This report presents the second of two studies under the same title. In this part five theoretical struts are developed from distributed sources and sinks and constructed for pressure and resistance tests in a wind tunnel. The surface pressures for symmetrical inviscid flow are computed for each strut from theory and compared with those found by experiment. The theoretical and experimental pressures are found to agree quantitatively near the bow, only qualitatively over the suction range, the experimental suctions being uniformly a little low, and not at all near the stern. This study is the strut sequel to Fuhrmann's research on airship forms, the one being a study in two dimensions, the other in three. A comparison of results indicates that the agreement between theory and experiment is somewhat better for bodies of revolution than for cylinders when both are shaped for slight resistance. The consistent deficiency of the experimental suctions which is found in the case of struts was not found in the case of airships, for which the experimental suctions were sometimes above sometimes below their theoretical values.
This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author).
It has been less well understood that the induced drag (or, better said, the undesired increase in the induced drag as compared with the theoretical minimum calculated by Prandtl) plays a decisive role in the process of taking off and therefore in the requisite engine power. This paper seeks to clarify the induced drag.
The following examples do not take up the discussion of viewpoints to be heeded in determining the design of a framework for given external conditions. Rather they are methods for determining the forces in airplane fuselages and wings, though similar considerations are applied to certain simple cases of a different kind. The object of this treatise is to summarize and amplify these considerations from definite viewpoints.
This report presents an analysis of results of wind-tunnel tests conducted at the D.V.L. Values were determined for the effectiveness of all the controls at various angles of attack. The autorotation was studied by subjecting the rotating model to an air blast.
Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the president, congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, bibliographies, and financial report.
A nomogram is developed which renders it possible by drawing a few lines, to determine: the location of the center of gravity for zero wing and tail moments; the longitudinal dihedral angle; the tail coefficient F(sub h) iota/F(sub t). Moreover there is no difficulty in determining the magnitude of the restoring moment or of the unstable moment.
I will attempt to determine mathematically the buckling-strength curves of various centrally loaded light-metal tubes which exhibit conspicuous differences of behavior under compressive loads. For this purpose I will employ Von Karman's method, after adapting it to special conditions.
For aircraft engines the three principal operating conditions are idling speed, cruising speed, and diving with the engine stopped. In what follows, we will discuss a method which affords a good idea of the course of pressure for the above mentioned operating conditions. The pressures produced in the driving gear are of three kinds; namely, the pressure due to gases, the pressure due to the inertia of the rotating masses, and the pressure due to the inertia of the reciprocating masses.
In the foregoing remarks I have made an attempt to touch on some of the structural problems met with in cantilever wings, and dealt rather fully with a certain type of single-spar construction. The experimental test wing was a first attempt to demonstrate the principles of this departure from orthodox methods. The result was a wing both torsionally stiff and of light weight - lighter than a corresponding biplane construction.
This report presents the results of tests made on three sizes of roots type aircraft engine superchargers. The impeller contours and diameters of these machines were the same, but the length were 11, 8 1/4, and 4 inches, giving displacements of 0.509, 0.382, and 0.185 cubic foot per impeller revolution. The information obtained serves as a basis for the examination of the individual effects of impeller speed and displacement on performance and of the comparative performance when speed and displacement are altered simultaneously to meet definite service requirements. According to simple theory, when assuming no losses, the air weight handled and the power required for a given pressure difference are directly proportional to the speed and the displacement. These simple relations are altered considerably by the losses. When comparing the performance of different sizes of machines whose impeller speeds are so related that the same service requirements are met, it is found that the individual effects of speed and displacement are canceled to a large extent, and the only considerable difference is the difference in the power losses which decrease with increase in the displacement and the accompanying decrease in speed. This difference is small in relation to the net power of the engine supercharger unit, so that a supercharger with short impellers may be used in those applications where the space available is very limited with any considerable sacrifice in performance.
This compilation of the outstanding characteristics of the available aircraft engines of the world was prepared as a compact ready reference for desk use. It does not pretend to be anything but a skeleton outline of the characteristics of engines reported in the technical press as being in either the experimental, development, or production stage.
In an attempt to treat theoretically the effect of ailerons, difficulty arises because an aileron may begin at any point of the wing. Hence the question arises as to how the transition of the lift distribution proceeds at such a point, since the effect of the aileron (i.e., the moment generated about the longitudinal axis) depends largely on this distribution. In order to answer this question regarding the lift distribution during irregular variations in the angle of attack at first independently of other influences, especially those of the wing tips, we have taken as the basis of the following theoretical discussion a wing of infinite span and constant chord which exhibits at one point an irregular variation in the angle of attack. As regards the mathematical treatment, we will first consider a wing with periodically recurring angle of attack.
Many treatises in regard to construction of airship sheds are lacking in data on air currents, for which reason this phase of the problem will be here thoroughly discussed in connection with the accompanying photographs of currents.
In a series of weather exposure tests of sheet duralumin, upon which accelerated corrosion tests in the laboratory by the wet-and-dry corrosion method in a sodium chloride solution has already been carried out, a close parallelism between the results of the two kinds of tests was found to exist. The exposure tests showed that the lack of permanence of sheet duralumin is largely, if not entirely, due to corrosion. A corrosion attack of an intercrystalline nature is very largely responsible for the degree of embrittlement produced. The rate of embrittlement was greatly accelerated by a marine atmosphere and by the tropical climate. Variations in corrosion and embrittlement are noted in relation to heat treatment, cold working, and types of protective coatings.
