of analysis are given for evaluating certain dynamic characteristics of the airplane that are not directly discernible from wind-tunnel tests alone. Data are presented to show how the characteristics of a model tested in a wind tunnel are affected by power. The response of an airplane to a rolling and a yawing disturbance is discussed, particularly in regard to changes in wing dihedral and fin area. Solutions of the lateral equations of motion are given in a form suitable for direct computations. An approximate formula is developed that permits the rapid estimation of the accelerations produced during pull-up maneuvers involving abrupt elevator deflections.
Date: October 1, 1941
Creator: Donlan, C J & Recant, I G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplement to Comparison of automatic control systems

Description: This analysis deals with the indirect regulator, wherefrom the behavior of the direct regulator is deduced as a limiting case. The prime mover is looked upon as "independent of the load": a change in the adjusting power (to be applied) for the control link (as, for example, in relation to the adjusting path (eta) with pressure valves or the rudder of vessels) does not modify the actions of the prime mover. Mass forces and friction are discounted; "clearance" also is discounted in the transmission links of the regulator.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Oppelt, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of slotted flaps with extended lips

Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of slot-lip location on the aerodynamic section characteristics of an NACA 23012 airfoil with a 30-percent-chord slotted flap. Tests were made with slot lips located at 90 and 100 percent of the airfoil chord and with two different flap shapes. The results are compared with a slotted flap previously developed by the National advisory Committee for Aeronautics with a slot lip located at 83 percent of the airfoil chord. The extension of the slot lip to the rear increased the section lift and pitching-moment coefficients. Comparisons made on a basis of pitching moment for a given tail length show that the Fowler type flap, lip extended to trailing edge of the airfoil, has the greatest section lift coefficient. For moderate tail lengths, 2 to 3 chord lengths, there was only a slight difference between the previously developed slotted flap and the slotted flap with slot lip extended to 90 percent of the airfoil chord. Of the three flaps tested, the Fowler flap had the lowest drag coefficient at high lift coefficients. The extension of the lower surface at the leading edge of the slot had a negligible effect on the profile drag of the airfoil-flap arrangement with the flap deflected when the lip terminated at 90 percent of the airfoil chord.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Lowry, John G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal-flow systems for aircraft

Description: An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Rogallo, F M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow coefficients of monosleeve valves

Description: The flow coefficients of the intake and the exhaust ports of a sleeve-valve cylinder were measured by attaching the cylinder to a large tank and measuring the changes in pressure and temperature in the tank that were caused by short periods of air flow through the valve ports. The derivation of the equations on which the flow coefficients are based is given. The distribution of total pressure in the arms of the sleeve-valve intake manifold was measured. The arms are found to have as little as 75 percent of the total pressure within the manifold entrance.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Waldron, C D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of control-surface characteristics from NACA plain-flap and tab data

Description: The data from previous NACA pressure-distribution investigations of plain flaps and tabs have been analyzed and are presented in this paper in a form readily applicable to the problems of control-surface design. The experimentally determined variation of aerodynamic parameters with flap chord and tab chord are given in chart form and comparisons are made with the theory. With the aid of these charts and the theoretical relationships for a thin airfoil, the aerodynamic characteristics for control surfaces of any plan form with plain flaps and tabs may be determined. A discussion of the basic equations of the thin-airfoil theory and the development of a number of additional equations that will be helpful in tail design are presented in the appendixes. The procedure for applying the data is described and a sample problem of tail design is included. The data presented and the method of application set forth in this report should provide a reasonably accurate and satisfactory means of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of control surfaces.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Ames, Milton B & Sears, Richard I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A high-speed motion-picture study of normal combustion, knock and preignition in a spark-ignition engines

Description: Combustion in a spark-ignition engine was investigated by means of the NACA high-speed motion-picture cameras. This camera is operated at a speed of 40,000 photographs a second and therefore makes possible the study of changes that take place in the intervals as short as 0.000025 second. When the motion pictures are projected at the normal speed of 16 frames a second, any rate of movement shown is slowed down 2500 times. Photographs are presented of normal combustion, of combustion from preignitions, and of knock both with and without preignition. The photographs of combustion show that knock may be preceded by a period of exothermic reaction in the end zone that persists for a time interval of as much as 0.0006 second. The knock takes place in 0.00005 second or less.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.; Spencer, R. C. & Miller, Cearcy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damping characteristics of dashpots

