National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 36 Matching Results

Search Results

Wind-tunnel investigation of wing inlets for a four-engine airplane

Description: Report presenting an investigation in the propeller-research tunnel to develop wing-leading-edge inlets for locations between the inboard and outboard nacelles on each wing of a four-engine airplane. Testing was performed on the basic wing and original inlet as well as NACA-developed inlets for two versions of the airplane.
Date: March 11, 1947
Creator: Bartlett, Walter A., Jr. & Goral, Edwin B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale investigation of a wing with the leading edge swept back 47.5 degrees and having circular-arc and finite-trailing-edge-thickness ailerons

Description: Report presenting an investigation to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with a leading sweptback edge at 47.5 degrees and a 20-percent-chord, 50-percent-span outboard aileron. The wing had symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections and was tested with a circular-arc contour aileron and a flat-sided contour aileron with finite trailing-edge thickness. The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics and aileron effectiveness are provided for both types of ailerons.
Date: March 11, 1949
Creator: Lange, Roy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine III : performance with tail-pipe burning in standard-size tail pipe

Description: From Introduction: "Evaluation of tail-pipe burning in this engine with a larger tail-pipe combustion chamber is discussed in reference 1. Results of investigations on tail-pipe burning in this engine at static sea-level conditions are presented in reference 2. An investigation of thrust augmentation by means of injecting water at the inlet of an axial-flow compressor engine is discussed in reference 3."
Date: August 11, 1947
Creator: Fleming, William A & Golladay, Richard L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-flight investigation at transonic and supersonic speeds of the rolling effectiveness of several aileron configurations on a tapered wing having 42.7 degrees sweepback

Description: Report presenting an investigation of several aileron modifications in conjunction with a tapered, sweptback wing with circular-arc airfoil sections of relatively large thickness ratio. This testing permits the evaluation of the wing-aileron rolling effectiveness over a range of Mach numbers. Results regarding true-contour ailerons, extended-chord ailerons, and blunt trailing-edge ailerons are provided.
Date: January 11, 1949
Creator: Sandahl, Carl A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary tests to determine the maximum lift of wings at supersonic speeds

Description: Report presenting the results of a test program in a supersonic tunnel to determine the maximum lift of wings operating at supersonic speeds. A variety of wing plan forms of several thickness distributions were tested at a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack. The lift results, drag results, and Schileren photographs are described.
Date: December 11, 1947
Creator: Gallagher, James J. & Mueller, James N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull having a length-beam ratio of 15 and a warped forebody

Description: From Introduction: "The results of two phases of this investigation, presented in references 1 and 2, have indicated possible ways of reducing hull drag without causing large changes in aerodynamic stability and hydrodynamic performance."
Date: February 11, 1949
Creator: Macleod, Richard G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of hovering performance of helicopters powered by jet-propulsion and reciprocating engines

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the maximum hovering time, or the time that a helicopter can sustain itself without motion, for helicopters using a reciprocating engine, by ramjet engines at the tips of rotor blades, and by pulse-jet engines at the tips of rotor blades. Testing showed that the reciprocating engine permitted much longer hovering time than the jet-propulsion engines, but the jet-propulsion engines were much lighter and could lift greater disposable loads.
Date: June 11, 1948
Creator: Brightwell, Virginia L.; Peters, Max D. & Sanders, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design factors for 4- by 8-inch ram-jet combustor

Description: Report presenting an investigation of a series of flame holders designed with the objective of providing a high combustion efficiency in a ramjet combustor at an inlet air velocity of 200 feet per second, inlet-air pressure of 60 inches of mercury absolute, inlet air temperature of 200 degrees Fahrenheit, and near stoichiometric fuel-air ratio. Results regarding the preliminary experiments, two parallel rows of gutters, three rows of gutters, staggered gutters, simultaneous use of three rows and staggered gutters, use of molybdenum, and magnitude of pressure fluctuations are provided.
Date: August 11, 1949
Creator: Male, Donald W. & Cervenka, Adolph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Inboard Nacelle for the XB-36 Airplane

