A new instrument is described which is capable of simultaneously recording the position of the three controls of an airplane. The records are taken photographically on a standard N.A.C.A. film drum and the instrument can be quickly installed in any airplane.
The problem to be solved, as presented to the pilot or observer of an aircraft, is as follows: The aircraft starting from A must land at B, the only data being the speed of the airplane, the altitude and the orientation D of the course. The above data would be amply sufficient, were it not for the fact that the airplane is constantly subjected to a wind of variable direction and strength.
The use of magnetic fields and wire to navigate aircraft in conditions of poor visibility is presented. This field may be considered to be derived from a double lemniscate, considered in the particular case where the origin is a double point formed from the magnetic field of the slack wire, from the field produced by the return currents and from the field due to the currents induced in the conducting mass. These fields are dephased in two ways, one in the direction of the wire, the other in a direction perpendicular to it.
The origin of air traffic dates from the war. The important development of aeronautic industries and the progress made in recent years, under the impelling force of circumstances, rendered it possible, after the close of hostilities, to consider the practical utilization of this new means of economic expansion.
In the following discussion, a knowledge of the theoretical principles of airplane construction is assumed, as presented in detail by Vogt and Lippisch. A few quantities will however be otherwise designated, in accordance with the Gottingen symbols.
This report presents a listing of the many experiments in aerodynamics taking place at Cuatro Vientos. Some of the studies include: testing spheres, in order to determine coefficients; mechanical and chemical tests of materials; and various tests of propeller strength and flexibility.
A model of the F-5-L seaplane was made, verified, and tested at 40 miles an hour in the 8' x 8' tunnel for lift and drag, also for pitching, yawing and rolling moments. Subsequently, the yawing moment test was repeated with a modified fin. The results are reported without VL scale correction.
To furnish data for the design of the fleet airship Shenandoah, a model was made and tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel for wind forces, moments, and damping, under conditions described in this report. The results are given for air of standard density. P=0.00237 slugs per cubic foot with vl/v correction, and with but a brief discussion of the aerodynamic design features of the airship.
There has been a tradition general among aeronautical engineers that a critical point exists for tip speeds at or near the velocity of sound, indicating a physical limit in the use of propellers at higher tip speeds; the idea being that something would occur analogous to what is known in marine propellers as cavitation. In the examination of the physics pertaining to both propellers and projectiles moving at or above 1100 feet per second, the conclusion was reached by the author that there is no reason for the existence of such a critical point and that, if it had been noted by observers it was not inherent in the phenomena revealed, but rather due to a particular shape or proportion of the projectile and that, with properly proportioned sections, it would not exist.
For some time, the designers of airplanes have begun to occupy themselves with the question of longitudinal stability. In their quest to simplify calculation and data collection, the designers have attached the greatest importance to the coefficient of initial longitudinal stability. In this study a diagram was constructed from the data of the tunnel tests, which depends neither on the position of the center of gravity nor of the angle of deflection of the elevators. This diagram is constructed by means of straight lines drawn through the metacenters of the complete airplane, in a direction parallel to the tangents to the polar of the airplane relative to a system of axes fixed with reference to the airplane.
This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.
This report presents the attempt to develop a law which will permit the use of results obtained on small models in a tunnel for the calculation of full-sized airplanes, or if it exists, a law of similitude relating air forces on a full-sized plane to those on a reduced scale model.
This article considers some of the causes which hinder the development of aircraft insurance. Different risks are discussed as well as the causes of aircraft accidents. Pilot error, poor airdromes, weather conditions, poorly adapted airplanes, and engine failures are all examined and some conclusions are made.
We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.
Goldbeater's skin, which is the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox, is examined as a balloon fabric and details of how goldbeater's skin is prepared for use are provided. The construction techniques employed by Germany, France, and England are all discussed.
