National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 381 Matching Results

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Investigation of downwash and wake characteristics at a Mach number of 1.53 1: rectangular wing

Description: The results of an experimental investigation of the downwash and wake characteristics behind a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 3.5 are presented. The airfoil section was a 5-percent-thick, symmetrical double wedge. The tests were made at a Mach number of 1.53 and a Reynolds number of 1.25 million. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of the downwash angles is made.
Date: March 1, 1949
Creator: Perkins, Edward W. & Canning, Thomas N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of profile drag at supersonic velocities by the use of airfoil sections having a blunt trailing edge

Description: Report presenting a preliminary theoretical and experimental investigation of the supersonic characteristics of blunt-trailing-edge airfoils. Results regarding the drag measurements at zero lift, measurements at angle of attack, and a general discussion of the theoretical and experimental results is provided.
Date: November 1, 1949
Creator: Chapman, Dean R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of airfoil section and tip tanks on the aerodynamic characteristics at high subsonic speeds of an unswept wing of aspect ratio 5.16 and taper ratio 0.61

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the effect of two wing sections and a tip tank on the aerodynamic characteristics of a rigid unswept wing in the high-speed tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.60 to 0.90. Results regarding the effect of original airfoil sections, effect of modifications to Section B, effect of tip tank, and characteristics of the tip tank in the presence of the wing are provided.
Date: December 1, 1949
Creator: Silvers, H. Norman & Spreeman, Kenneth P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Internal Regenerative Fuel-Heating System for 20-Inch Ram Jet

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple internal regenerative fuel preheater for a 20-inch-diameter ram jet. Data obtained at subsonic sea-level conditions indicated that fuel could be successfully preheated in this manner.
Date: September 1, 1949
Creator: Baker, Sol & Perchonok, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equations for Adiabatic but Rotational Steady Gas Flows without Friction

Description: This paper makes the following assumptions: 1) The flowing gases are assumed to have uniform energy distribution. ("Isoenergetic gas flows," that is valid with the same constants for the the energy equation entire flow.) This is correct, for example, for gas flows issuing from a region of constant pressure, density, temperature, end velocity. This property is not destroyed by compression shocks because of the universal validity of the energy law. 2) The gas behaves adiabatically, not during the compression shock itself but both before and after the shock. However, the adiabatic equation (p/rho(sup kappa) = C) is not valid for the entire gas flow with the same constant C but rather with an appropriate individual constant for each portion of the gas. For steady flows, this means that the constant C of the adiabatic equation is a function of the stream function. Consequently, a gas that has been flowing "isentropically",that is, with the same constant C of the adiabatic equation throughout (for example, in origination from a region of constant density, temperature, and velocity) no longer remains isentropic after a compression shock if the compression shock is not extremely simple (wedge shaped in a two-dimensional flow or cone shaped in a rotationally symmetrical flow). The solution of nonisentropic flows is therefore an urgent necessity.
Date: August 1, 1947
Creator: Schäefer, Manfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of Rocket-Powered "Tin-Can" Models of AAF Project MX-800

Description: Flight tests were made of six noninstrumented rocket-powered "Tin Can" models of AAF Project MX-800. Velocity and drag data were obtained by use of CU Doppler radar. The existence of stability and adequate structural strength for flight near zero lift was checked by visual and photographic observation. Drag data obtained during the tests agreed reasonably well with estimates based on experimental data from NACA RM-2 rocket-powered drag research models.
Date: December 1, 1947
Creator: Purser, Paul E. & Stone, David G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Measurements to Determine Effect of a Spring-Loaded Tab on Longitudinal Stability of an Airplane

Description: In conjunction with a program of research on the general problem of stability of airplanes in the climbing condition, tests have been made of a spring-loaded tb which. is referred to as a ?springy tab,? installed on the elevator of a low-wing scout bomber. The tab was arranged to deflect upward with decrease in speed which caused an increase in the pull force required to trim at low speeds and thereby increased the stick-free static longitudinal stability of the airplane. It was found that the springy tab would increase the stick-free stability in all flight conditions, would reduce the danger of inadvertent stalling because of the definite pull force required to stall the airplane with power on, would reduce the effect of center-of-gravity position on stick-free static stability, and would have little effect on the elevator stick forces in accelerated f11ght. Another advantage of the springy tab is that it might be used to provide almost any desired variation of elevator stick force with speed by adjusting the tab hinge-moment characteristics and the variation of spring moment with tab deflection. Unlike the bungee and the bobweight, the springy tab would provide stick-free static stability without requiring a pull force to hold the stick back while taxying. A device similar to the springy tab may be used on the rudder or ailerons to eliminate undesirable trim-force variations with speed.
Date: February 1, 1946
Creator: Hunter, Paul A. & Reeder, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method of designing cascade blades with prescribed velocity distributions in compressible potential flows

