National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 150 Matching Results

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Internal-flow systems for aircraft

Description: An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of a problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing. When an internal-flow system tends to decrease the final velocity of it's wake, the results showed that it should be arranged in series with the propulsive system; the inlet opening should be located at a forward stagnation point; and the outlet opening should be so shaped and located as to recover the kinetic energy of the jet without increasing the drag of other portions of the aircraft. When an internal-flow system tends to increase the final velocity new b's wake, as does a propeller, location of the inlet opening in the boundary layer or in the wake of the wing or in the fuselage may be desirable.
Date: October 1940
Creator: Rogallo, F. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of sheet-stiffener panels subjected to compression loads with particular reference to torsionally weak stiffeners

Description: A total of 183 panel specimens of 24ST aluminum alloy with nominal thickness of 0.020, and 0.040 inch with extruded bulb-angle sections of 12 shapes spaced 4 and 5 inches as stiffeners were tested to obtain the buckling stress and the amplitude of the maximum wave when buckled. Bulb angles from 3 to 27 1/2 inches long were tested as pin-end columns. The experimental data are presented as stress-strain and column curves and in tabular form. Some comparisons with theoretical results are presented. Analytical methods are developed that make it possible for the designer to predict with reasonable accuracy the buckling stress and the maximum-wave amplitude of the sheet in stiffened-panel combinations. The scope of the tests was insufficient to formulate general design criteria but the results are presented as a guide for design and an indication of the type of theoretical and experimental work that is needed.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Dunn, Louis G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new method of studying the flow of the water along the bottom of a model of a flying-boat hull

Description: A new method of studying the flow of the water along the bottom of a model of a flying-boat hull is described. In this method, the model is fitted with a transparent bottom and is divided down the center line by a bulkhead. The flow is observed and photographed through one-half of the model by means of the diffused illumination from a battery of lamps contained in the other half of the model. Photographs of the flow, particularly of the changes that occur when the step ventilates, are shown. The results of the present investigation indicate that the method has considerable promise, chiefly in connection with motion-picture studies.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Ward, Kenneth E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-distribution investigation of an NACA 0009 airfoil with an 80-percent-chord plain flap and three tabs

Description: Pressure-distribution tests of an NACA 0009 airfoil with an 80-percent-chord plain flap and three plain tabs, having chord of 10, 20, and 30 percent of the flap chord, were made. Section data suitable for application to the design of horizontal and vertical tail surfaces were obtained. Resultant-pressure diagrams for the airfoil with the flap and the 20-percent-chord tab are presented. Plots are also given of increments of normal-force and hinge-moment coefficients for the airfoil, the flap, and the three tabs. A comparison of some characteristic slopes for the 30-, the 50-, and the 80-percent-chord flaps, tested in the general investigation of plain flaps for control surfaces, is included. Section aerodynamic and load data have been made available for a wide range of flap and a tab chords to be used on an NACA 0009 airfoil or on other conventional sections.
Date: May 1940
Creator: Ames, Milton B., Jr. & Sears, Richard I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured moments of inertia of 32 airplanes

Description: A compilation of the experimentally determined moments of inertia of 32 airplanes is presented. The measurements were obtained at the laboratories of the naca by means of a pendulum method. The airplanes tested are representative of several types of aircraft of gross weight less than 10,000 pounds. The results are presented in coefficient as well as in dimensional form. An elementary analysis of the data disclosed the possibility of grouping the results according to wing type of the airplane, as low-wing monoplanes, parasol and high-wing monoplanes, and biplanes. The data are shown to provide a convenient means of rapidly estimating the moments of inertia of other airplanes. A three view drawing of each of the 32 airplanes is included.
Date: October 1, 1940
Creator: Gracey, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the forces acting on gliders in towed flight

Description: The magnitude, the direction, and the fluctuations of tow forces exerted upon gliders by towing them aloft behind an automobile were measured under a variety of conditions covering a range from gentle to severe types of operation. For these tests, the glider towing force did not exceed 1.6 of the gross weight of the glider. V-G records obtained during the towed-flight period as well as during the subsequent return glide to earth showed accelerations in the range from 3 to -1 g. The results of preliminary airplane tow tests are also presented.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Klenperer, W B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The flow of a compressible fluid past a sphere

Description: The flow of a compressible fluid past a sphere fixed in a uniform stream is calculated to the third order of approximation by means of the Janzen-Rayleigh method. The velocity and the pressure distribution over the surface of the sphere are computed and the terms involving the fourth power of the Mach number, neglected in Rayleigh's calculation, are shown to be of considerable importance as the local velocity of sound is approached on the sphere. The critical Mach number, that is, the value of the Mach number at which the maximum velocity of the fluid past the sphere is just equal to the local velocity of sound, is calculated for both the second and the third approximation and is found to be, respectively, Mcr=0.587 and Mcr=0.573.
Date: May 1, 1940
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cyclic stress-strain studies of metals in torsion

