National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 1,272 Matching Results

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NACA flight-path angle and air-speed recorder

Description: A new trailing bomb-type instrument for photographically recording the flight-path angle and air speed of aircraft in unaccelerated flight is described. The instrument consists essentially of an inclinometer, air-speed meter and a film-drum case. The inclinometer carries an oil-damped pendulum which records optically the flight-path angle upon a rotating motor-driven film drum. The air-speed meter consists of a taut metal diaphragm of high natural frequency which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a Prandtl type Pitot-static tube. The inclinometer record and air-speed record are made optically on the same sensitive film. Two records taken by this instrument are shown.
Date: April 1, 1926
Creator: Coleman, Donald G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wall interference in closed type wind tunnels

Description: A series of tests has been conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in the variable density wind tunnel on several airfoils of different sizes and sections to determine the effect of tunnel wall interference and to determine a correction which can be applied to reduce the error caused thereby. The use of several empirical corrections was attempted with little success. The Prandtl theoretical correction gives the best results and its use is recommended for correcting closed wind tunnel results to conditions of free air.
Date: March 1, 1927
Creator: Higgins, George J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A warning concerning the take-off with heavy load

Description: A successful take-off can be made with an airplane so heavily loaded that it cannot climb to a height greater than the span of its wings. The explanation is that the power required to maintain level flight at an altitude of the order of the wing span may be as much as 50 per cent greater than that necessary when the airplane is just clear of the ground. The failure of heavily loaded airplanes to continue climbing at the rate attained immediately after the actual take-off is a grave hazard and has resulted in great risk or catastrophe in three notable cases which are cited.
Date: July 1, 1927
Creator: Reid, Elliott G & Carroll, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of rotating cylinders

Description: Tests were made in the no. 1 wind tunnel at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to determine the air forces acting on rotating cylinders with axes perpendicular to the direction of motion. One cylinder had a circular cross-section, the other that of a greek cross.
Date: December 1, 1924
Creator: Reid, Elliott G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The formation of ice upon exposed parts of an airplane in flight

Description: In order to experimentally study the conditions leading to ice formation on aircraft surfaces, an aircraft was equipped with small auxiliary surfaces and aerodynamic shapes similar to struts, wires, Pitot heads, etc. This airplane was flown at an altitude where a temperature of 32 F was encountered, at such times as cloud formations could be found at the coincident altitude. Here it was discovered that ice formed rapidly in regard to quantity,character, shape, and rapidity of formation. An examination of this data, which confirms observations of pilots, indicates that the weight of ice collected can very possibly be sufficient to force the airplane to rapidly lose altitude on account of the increased loads. However, it is more evident that the malformation of the aerodynamic shapes may so increase the drag and reduce the lift so as to produce a loss of altitude even greater in consequence, the combination of the two working in the same direction having a double effect. Other adverse consequences are noted. The recommendation for the guidance of those who must encounter these conditions appears to lie entirely along the lines of avoidance.
Date: July 1, 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, Wm H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Description: The difficulties experienced in properly holding thin tipped or tapered airfoils while testing on an N.P.L. type aerodynamic balance even at low air speeds, and the impossibility of holding even solid metal models at the high speeds attainable at the National Advisory Committee's wind tunnel, necessitated the design of a balance which would hold model airfoils of any thickness and at speeds up to 150 m.p.h. In addition to mechanical strength and rigidity, it was highly desirable that the balance readings should require a minimum amount of correction and mathematical manipulation in order to obtain the lift and drag coefficients and the center of pressure. The balance described herein is similar to one in use at the University of Gottingen, the main difference lying in the addition of a device for reading the center of pressure directly, without the necessity of any correction whatsoever. Details of the design and operation of the device are given.
Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Static testing and proposed standard specifications

Description: Static tests fall into two groups, the first of which is designed to load all members of the structure approximately in accordance with the worst loads which they carry in flight, while the second is directed to the testing of specific members which are suspected of weakness and which are difficult to analyze mathematically. The nature of the loading in the second type is different for every different test, but the purpose of the first is defined clearly enough to permit the adoption of some standard set of loading specifications, at least for airplanes of normal design. Here, an attempt is made to carry through an analysis leading to such a standard, the goal being the determination of a load which will simultaneously impose on every member of the airplane structure a stress equal to the worst it will carry in flight.
Date: July 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, E P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