Description: By use of the assumption that the pressure-volume relation is linear, a solution to the problem of designing a cascade for a given turning and with a prescribed velocity distribution along the blade in a potential flow of a compressible perfect fluid was obtained by a method of correspondence between potential flows of compressible and incompressible fluids. The designing of an isolated airfoil with a prescribed velocity distribution along the airfoil is considered as a special case of cascade. If the prescribed velocity distribution is not theoretically attainable, the method provides a means of modifying the distribution so as to obtain a physically significant blade shape. Numerical examples are included.
Date: October 1, 1949
Creator: Costello, George R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of a Sealed Internally Balanced Aileron from Tests of a 1/4-Scale Partial-Span Model of the Republic XF-12 Airplane in the Langley 19-Foot Pressure Tunnel

Description: This paper presents the results of the aileron investigation and includes rolling-moment, yawing-moment, and aileron hinge-moment coefficients and pressure coefficients across the aileron-balance seal through a range of angle of attack, tab deflection, and aileron deflection with flaps neutral and deflected 20 degrees and 55 degrees. Some of the effects of wing roughness and balance seal leakage on the aileron and tab characteristics are also presented.
Date: November 1, 1946
Creator: Graham, Robert R.; Martina, Albert P. & Salmi, Reino J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Longitudinal Stability of Flying Boats as Determined by Tests of Models in the NACA Tank II : Effect of Variations in Form of Hull on Longitudinal Stability

Description: Data taken from tests at constant speed to establish trim limits of stability, tests at accelerated speeds to determine stable limits of center of gravity shift, and tests at decelerated speeds to obtain landing characteristics of several model hull forms were used to establish hull design effect on longitudinal stability of porpoising. Results show a reduction of dead rise angle as being the only investigated factor reducing low trim limit. Various methods of reducing afterbody interference increased upper trim limit.
Date: November 1, 1942
Creator: Olson, Roland E. & Truscott, Starr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of the Lateral Control Characteristics of an F6F-3 Airplane Equipped with Spring-Tab Ailerons

Description: Tests were made to determine whether spring-tab ailerons tended to oscillate or flutter in speed ranges up to 400 mph. Flight tests showed spring-tab ailerons had desirable light stick forces and no tendency to overbalance. No flutter tendencies were indicated up to 400 mph, and any oscillations following abrupt control deflections were heavily damped. Recommendations were made for modifications to increase aileron effectiveness at low speeds without affecting lateral control at high speeds by increasing available deflection and modifying spring-tab arrangement.
Date: April 1, 1945
Creator: Williams, Walter C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Tests of Various Tail Modifications on the Brewster XSBA-1 Airplane II : Measurements of Flying Qualities with Tail Configuration Number Two

Description: Several tail modifications of the Brewster XSBA-1 scout-bomber were investigated and results compared. Modifications consisted of variation of the chord of the elevator and rudder while the total area of the surfaces is kept constant and variations of the total area of the vertical tail surface. Configuration number 2 reduced trim changes by 50 percent and reduced average elevator control force gradient from 30 to 27 pounds/g. Stick travel required to stall in maneuver was 4.6 inches.
Date: December 1, 1943
Creator: Phillips, W. H. & Crane, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple

Description: A thermocouple was installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was then tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 F was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 rpm. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.
Date: December 1, 1943
Creator: Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D. & Mulcahy, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Compressibility on Pressure Distribution over an Airfoil with a Slotted Frise Aileron

Description: Pressure distribution measurements were made over an airfoil with slotted Frise aileron up to 0.76 Mach at various angles of attack and aileron defections. Section characteristics were determined from these pressure data. Results indicated loss of aileron rolling power for deflections ranging from -12 Degrees to -19 Degrees. High stick forces for non-differential deflections incurred at high speed, which were due to overbalancing tendency of up-moving aileron, may precipitate serious control difficulties. Detailed results are presented graphically.
Date: July 1, 1944
Creator: Luoma, Avro A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and valve design in an air-cooled cylinder

Description: A semiempirical equation correlating exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and exhaust-valve design has been developed. The correlation is based on the theory correlating engine and cooling variables developed in a previous NACA report. In addition to the parameters ordinarily used in the correlating equation, a term is included in the equation that is a measure of the resistance of the complex heat-flow paths between the crown of the exhaust valve and a point on the outside surface of the cylinder head. A means for comparing exhaust valves of different designs with respect to cooling is consequently provided. The necessary empirical constants included in the equation were determined from engine investigations of a large air-cooled cylinder. Tests of several valve designs showed that the calculated and experimentally determined exhaust-valve temperatures were in good agreement.
Date: October 1, 1945
Creator: Zipkin, M. A. & Sanders, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knock-limited performance of several internal coolants

