National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 147 Matching Results

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The effects of engine speed and mixture temperature on the knocking characteristics of several fuels

Description: Six 100-octane and two 87-octane aviation engine fuels were tested in a modified C.F.R. variable-compression engine at 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 rpm. The mixture temperature was raised from 50 to 300 F in approximately 50 degree steps and, at each temperature, the compression ratio was adjusted to give incipient knock as shown by a cathode ray indicator. The results are presented in tabular form. The results are analyzed on the assumption that the conditions which determine whether a given fuel will knock are the maximum values of density and temperature reached by the burning gases. A maximum permissible density factor, proportional to the maximum density of the burning gases just prior to incipient knock, and the temperature of the burning gases at that time were computed for each of the test conditions. Values of the density factors were plotted against the corresponding end-gas temperatures for the three engine speeds and also against engine speed for several and end-gas temperatures. The maximum permissible density factor varied only slightly with engine speed but decreased rapidly with an increase in the end-gas temperature. The effect of changing the mixture temperature was different for fuels of different types. The results emphasize the desirability of determining the anti knock values of fuels over a wide range of engine and intake-air conditions rather that at a single set of conditions.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Lee, Dana W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of measuring piston temperatures

Description: A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.
Date: June 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Mangniello, Eugene J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured moments of inertia of 32 airplanes

Description: A compilation of the experimentally determined moments of inertia of 32 airplanes is presented. The measurements were obtained at the laboratories of the naca by means of a pendulum method. The airplanes tested are representative of several types of aircraft of gross weight less than 10,000 pounds. The results are presented in coefficient as well as in dimensional form. An elementary analysis of the data disclosed the possibility of grouping the results according to wing type of the airplane, as low-wing monoplanes, parasol and high-wing monoplanes, and biplanes. The data are shown to provide a convenient means of rapidly estimating the moments of inertia of other airplanes. A three view drawing of each of the 32 airplanes is included.
Date: October 1, 1940
Creator: Gracey, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23030 airfoil with various arrangements of slotted flaps

Description: AN investigation was made of a large-chord NACA 23030 airfoil with a 40- and a 25.66 percent-chord slotted flap to determine the section aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil affected by flap chord, slot shape, flap position, and flap deflection. The flap positions for maximum lift, the position for minimum drag at moderate and high lift coefficients, and the complete section aerodynamic characteristics of selected optimum arrangements are given. Envelope polar of various flap arrangements are included. The relative merits of slotted flaps of different chords on the NACA 23030 airfoil are discussed, and a comparison is made of each flap size with a corresponding flap size on the NACA 23021 and 23012 airfoils. The lowest profile drags at moderate lift coefficients were obtained with an easy entrance to the slot. The 25.66-percent-chord slotted flap gave lower drag than the 40-percent-chord flap for lift coefficients less than 1.8, but the 40-percent-chord flap gave considerably lower drag for lift coefficients. The drag coefficients at moderate and high lift coefficients were greater with both sizes of flap on the NACA 23030 airfoil than on either the NACA 23021 or the NACA 23012 airfoil. The maximum lift coefficient for the deflections tested with either flap was practically independent of airfoil.
Date: March 1, 1940
Creator: Recant, I G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight investigation of control-stick vibration of the YG-1B autogiro

Description: As a preliminary step in an investigation of control-stick vibration in direct-control autogiros, the periodic variations in the moments transmitted through the control system of a YG-1B autogiro were recorded in flight. The results of the measurements are presented in the form of coefficients of Fourier series expressing the varying part of the lateral and the longitudinal moments acting between rotor and fuselage at the control trunnions. The most important component of the variation in stick force was found to have frequency of three times the rotor speed and an amplitude that rose from negligible values at tip-speed ratio below 0.20 to +/-5.2 pounds longitudinally and +/-3.2 pounds laterally at tip-speed ratios of 0.35. Variations in stick force at all other frequencies were small in comparison with those at three times the rotor speed.
Date: June 1, 1940
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-Heat De-Icing