Description: Report presenting cyclic torsion tests made to determine the effects of varying amounts of torsional overstrain on the shape of the shearing stress-strain diagrams of aluminum alloy 17ST, mild steel, wrought iron, copper, brass, and magnesium alloy AX57S. Results regarding the tensile, compressive, and shear properties are provided.
Date: December 1940
Creator: Paul, D. A. & Moore, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A full-scale investigation of the effect of several factors on the shimmy of cantering wheels

Description: A full-scale investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of various factors on the shimmy of castering wheels. The factors considered were the geometric arrangement, the tire types, the variations of load, the spindle moment of inertia, and the tire inflation. A comparison of the results of the present investigation with those calculated from existing theory was made. The constants needed in the calculations to determine the damping required for a castering wheel were measured. The results indicate that solid friction appears to be impracticable as the sole damping agent for castering nose wheels on large airplanes. Also it was concluded that the existing theory is adequate for calculating the damping required to prevent shimmy. The caster angle and the spindle moment of inertia were found to influence the solid friction required to prevent shimmy. The effect of variations in the type and the pressure of the tire was insignificant.
Date: April 1, 1940
Creator: Howard, Walter B , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation of knocking characteristics of fuels in an engine having a hemispherical combustion chamber

Description: From Summary: "Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained with having a hemispherical-dome combustion chamber. The five aircraft-engine fuels used have octane numbers varying from 90 to 100 plus 2 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5 1/4-inch by 4 3/4-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.0 to 8.9. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 110 to 310 F. For each set of conditions, the inlet-air pressure was increased until audible knock occurred and then reduced 2 inches of mercury before data were recorded."
Date: July 1940
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Biermann, Arnold E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag determinations of the forward component of a tricycle landing gear

Description: Wind-tunnel tests were performed to determine the drag of the front-wheel arrangements of several types of tricycle landing gear. One wheel was tested in arrangements to simulate both nonretracted and partially retracted types. The landing gears were tested in conjunction with a fuselage, and the effects of wheel extension and longitudinal location were determined. The drag changed very little with either longitudinal location or wheel extension for the landing gear with the lowest drag; a completely faired landing gear of the wheelspan, single-strut type. The drag of the trouser-type landing gear increased considerably, however, with an increase in the wheel extension. The wheel of the unaired retractable landing gear was at least one-half retracted into the fuselage before the drag became less than that of the best nonretracted landing gear. The drag per unit frontal area of the landing gears of the present tests was about the same as that found for similar landing gears in earlier tests.
Date: December 1940
Creator: Harmon, Hubert N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of cylinder-pressure-indicator diagrams showing effects of mixture strength and spark timing

Description: An investigation was made to determine the effect of mixture strength and of normal as well as optimum spark timing on the combustion, on the cylinder temperature, and on the performance characteristics of an engine. A single-cylinder test unit utilizing an air-cooled cylinder and a carburetor and operating with gasoline having an octane rating of 92 was used. The investigation covered a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.053 to 0.118. Indicator diagrams and engine-performance data were taken for each change in engine conditions. Examination of the indicator shows that for fuel-air ratios less than and greater than 0.082 the rate and the amount of effective fuel burned decreased. For a fuel-air ratio of 0.118 the combustion efficiency was only 58 percent. Advancing the spark timing increased the rate of pressure rise. This effect was more pronounced with leaner mixtures.
Date: August 1940
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Voss, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-distribution investigation on an NACA 0009 airfoil with a 30-percent-chord plain flap and three tabs

Description: From Summary: "Pressure-distribution tests of an NACA 0009 airfoil with a 30-percent-chord plain flap and three plain tabs, having chords 10, 20, and 30 percent of the flap chord, were made. The purpose of these tests was to continue an investigation to supply structural and aerodynamic section data that may be applied to the design of horizontal and vertical tail surfaces. The results are presented as diagrams of resultant pressures and of resultant-pressure increments for the airfoil with the flap and the 20-percent-chord tab. Increments of normal-force and hinge-moment coefficients for the airfoil, the flap, and the three tabs are also given. At all unstalled flap and tab deflections, the experimental distributions agree well with those calculated by an analytical method. The agreement is poor, however, then the stalled or the unstalled condition of the flap or tab deflected alone was changed to an unstalled or stalled condition by the simultaneous deflection of both the flap and the tab."
Date: May 1940
Creator: Ames, Milton B., Jr. & Sears, Richard I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propeller rotation noise due to torque and thrust

Description: Sound pressure of the first four harmonics of rotation from a full-scale two-blade propeller were measured and are compared with values calculated from theory. The comparison is made (1) for the space distribution with constant tip speed and (2) for fixed space angles with variable tip speed. A relation for rotation noise from an element of radius developed by Gutin is given showing the effect of number of blades on the rotation noise.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Deming, Arthur F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of a gust-alleviating flap in the gust tunnel