Description: Described here is a convenient and accurate method of aligning the wing chord with the airflow. The device was developed to permit rapid and accurate alignment of airfoils and models with the airstream passing through the tunnel. It consists of three main parts: a projector, a reflector, and a target. The arrangement, which is shown in a figure, has proven satisfactory in operation. It is far better than the old method of sighting across a long batten, as the operator of a balance may see the target and correctly judge the accuracy of his alignment. Whereas the old method required two operators and several minutes time to align to within 1/10 degree, this method enables one operator to align a wing to within 1/100 of a degree in a few seconds. This method also has the advantage of being able to measure the angle of the wing while the tunnel is running. Thus, the true angle of incidence is shown.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Bacon, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The NACA three component accelerometer

Description: A new instrument known as the NACA three component accelerometer is described in this note. This instrument was designed by the technical staff of the NACA for recording accelerations along three mutually perpendicular axes, and is of the same type as the NACA single component accelerometer with the addition of two springs and a few minor improvements such as a pump for filling the dash-pots and a convenient method for aligning the springs. This note includes a few records as well as photographs of the instrument itself.
Date: October 1, 1922
Creator: Reid, H. J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of the reversal of air flow upon the discharge coefficient of Durley Orifices

Description: Experiments were conducted to obtain information on the relationship between the coefficients for flow in two directions through thin plate orifices at low velocities. The results indicate that the ratio of the orifice discharge coefficient from standard orifice C(sub s)(sup 1) to the discharge coefficient from the reverse flow C(sub s) is always less than unity with increasing ratio of box area to orifice area. Even for areas as low as twenty, the ratios of the coefficients are not much less than unity. It is probable, however, that when the ratio of box area is less than twenty, the ratio of discharge coefficients would be greatly reduced. Specific results are given for the case of an apparatus for the laboratory testing of superchargers.
Date: February 1, 1921
Creator: Ware, Marsden
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the characteristics of steel diaphragms for automatic fuel-injection valves

Description: This research on steel diaphragms was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, as a part of a general investigation on fuel injection engines for aircraft. The work determined the load-deflection, load- deformation and hysteresis characteristics for single diaphragms having thicknesses from 0.00s inch to 0.012 inch, and for similar diaphragms tested in multiple having total thicknesses from 0.012 inch to 0.180 inch. The elastic limit loads and deflections, and rupture points of single diaphragms were also determined. Some work was done on diaphragms having central orifices in order to determine the effect of orifice diameter upon the load deflection characteristics.
Date: April 1, 1926
Creator: Joachim, W F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gottingen Wind Tunnel for testing aircraft models

Description: Given here is a brief description of the Gottingen Wind Tunnel for the testing of aircraft models, preceded by a history of its development. Included are a number of diagrams illustrating, among other things, a sectional elevation of the wind tunnel, the pressure regulator, the entrance cone and method of supporting a model for simple drag tests, a three-component balance, and a propeller testing device, all of which are discussed in the text.
Date: November 1, 1920
Creator: Prandtl, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Syphon diaphragms : a method for predicting their performance for purposes of instrument design

Description: Here, the purpose is to show that the characteristic performance of a syphon diaphragm can be predicted from a knowledge of its stiffness and of its dimensions. The proof is based on a mathematical analysis of this type of diaphragm, together with enough experimental data to prove the validity of the assumptions and the sufficiency of the analysis. Equations are developed for the performance of syphons under various conditions of loading, both for concentrated loads and for hydrostatic pressure.
Date: January 1, 1922
Creator: Eaton, H N & Keulegan, G H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface area coefficients for airship envelopes

Description: In naval architecture, it is customary to determine the wetted surface of a ship by means of some formula which involves the principal dimensions of the design and suitable constants. These formulas of naval architecture may be extended and applied to the calculation of the surface area of airship envelopes by the use of new values of the constants determined for this purpose. Surface area coefficients were calculated from the actual dimensions, surfaces, and volumes of 52 streamline bodies, which form a series covering the entire range of shapes used in the present aeronautical practice.
Date: February 1, 1922
Creator: Diehl, W S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of oil scraper piston ring and piston fitted with oil drain holes

Description: Tests were conducted to determine whether or not a properly located and properly designed oil scraper piston ring, installed on a piston provided with oil drain holes of sufficient area, would prevent the excessive oiling of the Liberty engine, particularly with the engine running at idling speed with full oil pressure. Results showed that excessive oiling was in fact prevented. It is strongly recommended that scraper rings and pistons be adopted for aircraft engines.
Date: August 1, 1922
Creator: Mcdewell, H S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground influence on airfoils