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics conducted exhaust-heat de-icing tests in flight to provide data needed in the application of this method. The capacity to extract heat from the exhaust gas for de-icing purposes, the quantity of heat required, and other factors were examined. The results indicate that a wing-heating system employing a spanwise exhaust tube within the leading edge of the wing removed 30 to 35 percent of the heat from exhaust gas entering the wing. Data are given from which the heat required for ice prevention can be calculated. Sample calculations have been made on the basis of existing engine power/wing area ratios to show that sufficient heating can be obtained for ice protection on modern transportation airplanes, provided that uniform distribution of the heat can be secured.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Jones, Alun R & Rodert, Lewis A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of unsymmetrical-loading conditions

Description: The force variation along the wing span under combined normal and angular accelerations is considered. Non dimensional curves of section load, shear, and moment are given for: (1) the air load that produces a normal acceleration; (2) the accompanying wing weight and normal inertia loads; (3) aileron and gust air loads that produce angular acceleration; (4) the angular inertia load of the wing. The required aerodynamic load distributions have been obtained by use of wing theory, and the wing inertia distributions are based on an analysis of wing-weight data. Several examples are included to illustrate the effect of wing taper and aileron span on the total shears and moments at any section along the span.
Date: April 1, 1940
Creator: Pearson, Henry A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The flow of a compressible fluid past a sphere

Description: The flow of a compressible fluid past a sphere fixed in a uniform stream is calculated to the third order of approximation by means of the Janzen-Rayleigh method. The velocity and the pressure distribution over the surface of the sphere are computed and the terms involving the fourth power of the Mach number, neglected in Rayleigh's calculation, are shown to be of considerable importance as the local velocity of sound is approached on the sphere. The critical Mach number, that is, the value of the Mach number at which the maximum velocity of the fluid past the sphere is just equal to the local velocity of sound, is calculated for both the second and the third approximation and is found to be, respectively, Mcr=0.587 and Mcr=0.573.
Date: May 1, 1940
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A full-scale investigation of the effect of several factors on the shimmy of cantering wheels

Description: A full-scale investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of various factors on the shimmy of castering wheels. The factors considered were the geometric arrangement, the tire types, the variations of load, the spindle moment of inertia, and the tire inflation. A comparison of the results of the present investigation with those calculated from existing theory was made. The constants needed in the calculations to determine the damping required for a castering wheel were measured. The results indicate that solid friction appears to be impracticable as the sole damping agent for castering nose wheels on large airplanes. Also it was concluded that the existing theory is adequate for calculating the damping required to prevent shimmy. The caster angle and the spindle moment of inertia were found to influence the solid friction required to prevent shimmy. The effect of variations in the type and the pressure of the tire was insignificant.
Date: April 1, 1940
Creator: Howard, Walter B , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind tunnel tests of an NACA 23021 airfoil equipped with a slotted extensible and a plain extensible flap

Description: An investigation has been made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large chord NACA 23021 airfoil equipped with two arrangements of a completely extended 15 percent chord extensible flap. One of the flaps had a faired juncture, without a gap; the other was provided with a slot between the trailing edge of the airfoil and the nose of the flap. The results showed that the basic airfoil gave the lowest profile-drag coefficients over the low lift range, the airfoil with the plain extensible flap gave the lowest profile-drag coefficients over the moderate lift range, and the airfoil with the slotted extensible flap gave the lowest profile-drag coefficients over the high lift range. The airfoil with the slotted extensible flap had the same maximum lift at a flap deflection of 25 degrees as the airfoil with the plain extensible flap had at a flap deflection of 60 degrees. The results of comparisons of the airfoil pitching-moment coefficients obtained with the two types of flap are dependent upon the basis chosen for comparison. Complete aerodynamic section characteristics are presented for the various flap deflections for both flap arrangements in the completely extended portion.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Swanson, Robert S & Harris, Thomas A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind tunnel investigation of fuselage stability in yaw with various arrangements of fins

Description: An investigation was made in the 7-by-10 foot wind tunnel to determine the effects of dorsal-type fins and various arrangements of fins on the aerodynamic characteristics of a streamline circular fuselage. Comparative plots of the aerodynamic characteristics of the fuselage alone and the fuselage with various fin arrangements are given to show their effects on coefficients of yawing moment, drag, and lateral force. Results are also given for one case in which a rear fin on a circular fuselage was faired with modeling clay to obtain a fuselage shape with the same side elevation as the fuselage with the unfaired fin but with an elliptical cross section over the rearward portion of the fuselage. The results indicated that fin area to the rear of the center of gravity of the fuselage was beneficial in reducing the magnitude of the unstable yawing moments at large angles of yaw; whereas, fin area forward of the center of gravity was harmful. The dorsal-type fin was more effective for increasing the yawing stability of the fuselage than was a smoothly faired rearward portion with the same side elevation as the fuselage with the unfaired dorsal type fin. The minimum drag coefficient and the slope of the curve of yawing-moment coefficient of the fuselage at zero yaw were unaffected by the addition of the fins, within the experimental accuracy of the tests.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Hoggard, H Page, Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of two airfoils with 25-percent-chord Gwinn and plain flaps

