National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 21 Matching Results

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Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

Description: The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.
Date: February 1, 1949
Creator: Coles, W. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Measurements to Determine Effect of a Spring-Loaded Tab on Longitudinal Stability of an Airplane

Description: In conjunction with a program of research on the general problem of stability of airplanes in the climbing condition, tests have been made of a spring-loaded tb which. is referred to as a ?springy tab,? installed on the elevator of a low-wing scout bomber. The tab was arranged to deflect upward with decrease in speed which caused an increase in the pull force required to trim at low speeds and thereby increased the stick-free static longitudinal stability of the airplane. It was found that the springy tab would increase the stick-free stability in all flight conditions, would reduce the danger of inadvertent stalling because of the definite pull force required to stall the airplane with power on, would reduce the effect of center-of-gravity position on stick-free static stability, and would have little effect on the elevator stick forces in accelerated f11ght. Another advantage of the springy tab is that it might be used to provide almost any desired variation of elevator stick force with speed by adjusting the tab hinge-moment characteristics and the variation of spring moment with tab deflection. Unlike the bungee and the bobweight, the springy tab would provide stick-free static stability without requiring a pull force to hold the stick back while taxying. A device similar to the springy tab may be used on the rudder or ailerons to eliminate undesirable trim-force variations with speed.
Date: February 1, 1946
Creator: Hunter, Paul A. & Reeder, John P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knock-limited performance of several internal coolants

Description: The effect of internal cooling on the knock-limited performance of an-f-28 fuel was investigated in a CFR engine, and the following internal coolants were used: (1) water, (2), methyl alcohol-water mixture, (3) ammonia-methyl alcohol-water mixture, (4) monomethylamine-water mixture, (5) dimethylamine-water mixture, and (6) trimethylamine-water mixture. Tests were run at inlet-air temperatures of 150 degrees and 250 degrees F. to indicate the temperature sensitivity of the internal-coolant solutions.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Bellman, Donald R. & Evvard, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative tests of the strength and tightness of commercial flush rivets of one type and NACA flush rivets in machine-countersunk and counterpunched joints

Description: Report discusses an investigation that was conducted to compare the strength and tightness of machine-countersunk flush-riveted joints assembled with NACA flush rivets and a type of commercial flush rivet. A comparison was also generated between the strength and tightness of counterpunched flush-riveted joints assembled with the same types of rivet. NACA's flush-riveted joints tended to be stronger and tighter than the commercial joints.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Mandel, Merven W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Notes on the Determination of the Stick-Free Neutral Point from Wind-Tunnel Data

Description: Two graphical methods are presented for determining the stick-free neutral point, and they are extensions of the methods commonly used to determine the stick-free neutral point. A mathematical formula for computing the stick-free neutral point is also given. These methods may be applied to determine approximately the increase in tail size necessary to shift the neutral point (stick fixed or free) to any desired location on an airplane having inadequate longitudinal stability.
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Schuldenfrei, Marvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maintaining Laminar Flow in the Boundary Layer using a Swept-Back Wing

Description: The positions of boundary-layer transition were ascertained experimentally for a swept-back wing and a wing without sweepback which were alike in all other respects and were compared for the same angle of attack (R(sub e) = 5.6 x 10(exp 5)). The swept-back wing in a definite range of angle of attack resulted in a backward shift of the transition point on the suction side of the wing. The favorable effect of sweepback on the position of the transition point is confirmed, consequently. In addition to decreasing the drag at high Mach numbers, the swept-back wing is acknowledged to have additional advantages. These are: (1) Decrease of the pressure drag. The reduction factor is approximately equal to the cosine of the angle of sweepback. (2) Backward shift of the transition point. There are no known experiments which establish experimentally the advantage anticipated. It appeared justifiable, therefore, to carry out some fundamental experiments which might furnish some idea of the magnitude of the advantage expected. Such an experiment is reported in what follows; the advantage of the sweepback appears clearly.
Date: February 1, 1948
Creator: Brennecke
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Dynamic Investigations of the Pulse-Jet Tube, Parts 1 and 2

Description: Based upon a simplified representation of the mode of operation of the pulse-jet tube, the effect of the influences mentioned in the title were investigated and it will be shown that, for a jet tube with a fccmndesigned to be aerodynamically favorable, the ability to operate is at least questionable. By taking into account the course of the development of pressure by combustion, a new insight has been obtained into the processes of motion within the jet tube, an insight that explains a number of empirical observations, namely: certain particulars of the sequence of pressure variations; the existence of an optimum valve-opening ratio; the occurrence of an intrusion of air; and the existence of a flight speed above lrhichthe jet tube ceases to operate. At too great an opening ratio or at too great a flight s-peed, the continuous flow through the tube is too predominant over the oscilla~ory process to perinitthe occurrence of an explosion powerful enough to maintain continuous operation. Certain possible means of making the operation of the jet tube more independent of the flight speed and of reducing the flow losses were proposed and discussed.
Date: February 1, 1947
Creator: Shultz-Grunow, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Oscillating Circular Airfoil on the Basis of Potential Theory