Description: The question of ground influence on airplanes has recently attracted some attention in view of the claims made by certain designers that the landing speed of their airplanes is much decreased by an increase in lift coefficient due to the proximity of the ground in landing. The results of wind tunnel tests indicate that ground effect is not entirely beneficial. It decreases the landing speed and cushions the landing shock somewhat. However, it does so at the expense of an increased length of preliminary skimming over the ground. By decreasing the drag and increasing the lift, it lengthens the distance necessary for the airplane to travel before losing enough speed to land. On the other hand, its influence is helpful in taking off, especially in the case of flying boats with their low-lying wings. In the conventional tractor airplane, the height of the wings above the ground is determined largely by propeller clearance. However, a small low-speed airplane like the Pischoff and large low-speed commercial aircraft with engines between wings can utilize ground influence to good advantage.
Date: December 1, 1921
Creator: Raymond, Arthur E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micarta propellers III : general description of the design

Description: The design of propellers made of Micarta is discussed. The advantages of the material are noted, especially as compared with wood. The design changes necessitated by the use of Micarta are discussed with reference to the hub boss, the narrowing of the blade tips, the thinning of the blades, the angles of the leading and trailing edges, and the adjustment of the pitch. Results of flight tests show that the Micarta propeller gave a top speed of 2 miles per hour more than the wooden propeller while turning about 120 r.p.m slower, with about the same rate of climb. At top speed, the Micarta propeller shows an improvement of about 7 percent in fuel economy, although the plane is flying 2 miles per hour faster.
Date: August 1, 1924
Creator: Caldwell, F W & Clay, N S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical preparation of the airplane "Spirit of St. Louis."

Description: Given here is a brief history of the design and construction of the "Spirit of St. Lewis", the airplane that Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic. Although the plan was to modify a standard model Ryan M-2, it was quickly determined that modification was less practical than redesign. Colonel Lindbergh's active participation in the design of the aircraft is noted. Given here are the general dimensions, specifications, weight characteristics, and man hours required to build the aircraft.
Date: July 1, 1927
Creator: Hall, Donald A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micarta propellers IV : technical methods of design

Description: A description is given of the methods used in design of Micarta propellers. The most direct method for working out the design of a Micarta propeller is to start with the diameter and blade angles of a wooden propeller suited for a particular installation and then to apply one of the plan forms suitable for Micarta propellers. This allows one to obtain the corresponding blade widths and to then use these angles and blade widths for an aerodynamic analysis.
Date: September 1, 1924
Creator: Caldwell, F W & Clay, N S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On a new type of wind tunnel

Description: Discussed here is a new type of wind tunnel, its advantages, the difficulties attendant upon its use, and the special methods required for its operation. The main difference between the new type of wind tunnel and the ones now in operation is the use of a different fluid. The idea is to diminish the effect of viscosity If air is compressed, it becomes a fluid with new properties - a fluid that is best suited for reliable and exact tests on models. When air is compressed, its density increases, but its viscosity does not. It is argued that the increase of pressure greatly increases the range and value of wind tunnel tests. Reynolds number, deductions from the Reynolds law, the causes of errors that result in differences between tests on models and actual flights, and the dimensions of a compressed air wind tunnel are covered.
Date: May 1, 1921
Creator: Munk, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a vane driven-gear pump

Description: Given here are the results of a test conducted in a wind tunnel on the performance of a vane-driven gear pump used to pump gasoline upward into a small tank located within the upper wing from which it flows by gravity to the engine carburetor. Information is given on the efficiency of the pump, the head resistance of the vanes, the performance and characteristics of the unit with and without housing about the vanes, the pump performance when motor driven, and resistance and power characteristics.
Date: September 1, 1921
Creator: Heald, R H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new method of testing in wind tunnels

Description: Now, in existing wind tunnels, using a horsepower of 100 to 300, the models are generally made to a 1/10 scale and the speed is appreciably lower than the speeds currently attained by airplanes. The Reynolds number realized is thus 15 to 25 times smaller than that reached by airplanes in free flight, while the ratio of speed to the velocity of sound is between a third and three quarters of the true ratio. The necessary increases in either the diameter of the wind tunnel or the velocity of the airstream are too costly. However, the author shows that it is possible to have wind tunnels in which the Reynolds number will be greater than that now obtained by airplanes, and in which the ratio of the velocity to the velocity of sound will also be greater than that realized in practice, by employing a gas other than air, at a pressure and temperature different from those of the surrounding atmosphere. The gas is carbonic acid, a gas having a low coefficient of viscosity, high density, and a low ratio of specific heat. The positive results of using carbonic acid in wind tunnel tests are given.
Date: August 1, 1921
Creator: Margoulis, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department