Description: Aerodynamic force tests of an NACA 23018 airfoil with a Gwinn flap having a chord 25 percent of the overall chord and of an NACA 23015 airfoil with a plain flap having a 25-percent chord were conducted to determine the relative merits of the Gwinn and the plain flaps. The tests indicated that, based on speed-range ratios, the plain flap was more effective than the Gwinn flap. At small flap deflections, the plain flap had lower drag coefficients at lift-coefficient values less than 0.70. For lift coefficients greater than 0.70, however, the Gwinn flap at all downward flap deflections had the lower drag coefficients.
Date: May 1, 1940
Creator: Ames, Milton B , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Prevention of Ice on the Airplane Windshield

Description: An investigation of three methods for the prevention and the removal of ice on an airplane windshield has been completed. The methods were: electric heating; hot-air heating; and an alcohol-dispensing, rotating wiper blade. The results showed that vision through the airplane windshield could be maintained during severe icing conditions by the use of heat. When put in operation prior to the formation of ice on the windshield the rotating wiper blade prevented the formation of ice. A combination of heated air and a rotating wiper blade would appear to protect against formation of ice on the windshield exterior, to prevent frost on the interior and to provide for the removal of rainfall.
Date: March 1, 1940
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine

Description: The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.
Date: September 1, 1940
Creator: Hasting, Charles E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The frequencies of cantilever wings in beam and torsional vibrations

Description: Methods are described for calculating the period and frequency of vibration of cantilever wings and similar structures in which the weight and moment of inertia vary along the span. Both the beam and torsional frequencies may be calculated by these methods. The procedure is illustrated by examples. It is shown that a surprisingly close approximation to the beam frequency may be obtained by a very brief calculation in which the curvature of the wing in vibration is assumed to be constant. A somewhat longer computation permits taking account of the true curvature of the beam by a series of successive approximations which are shown to be strongly convergent. Analogous methods are applied to calculations of the torsional frequency. For the first approximation it is assumed that the angle of twist varies linearly alone the semispan. True variation of the twist is computed by successive approximations which are strongly convergent, as in the case of beam vibrations.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Burgess, C P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of electrical strain gages

Description: The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance strain gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the strain gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: De Forest, A V & Leaderman, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of cylinder-pressure-indicator diagrams showing effects of mixture strength and spark timing

Description: An investigation was made to determine the effect of mixture strength and of normal as well as optimum spark timing on the combustion, on the cylinder temperature, and on the performance characteristics of an engine. A single-cylinder test unit utilizing an air-cooled cylinder and a carburetor and operating with gasoline having an octane rating of 92 was used. The investigation covered a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.053 to 0.118. Indicator diagrams and engine-performance data were taken for each change in engine conditions. Examination of the indicator shows that for fuel-air ratios less than and greater than 0.082 the rate and the amount of effective fuel burned decreased. For a fuel-air ratio of 0.118 the combustion efficiency was only 58 percent. Advancing the spark timing increased the rate of pressure rise. This effect was more pronounced with leaner mixtures.
Date: August 1940
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Voss, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A generalized vortex theory of the screw propeller and its application

Description: The vortex theory as presented by the author in earlier papers has been extended to permit the solution of the following problems: (1) the investigation of the relation between thrusts and torque distribution and energy loss as given by the induction of helical vortex sheets and by the parasite drag; (2) the checking of the theorem of Betz of the rigidly behaving helical vortex sheet of minimum induced energy loss; (3) the extension of the theory of the screw propeller of minimum energy loss for the inclusion of parasite-drag distribution along the blades. A simple system of diagrams has been developed to systematize the design of airplane propellers for a wide range of parasite-drag distribution along the blades.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Reissner, Hans
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department