Description: Proceeding from the thesis by W. Kinner the present report treats the problem of the circular airfoil in uniform airflow executing small oscillations, the amplitudes of which correspond to whole functions of the second degree in x and y. The pressure distribution is secured by means of Prandtl's acceleration potential. It results in a system of linear equations the coefficients of which can be calculated exactly with the aid of exponential functions and Hankel's functions. The equations necessary are derived in part I; the numerical calculation follows in part II.
Date: February 1, 1947
Creator: Schade, T. & Krienes, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Combustion in a Turbulent Flow

Description: The characteristics introduced by the turbulence in the process of the flame propagation are considered. On the basis of geometrical and dimensional considerations an expression is obtained for the velocity of the flame propagation in a flow of large scale of turbulence.
Date: February 1, 1947
Creator: Shelkin, K. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Piezoelectric Instruments of High Natural Frequency Vibration Characteristics and Protection Against Interference by Mass Forces

Description: The exploration of the processes accompanying engine combustion demands quick-responding pressure-recording instruments, among which the piezoelectric type has found widespread use because of its especially propitious properties as vibration-recording instruments for high frequencies. Lacking appropriate test methods, the potential errors of piezoelectric recorders in dynamic measurements could only be estimated up to now. In the present report a test method is described by means of which the resonance curves of the piezoelectric pickup can be determined; hence an instrumental appraisal of the vibration characteristics of piezoelectric recorders is obtainable.
Date: February 1, 1943
Creator: Gohlka, Werner
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tail Buffeting

Description: An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.
Date: February 1, 1943
Creator: Abdrashitov, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compression Shocks in Two-Dimensional Gas Flows

Description: The following are arguments on the compression shocks in gas flow start with a simplified representation of the results of the study made by Th. Meyer as published in the Forschungsheft 62 of the VDI, supplemented by several amplifications for the application.In the treatment of compression shocks, the equation of energy, the equation of continuity, the momentum equation, the equation of state of the particular gas, as well as the condition Of the second law of thermodynamics that no decrease of entropy is possible in an isolated system, must be taken into consideration. The result is that, in those cases where the sudden change of state according to the second law of thermodynamics is possible, there always occurs a compression of the gas which is uniquely determined by the other conditions.
Date: February 1, 1949
Creator: Busemann, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Researches on the Piston Ring

Description: In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the ...
Date: February 1, 1944
Creator: Ehihara, Keikiti
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

Description: In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.
Date: February 1, 1947
Creator: Blenk, Hermann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Wind Tunnel Tests and Computations Concerning the Problem of Shrouded Propellers

Description: Results of measurements on a shrouded propeller are given. The propeller is designed for the high ratio of advance and high thrust loading. The effect of the shape of propeller and shroud upon the aerodynamic coefficients of the propulsion unit can be seen from the results. The highest efficiency measured is 0.71. The measurements permit the conclusion that the maximum efficiency can be essentially improved by shroud profiles of small chord and thickness. The largest static thrust factor of merit measured reaches according to Bendemann, a value of about zeta = 1.1. By the use of a nose split flap the static thrust for thin shroud profiles with small nose radius can be about doubled. In a separate section numerical investigations of the behavior of shrouded propellers for the ideal case and for the case with energy losses are carried out. The calculations are based on the assumption that the slipstream cross section depends solely on the shape of the shroud and not on the propeller loading. The reliability of this hypothesis is confirmed experimentally and by flow photographs for a shroud with small circulation. Calculation and test are also in good agreement concerning efficiency and static thrust factor of merit. The prospects of applicability for shrouded propellers and their essential advantages are discussed.
Date: February 1, 1949
Creator: Kruger, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens

Description: Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is.
Date: February 1, 1946
Creator: Adler, Alfred A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight characteristics at low speed of a 1/12 scale model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 airplane: (flying mock-up of XP-92)

Description: Contains the results of an investigation in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the stability and control characteristics of a 1/12-scale dynamic free-flying model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 airplane (a flying mock-up of the XP-92 airplane). The wing and vertical tail of this model were of triangular plan form with 60 degree sweepback of the leading edge. The results of both force and flight tests of the model are presented.
Date: February 1, 1948
Creator: Tosti, Louis B. & Bates, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department