Description: Tests were made to determine the effectiveness of a long-period dynamically overbalanced flap in reducing airplane accelerations due to atmospheric gusts. For two gust shapes, one gust velocity, one forward velocity, and one wing loading, a series of flights was made with the flap locked and was then repeated with the flap free to operate. The records were evaluated by routine methods. The results indicate that the flap reduced the maximum acceleration increment 39 percent for a severe gust but with a representative gust shape (a sharp-edge gust), the reduction was only 3 percent. The results also indicate that the flap tended to reduce the longitudinal stability of the airplane. Computations made of the effectiveness and the action of the flap were in good agreement with the experimental results.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Donely, Philip & Shufflebarger, C C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight investigation of control-stick vibration of the YG-1B autogiro

Description: As a preliminary step in an investigation of control-stick vibration in direct-control autogiros, the periodic variations in the moments transmitted through the control system of a YG-1B autogiro were recorded in flight. The results of the measurements are presented in the form of coefficients of Fourier series expressing the varying part of the lateral and the longitudinal moments acting between rotor and fuselage at the control trunnions. The most important component of the variation in stick force was found to have frequency of three times the rotor speed and an amplitude that rose from negligible values at tip-speed ratio below 0.20 to +/-5.2 pounds longitudinally and +/-3.2 pounds laterally at tip-speed ratios of 0.35. Variations in stick force at all other frequencies were small in comparison with those at three times the rotor speed.
Date: June 1, 1940
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of piston-head shape, cylinder-head shape, and exhaust restriction, on the performance of a piston-ported two-stroke cylinder

Description: Report presenting testing of a model of the two-stroke engine described in NACA Technical Note No. 674 for the purpose of observing the scavenging-air flow obtained with various inlet-port arrangements. Three types of cylinder head were tried with the round-edge piston in the engine. Results regarding the effect of port arrangement, pistons, cylinder-head shapes, effect of swirl, and exhaust restrictions are provided.
Date: March 1940
Creator: Rogowski, A. R.; Bouchard, C. L. & Taylor, C. Fayette
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of engine speed and mixture temperature on the knocking characteristics of several fuels

Description: Six 100-octane and two 87-octane aviation engine fuels were tested in a modified C.F.R. variable-compression engine at 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 rpm. The mixture temperature was raised from 50 to 300 F in approximately 50 degree steps and, at each temperature, the compression ratio was adjusted to give incipient knock as shown by a cathode ray indicator. The results are presented in tabular form. The results are analyzed on the assumption that the conditions which determine whether a given fuel will knock are the maximum values of density and temperature reached by the burning gases. A maximum permissible density factor, proportional to the maximum density of the burning gases just prior to incipient knock, and the temperature of the burning gases at that time were computed for each of the test conditions. Values of the density factors were plotted against the corresponding end-gas temperatures for the three engine speeds and also against engine speed for several and end-gas temperatures. The maximum permissible density factor varied only slightly with engine speed but decreased rapidly with an increase in the end-gas temperature. The effect of changing the mixture temperature was different for fuels of different types. The results emphasize the desirability of determining the anti knock values of fuels over a wide range of engine and intake-air conditions rather that at a single set of conditions.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Lee, Dana W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-Heat De-Icing

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics conducted exhaust-heat de-icing tests in flight to provide data needed in the application of this method. The capacity to extract heat from the exhaust gas for de-icing purposes, the quantity of heat required, and other factors were examined. The results indicate that a wing-heating system employing a spanwise exhaust tube within the leading edge of the wing removed 30 to 35 percent of the heat from exhaust gas entering the wing. Data are given from which the heat required for ice prevention can be calculated. Sample calculations have been made on the basis of existing engine power/wing area ratios to show that sufficient heating can be obtained for ice protection on modern transportation airplanes, provided that uniform distribution of the heat can be secured.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Jones, Alun R & Rodert, Lewis A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient Effects of the Wing Wake on the Horizontal Tail

Description: An investigation was made of the effect of the wing wake on the lift of the horizontal tail surfaces. In the development of expressions for this effect, the growth of wing circulation and wing wake, the time interval represented by the tail length, and the development of lift by the rail were considered. The theory has been applied to a specific case to show the magnitude of the effect to be expected. It is shown that, for motions below a certain frequency, the development of lift by the tail may be represented by a simple lag function. The lag is, however, somewhat greater than that indicated by the rail length.
Date: August 1, 1940
Creator: Jones, Robert T & Fehlner, Leo F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine

Description: The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.
Date: September 1, 1940
Creator: Hasting, Charles E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of measuring piston temperatures

Description: A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.
Date: June 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Mangniello, Eugene J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department