Description: A series of investigations of several 1/14-scale models of an inboard nacelle for the XB-36 airplane was made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels. The purpose of these investigations was to develop a low-drag wing-nacelle pusher combination which incorporated an internal air-flow system. As a result of these investigations, a nacelle was developed which had external drag coefficients considerably lower than the original basic form with the external nacelle drag approximately one-half to two-thirds of those of conventional tractor designs. The largest reductions in drag resulted from sealing the gaps between the wing flaps and nacelle, reducing the thickness of the nacelle training-edge lip, and bringing the under-wing air inlet to the wing leading edge. It was found that without the engine cooling fan adequate cooling air would be available for all conditions of flight except for cruise and climb at 40,000 feet. Sufficient oil cooling at an altitude of 40,000 feet may be obtained by the use of flap-type exit doors.
Date: February 11, 1947
Creator: Nuber, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waters Loads on the XJL-1 Hull as Obtained in Langley Impact Basin, TED No. NACA 2413.3

Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley impact basin of the water loads on a half scale model of the XJL-1 hull whose forebody has a vee bottom with exaggerated chine flare. The impact loads, moments, and pressures were determined for a range of landing conditions. A normal full-scale landing speed of 86 miles per hour was represented with effective flight paths ranging from 0.6deg to 11.6deg. Landings were made with both fixed trim and free-to-trim mounting of the float over a trim range of -15deg to 12deg into smooth water and into waves having equivalent full-scale length. of 120 feet and heights ranging from 1 to 4 feet. All data and results presented in this report are given in terms of equivalent full-scale values. Summary tables and illustrative plots are used in presenting the material. The following maximum values of load and pressure are those which are apropos for effective flight paths less than 6.5deg which was the maximum value obtained in tests with the XJL-1 hull model representing full-scale landings with vertical velocity of 4.5 feet per second into 4-foot waves. The maximum local pressure on the flat portion of the bottom is 130 pounds per square inch which was measured on a 2-inch-diameter circular area near the step. The maximum local pressure obtained in the curved area near the chines is 200 pounds per square inch. This pressure was also measured near the step.
Date: October 11, 1946
Creator: Steiner, Margaret F. & Miller, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Langley Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of a 1/3-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 Airplane

Description: The results of an investigation of a 1/3-scale model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 airplane in the Langley full-scale tunnel are presented in this report. The maximum lift and stalling characteristics of several model configurations, the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model, and the effectiveness of the control surfaces were determined with the propellers removed. The propulsive characteristics, the effect of propeller operation on the lift, and the static thrust of the model propellers were determined at several propeller-blade angles. The results with the propellers removed showed that the maximum lift coefficient of the complete model configuration was only 0.97 was compared with the value of 1.31 for the model configuration in which the engine-air ducts and canopy are removed. The model with the propellers removed (normal center-of-gravity position) has a positive static margin, stick fixed, varying from 5 to 13 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The unit horizontal tail is sufficiently powerful to trim the airplane with the propellers removed throughout the unstalled range of lift coefficients. The peak propulsive efficiencies for beta = 20 degrees and beta = 30 degrees were increased 7 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.67 and 20 percent at C(sub L) congruent to 0.74, respectively, with the propellers rotating upward in the center than with the propellers rotating downward in the center. Indications are that the minimum forward-flight speed of the airplane for full-power operation at sea level will be about 90 miles per hour. Decreasing the weight and increasing the power reduced this value of minimum speed and there were no indications from the results of a lower limit to the minimum speed.
Date: October 11, 1946
Creator: Lange, Roy H.; Cocke, Bennie W., Jr. & Proterra, Anthony J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the I-40 Jet-Propulsion Engine in the Cleveland Altitude Wind Tunnel. V - Operational Characteristics, 5, Operational Characteristics