Description: The effect of internal cooling on the knock-limited performance of an-f-28 fuel was investigated in a CFR engine, and the following internal coolants were used: (1) water, (2), methyl alcohol-water mixture, (3) ammonia-methyl alcohol-water mixture, (4) monomethylamine-water mixture, (5) dimethylamine-water mixture, and (6) trimethylamine-water mixture. Tests were run at inlet-air temperatures of 150 degrees and 250 degrees F. to indicate the temperature sensitivity of the internal-coolant solutions.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Bellman, Donald R. & Evvard, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preignition-limited performance of several fuels

Description: Preignition-limited performance data were obtained on a supercharged CFR engine at two sets of operating conditions over a wide range of fuel-air ratios to determine the preignition characteristics for the following five fuels: s-3 reference fuel, s-3 plus 4 ml. tel per gallon, afd-33(140-p), benzene, and diisobutylene. Maximum thermal-plug temperatures at constant intake-air pressures were also determined to correlate the preignition characteristics of each fuel with its ability to increase general engine-temperature levels. Additional runs were made to compare the preignition-limited performance of triptane, triptane plus 4 ml. tel per gallon, and an-f-28r fuel.
Date: October 1, 1944
Creator: Male, Donald W. & Evvard, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative tests of the strength and tightness of commercial flush rivets of one type and NACA flush rivets in machine-countersunk and counterpunched joints

Description: Report discusses an investigation that was conducted to compare the strength and tightness of machine-countersunk flush-riveted joints assembled with NACA flush rivets and a type of commercial flush rivet. A comparison was also generated between the strength and tightness of counterpunched flush-riveted joints assembled with the same types of rivet. NACA's flush-riveted joints tended to be stronger and tighter than the commercial joints.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Mandel, Merven W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Completed Tabulation in the United States of Tests of 24 Airfoils at High Mach Numbers (Derived from Interrupted Work at Guidonia, Italy in the 1.31- by 1.74-Foot High-Speed Tunnel)

Description: Two-dimensional data were obtained in Mach range of from 0.40 to 0.94 and Reynolds Number range of (3.4 - 4.2) X 10 Degrees. Results indicate that thickness ratio is dominating shape parameter at high Mach numbers and that aerodynamic advantages are attainable by using thinnest possible sections. Effects of jet boundaries, Reynolds Number, and Data presented are free from jet-boundary and humidity effects.
Date: June 1, 1945
Creator: Ferri, Antonio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Normal Pressure on the Critical Shear Stress of Curved Sheet

Description: In order to determine the critical stresses caused by an outward acting pressure on the upper surface of a wing due to the difference in internal and external pressures, torsional tests were made on two curved-sheet specimens subjected to an outward acting normal pressure. Results show that an outward acting normal pressure appreciable raises the critical shear stress for an unstiffened curved sheet; the absolute increase in critical shear stress is slightly greater for a 30 in. rib spacing than for a 10 in. rib spacing.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Rafel, Norman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Propellers Used as Aerodynamic Brakes on Stability and Control

Description: Tests were made of a model representative of a single-engine tractor-type airplane for the purpose of determining the stability and control effects of a propeller used as an aerodynamic brake. The tests were made with single-and dual-rotation propellers to show the effect of type of propeller rotation, and with positive thrust to provide basic data with which to compare the effects of negative thrust. Four configurations of the model were used to give the effects of tilting the propeller thrust axis down 5 deg., raising the horizontal tail, and combining both tilt and raised tail. Results of the tests are reported herein. The effects of negative thrust were found to be significant. The longitudinal stability was increased because of the loss of wing lift and increase of the angle of attack of the tail. Directional stability and both longitudinal and directional control were decreased because of the reduced velocity at the tail. These effects are moderate for moderate braking but become pronounced with full-power braking, particularly at high values of lift coefficient. The effects of model configuration changes were small when compared with the over-all effects of negative-thrust operation; however, improved stability and control characteristics were exhibited by the model with the tilted thrust axis. Raising the horizontal tail improved the longitudinal characteristics, but was detrimental to directional characteristics. The use of dual-rotation propeller reduced the directional trim charges resulting from the braking operation. A prototype airplane was assumed and handling qualities were computed and analyzed for normal (positive thrust) and braking operation with full and partial power. The results of these analyses are presented for the longitudinal characteristics in steady and accelerated flight, and for the directional characteristics in high- and low-speed flight. It was found that by limiting the power output of the engine (assuming the constant-speed propeller ...
Date: July 1, 1945
Creator: Hanson, Frederick H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Notes on the Determination of the Stick-Free Neutral Point from Wind-Tunnel Data

Description: Two graphical methods are presented for determining the stick-free neutral point, and they are extensions of the methods commonly used to determine the stick-free neutral point. A mathematical formula for computing the stick-free neutral point is also given. These methods may be applied to determine approximately the increase in tail size necessary to shift the neutral point (stick fixed or free) to any desired location on an airplane having inadequate longitudinal stability.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Schuldenfrei, Marvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department