Description: An investigation of the damping characteristics of dashpots was carried out combining theory and experiment. Laminar flow was assumed and three equations for the steady velocity of a piston moving in a cylinder filled with liquid were derived. In the first equation, the piston was assumed coaxial in the cylinder and, in the second equation, the piston was assumed eccentric in the cylinder with an element of the piston in contact with the cylinder wall. The third equation is for a piston of circular cross section in an elliptical cylinder. Experiments showed that the piston is normally eccentric in the cylinder. The pistons tested were 1.25 and 2 inches in diameter 0.062 to 1.00 inch long, and the clearances varied from 1.36 to 5.16 x 10 to the 3rd power inch. The difference in pressure on the two sides of the piston varied from about 2 to 55 pounds per square inch. The piston velocities for each assembly were measured with damping liquids of three different viscosities. At high piston velocities, when turbulent flow exists, the observed velocities were much lower than the velocities calculated on the basis of laminar flow. Results for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are presented in graphical form.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Peterson, John B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Notes on the Stability and Control of Tailless Airplanes

Description: Problems involved in the stability and control of tailless airplanes are discussed. Such factors as the location of the aerodynamic center and its effect on the longitudinal stability, longitudinal trim with high-lift devices, the effects of various changes in the shape of the wing on lateral stability, and the effects of nacelles are covered. It appears that sufficient stability and controllability can be secured without sweepback. With sweepback, a flap over the center section of the wing may be used to serve the dual purpose of elevator control and high-lift device. Sweepback introduces undesirable stalling characteristics, however, and may require auxiliary devices to prevent stalling of the tips.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Jones, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction of the lifting-line theory for the effect of the chord

Description: It is shown that a simple correction for the chord of a finite wing can be deduced from the three-dimensional potential flow around an elliptic plate. When this flow is compared with the flow around a section of an endless plate, it is found that the edge velocity is reduced by the factor 1/E, where E is the ratio of the semiperimeter to the span. Applying this correction to the circulation brings the theoretical lift into closer agreement with experiments.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Jones, Robert T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of spoiler, deflector, and slot lateral-control devices on wings with full-span split and slotted flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an extensive investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of spoiler, deflector, and slot types of lateral-control device on wings with full-span split and slotted flaps. The static rolling and yawing moments were determined for all the devices tested, and the static hinge moments and the time response were determined for a few devices of each type.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Rogallo, Francis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preignition characteristics of several fuels under simulated engine conditions

Description: The preignition characteristics of a number of fuels have been studied under conditions similar to those encountered in an engine. These conditions were simulated by suddenly compressing a fuel-air mixture in contact with an electrically heated hot spot in the cylinder head of the NACA combustion apparatus. Schlieren photographs and indicator cards were taken of the burning, and the hot-spot temperatures necessary to cause ignition under various conditions were determined.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Spencer, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The problem of cooling an air-cooled cylinder on an aircraft engine

Description: An analysis of the cooling problem has been to show by what means the cooling of an air-cooled aircraft engine may be improved. Each means of improving cooling is analyzed on the basis of effectiveness in cooling with respect to power for cooling. The altitude problem is analyzed for both supercharged and unsupercharged engines. The case of ground cooling is also discussed. The heat-transfer process from the hot gases to the cylinder wall is discussed on the basis of the fundamentals of heat transfer and thermodynamics. Adiabatic air-temperature rise at a stagnation point in compressible flow is shown to depend only on the velocity of flow.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Joyner, U T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propeller analysis from experimental data

Description: The operation of the propeller is analyzed by the use of the distribution of forces along the radius, combined with theoretical equations. The data were obtained in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel on a 4-foot-diameter, two-blade propeller, operating in front of four body shapes, ranging from a small shaft to support the propeller to conventional NACA cowling. A method of estimating the axial and the rotational energy in the wake as a fractional part of the propeller power is given. A knowledge of the total thrust and torque is necessary for the estimation.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Stickle, George W & Crigler, John L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department