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of the I-40 jet-propulsion engine over a range of pressure altitudes from 10,000 to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.76. Engine operational data were obtained with the engine in the standard configuration and with various modifications of the fuel system, the electrical system, and the combustion chambers. The effects of altitude and airspeed on operating speed range, starting, windmilli.ng, acceleration, speed regulation, cooling, and vibration of the standard and modified engines were determined, and damage to parts was noted. Maximum engine speed was obtainable at all altitudes and airspeeds wi th each fuel-control system investigated. The minimum idling speed was raised by increases in altitude and airspeed. The lowest minimum stable speeds were obtained with the standard configuration using 40-gallon nozzles with individual metering plugs. The engine was started normally at altitudes as high as 20,000 feet with all of the fuel systems and ignition combinations except one. Ignition at 70,000 feet was difficult and, although successful ignition occurred, acceleration was slow and usually characterized by excessive tail-pipe temperature. During windmilling investigations of the engine equipped with the standard fuel system, the engine could not be started at ram-pressure ratios of 1.1 to 1.7 at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 feet. When equipped with the production barometric and Monarch 40-gallon nozzles, the engine accelerated in 12 seconds from an engine speed of 6000 rpm to 11,000 rpm at 20,000 feet and an average tail-pipe temperature of 11000 F. At the same altitude and temperature, all the engine configurations had approximately the same rate of acceleration. The Woodward governor produced the safest accelerations, inasmuch as it could be adjusted to automatically prevent acceleration blow out. The engine speed was held constant ...
Date: July 11, 1947
Creator: Golladay, Richard L. & Gendler, Stanley L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of J33-A-27 Turbojet-Engine Compressor, 1, Center for Infrastructure Engineering Studies

Description: The J33-A-27 compressor was operated at an inlet pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and ambient inlet temperature over a range of equivalent impeller speeds from 6100 to 11,800 rpm. At the design equivalent speed of 11,800 rpm, the J33-A-27 compressor had a peak pressure ratio of 4.40 at an equivalent weight flow of 105.7 pounds per second and a peak adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.745. The maximum equivalent weight flow at design speed was 113.5 pounds per second.
Date: July 11, 1949
Creator: Kovach, Karl & Osborn, Walter M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of Wing Bending Moments and Tail Loads Resulting from the Jettison of Wing Tips During a Symmetrical Pull-Up

Description: A preliminary analytical investigation was made to determine the feasibility of the basic idea of controlled failure points as safety valves for the primary airplane structure. The present analysis considers the possibilities of the breakable wing tip which, in failing as a weak link, would relieve the bending moments on the wing structure. The analysis was carried out by computing the time histories of the wing and stabilizer angle of attack in a 10g pull-up for an XF8F airplane with tips fixed and comparing the results with those for the same maneuver, that is, elevator motion but with tips jettisoned at 8g. The calculations indicate that the increased stability accompanying the loss of the wing tips reduces the bending moment an additional amount above that which would be expected from the initial loss in lift and the inboard shift in load. The vortex shed when the tips are lost may induce a transient load requiring that the tail be made stronger than otherwise.
Date: December 11, 1947
Creator: Boshar, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling of Gas Turbines I - Effects of Addition of Fins to Blade Tips and Rotor, Admission of Cooling Air Through Part of Nozzles, and Change in Thermal Conductivity of Turbine Components

Description: An analysis was developed for calculating the radial temperature distribution in a gas turbine with only the temperatures of the gas and the cooling air and the surface heat-transfer coefficient known. This analysis was applied to determine the temperatures of a complete wheel of a conventional single-stage impulse exhaust-gas turbine. The temperatures were first calculated for the case of the turbine operating at design conditions of speed, gas flow, etc. and with only the customary cooling arising from exposure of the outer blade flange and one face of the rotor to the air. Calculations were next made for the case of fins applied to the outer blade flange and the rotor. Finally the effects of using part of the nozzles (from 0 to 40 percent) for supplying cooling air and the effects of varying the metal thermal conductivity from 12 to 260 Btu per hour per foot per degree Farenheit on the wheel temperatures were determined. The gas temperatures at the nozzle box used in the calculations ranged from 1600F to 2000F. The results showed that if more than a few hundred degrees of cooling of turbine blades are required other means than indirect cooling with fins on the rotor and outer blade flange would be necessary. The amount of cooling indicated for the type of finning used could produce some improvement in efficiency and a large increase in durability of the wheel. The results also showed that if a large difference is to exist between the effective temperature of the exhaust gas and that of the blade material, as must be the case with present turbine materials and the high exhaust-gas temperatures desired (2000F and above), two alternatives are suggested: (a) If metal with a thermal conductivity comparable with copper is used, then the blade temperature can be reduced ...
Date: February 11, 1947
Creator: Brown, Byron
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Performance of Several Propellers on YP-47M Airplane at High Blade Loading, 1, Aeroproducts H20C-162-X11M2 Four-Blade Propeller