The effect of corrosion on the tensile properties of duralumin while stressed is shown in graphical form. According to the test results, duralumin sheet, coated with aluminum, maintains its initial properties unimpaired for corrosion periods as long as 60 days with an applied tensile stress as high as 20,000 lb/sq.in., which is approximately one-half the stress corresponding to the yield point as defined here. In these tests, that material which had been heat-treated by being quenched in cold water, though far inferior to similar material having the aluminum coating, was superior to the sheet material which was heat treated by being quenched in hot water. These results are in excellent agreement with the results of previous laboratory and exposure tests.
This report presents the results of tests on two-stroke-cycle Diesel engines to determine the efficiency of the crank case scavenging pump. It was determined that efficiencies were between 95 and 100%.
Given here are a set of column strength curves that are intended to simplify the method of determining the size of struts in an airplane structure when the load in the member is known. The curves will also simplify the checking of the strength of a strut if the size and length are known. With these curves, no computations are necessary, as in the case of the old-fashioned method of strut design. The process is so simple that draftsmen or others who are not entirely familiar with mechanics can check the strength of a strut without much danger of error.
This report provides a description of an automatic control mechanism that consists of an automatic elevator control, aileron control, and a rudder control. Each automatic control can be independently switched on or off.
This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests on eight C-class airship hulls with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The purpose of the tests was to determine the variation of resistance with fineness ratio, and also to find the pressure and friction elements of the total drag for the model having the least shape coefficient. Seven C-class airship hulls with fineness ratios of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 were made and verified. These models and also the previously constructed original C-class hull, whose fineness ratio is 4.62, were then tested in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel for drag of 0 degree pitch and yaw, at various wind speeds. The original hull, which was found to have the least shape coefficient, was then tested for pressure distribution over the surface at various wind speeds. (author).
Given here are the results of tests made to determine the effect of fuel consumption on the cylinder temperatures and the performance of a cowled Wright J-5 engine. The results of these tests indicate that enriching the mixture by increasing the carburetor size results in a reduction in cylinder head and barrel temperatures. The cylinders shielded by the magnetos or the points on the cylinder that do not receive a free flow of cooling air increase most rapidly in temperature as the mixture is leaned. A free flow of air past the cylinders is essential for satisfactory operation on a lean mixture. The results of these tests show that the Wright J-5 engine can withstand severe temperatures for short periods of operation. The test results also show to what extent destructive temperatures may be avoided by enriching the mixture.
The writer discusses the phenomena of expansion and compression which alternately take place in the cylinders of four-stroke engines during the induction process at a high mean piston speed due to the inertia and elasticity of the mixture in the intake pipe. The present paper is intended to demonstrate theoretically the existence of a most favorable pipe length for charging.
The ignition temperature, ignition lag, and ignition strength of simple and homogeneous fuels in combustion air of small oxygen content differ from what they are in air of greater oxygen content. In the case of small oxygen content, these fuels behave as if mixed unevenly. In the case of air with a definite oxygen content, the simple fuels have two ignition points, between which ignition takes place within a certain temperature range. The phenomena are explained by pyrogenous decomposition, comparison of the individual heat quantities, and the effect of the walls.
In practice the actual maximum stress is greater than the stress determined by the simple girder theory, which overestimates the bearing or supporting capacity of the flange. The fact is that the assumptions of the simple girder theory no longer hold true, since normal transverse and shearing stresses are engendered in the plane of the flange.
An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.
This report presents the results of an investigation of the rolling and yawing moments due to ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and U. S. A. 27 wing sections. Some attention is devoted to a study of the effect of scale on rolling and yawing moments and to the effect of slightly rounding the wing tips. The results apply to level flight with the wing chord set at an angle of attack of +4 degrees and to conditions of zero pitch, zero yaw, and zero roll of the airplane. It is planned later to extend the investigation to other attitudes for monoplane and biplane combinations. The work was conducted in the 10 foot wind tunnel of the Bureau of Standards on models of 60-inch span and 10-inch chord. (author).
The present report deals with a series of tests made for the purpose of improving flow conditions about wings by applying the suction principle (increase of the lift coefficient and reduction of the drag about very thick wing sections). Though not conclusive, the report contains interesting results.
Various methods for preventing fires in airplanes are presented with most efforts centering around prevention of backfires, new engine and carburetor designs, as well as investigations on different types of fuels.
The present article, which constitutes a continuation of the work of Von Baumhauer and Konig, will therefore be restricted to the fluttering of the tail surfaces and especially to oscillations of the horizontal empennage. This will also illustrate the characteristics of all other phenomena of fluttering.
The most essential phenomena of aircraft should be classified according to their origin and then measured. Information can thus be obtained in a quicker, cheaper, and more reliable way than otherwise would be possible.
This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on four elliptic cylinders with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The object of the tests was to investigate the characteristics of sections suitable for streamline wire which normally has an elliptic section with a fineness ratio of 4.0; also to learn whether a reduction in fineness ratio would result in improvement; also to determine the pressure distribution on the model of fineness ratio of 4. Four elliptic cylinders with fineness ratios of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 were made and then tested in the 8 by 8 wind tunnel; first, for cross-wind force, drag, and yawing moment at 30 miles an hour and various angles of yaw; next for drag 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds; then for end effect on the smallest and largest models; and lastly for pressure distribution over the surface of the largest model at 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds. In all tests, the length of the model was transverse to the current. The results are given for standard air density, p = .002378 slug per cubic foot. This account is a slight revised form of report no. 315. A summary of conclusions is given at the end of the text. (author).
This report describes the atmospheric conditions under which ice is formed upon the exposed parts of airplanes in flight. It identifies the formation found under different conditions, and describes some studies of preventative means.
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