The favorable speed of an airship is chiefly determined by the condition of the consumption of the least amount of fuel per unit of traveled distance, although other conditions come into play. The resulting rules depend on the character of the wind and on the variability of the efficiency of the engine propeller units. This investigation resulted in the following rules. 1) Always keep the absolute course and steer at such an angle with reference to it as to neutralize the side wind. 2) In a strong contrary wind, take a speed one and one half times the velocity of the wind. 3) As a general rule, take the velocity of the wind and the velocity of the course component of the wind. Add them together if the wind has a contrary component, but subtract them from each other if the wind has a favorable component.
This report considers as the dominating characteristic, either the load carried, the speed, the radius of action, the fuel consumption, the activity of transport, or, lastly, the qualities of comfort and safety. The first four factors determine the theoretical efficiency, while the others determine its practical efficiency.
In this report we will consider, as the dominating characteristic, either the load carried, the speed, the radius of action, the fuel consumption, the activity of transport, or, lastly, the qualities of comfort and safety. The first four factors determine the theoretical efficiency, while the others determine its practical efficiency.
Comprehensive tests were made to compare the performance of the F-5-L Boat Seaplane fitted with direct drive and Liberty engines. Details are given on the test conditions. The conclusions of the comparison tests follow. 1) An F-5-L with geared engines takes off in approximately 90 percent of the time required for the same airplane with standard direct drive engines. An F-5-L with geared engines climbs in 20 minutes to an altitude approximately 20 percent greater than that obtained with the standard direct drive on the same airplane. 3) There is a large difference between the climbs of the two airplanes of the same type. This difference will always be more pronounced when the climb is normally slow. In the case of the F-5-L airplanes under construction, it is of the order of a 10 percent difference in altitude on a 20 minute climb. 4) The maximum speed of an F-5-L with geared engines is about 3.5 percent greater than the maximum speed of the same airplane with standard direct drive engines (at the same engine r.p.m.). 5) The fuel consumption is probably less effected by the type of drive than by inherent differences in the performance of different airplanes.
Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.
One of the main subjects of airship science consists in establishing cooperation between two vertical forces, the buoyancy of the air and the attraction of gravity. The mechanism for establishing this cooperation must have the minimum weight and offer the minimum head resistance. Starting with this principle, let us consider what improvements can be made in the present type of non-rigid airships.
This report examines the stipulation contained in the 1918 BLV, that a girder subjected to longitudinal compression under the influence of half of the specified breaking load, along with Euler bending safety with an initial deflection of 1/200 of the length of the girder can, at most, be subjected to half the stipulated breaking strength.
The Coutinho-Sacadura course corrector is an instrument with which, knowing the angles of drift of two different courses, we may determine by simple readings: a) direction and velocity of wind; b) correction to be made in course followed by compass, in order to fly in a given direction; c) ground-speed of aircraft, the resultant of its air speed and the velocity of the wind.
In order to determine an approximate formula giving the weight of a dead load as a function of the volume (V) of the envelope and of the maximum velocity (v), we will take the relative weight of the various parts of the airship (P(sub v), M, V, A, T(sup 34)), adopting a mean value of the coefficients determined. This formula may be adopted both for semi-rigid airships with suspended nacelle and non-rigid envelope, with or without internal suspensions. It may also be adapted to airships with rigid longitudinal beam, with power units on external supports or in nacelles, and with non-rigid envelopes, with or without internal bracing cables.
The forces acting on the blades of a propeller proceed from the mass of the propeller and the resistance of the surrounding medium. The magnitude, direction and point of application of the resultant to the propeller blade is of prime importance for the strength calculation. Since it was obviously impracticable to bring any kind of testing device near the revolving propeller, not so much on account of the element of danger as on account of the resulting considerable disturbance of the air flow, the deflection in both cases was photographically recorded and subsequently measured at leisure.
There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.
The wing strain meter enables a pilot to know the strain on lifting surfaces and to warn him of the safe limits which may not be exceeded. In wing strain the most important factors are the force of gravity and the force of lift which gives the measure of the sustaining force, and their components which are perpendicular to the lifting surfaces. This reports methods for using the wing strain meter.
The observation that airplane fabrics, after long use, lose their original strength, caused the German Experimental Institute for Aviation to carry out a series of experiments on the effect of weathering on the cloth covering of airplane wings and fuselages.
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