Description: An investigation was made in the Cleveland Altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance of an Aeroproducts H20C-162-X11M2 four-blade propeller on a YP-47M airplane at high blade loadings and high engine powers. The propeller characteristics were obtained for a range of power coefficients from 0.30 to 1.00 at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.40 and 0.50. The results of the force measurements are indicative only of trends in propeller efficiency with changes in power coefficient and advance-diameter ratio because unknown interference effects existed during the investigation. At a free-stream Mach number of 0.40, the envelopes of the efficiency curves decreased about 11% between advance-diameter ratios of 2.40 and 4.40. An increase in power coefficient from 0.30 to 0.80 at an advance-diameter ratio of 2.40 had little effect on the propeller efficiency. A change in power coefficient from 0.40 to 1.00 at an advance-diameter ratio of 4.40 increased the propeller efficiency by about 40%. For conditions below the stall the thrust loading on the outboard blade sections increased more rapidly than on the inboard sections as the power coefficient was increased or as the advance-diameter ratio was decreased. For conditions beyond the stall, the thrust loading decreased on the outboard sections and increased on the inboard sections.
Date: October 11, 1946
Creator: Saari, Martin J. & Wallner, Lewis E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical Evaluation of Methods of Cooling the Blades of Gas Turbines

Description: A study was made of heat transfer in turbine blades and the effects on blade temperature of cooling the blade root and tip, changing the dimensions of the blades, raising the cycle temperatures, insulating with ceramics, and cooling by circulation of air or water through hollow blades.
Date: February 11, 1947
Creator: Sanders, J. C. & Mendelson, Alexander
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Reynolds Number on the Application of NACA 16 Series Airfoil Characteristics to Propeller Design

Description: An analysis has been made of airfoil data taken on several NACA 16-series propeller airfoils from tests of 5-inch-chord models in the Langley 24 inch high-speed tunnel and l2-inch-chord models in the Langley 8 foot high-speed tunnel, This analysis has shown that the combined effects of Reynolds number changes and variations in airfoil characteristics resulting from differences in models and tunnels are such that when 5 inch-chord and l2-inch-chord data are applied to full-scale propeller design at or near the design condition, differences of less than 1 percent in efficiency will be involved.
Date: June 11, 1947
Creator: Cleary, Harold E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Icing and Heated-air De-icing Characteristics of the R-2600-13 Induction System

Description: A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 ...
Date: November 11, 1946
Creator: Chapman, Gilbert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of wind-tunnel and flight measurements of stability and control characteristics of a Douglas A-26 airplane

Description: Stability and control characteristics determined from tests in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of a 0.2375-scale model of the Douglas XA-26 airplane are compared with those measured in flight tests of a Douglas A-26 airplane. Agreement regarding static longitudinal stability as indicated by the elevator-fixed neutral points and by the variation of elevator deflection in both straight and turning flight was found to be good except at speeds approaching the stall. At these low speeds the airplane possessed noticeably improved stability, which was attributed to pronounced stalling at the root of the production wing. The pronounced root stalling did not occur on the smooth, well-faired model wing. Elevator tab effectiveness determined from model tests agreed well with flight-test tab effectiveness, but control-force variations with speed and acceleration were not in good agreement. The use of model hinge-moment data obtained at zero sideslip appeared to be satisfactory for the determination of aileron forces in sideslip. Fairly good correlation in aileron effectiveness and control forces was obtained; fabric distortion may have been responsible to some extent for higher flight values of aileron force at high speeds. Estimation of sideslip developed in an abrupt aileron roll was fair, but determination of the rudder deflection required to maintain zero sideslip in a rapid aileron roll was not entirely satisfactory.
Date: August 11, 1945
Creator: Kayten, Gerald G & Koven, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department