National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - 1,424 Matching Results

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Differential equations of motion for combined flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades

Description: The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Houbolt, John C & Brooks, George W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ditching investigations of dynamic models and effects of design parameters on ditching characteristics

Description: Data from ditching investigations conducted at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory with dynamic scale models of various airplanes are presented in the form of tables. The effects of design parameters on the ditching characteristics of airplanes, based on scale-model investigations and on reports of full-scale ditchings, are discussed. Various ditching aids are also discussed as a means of improving ditching behavior.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Fisher, Lloyd J & Hoffman, Edward L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag minimization for wings and bodies in supersonic flow

Description: The minimization of inviscid fluid drag is studied for aerodynamic shapes satisfying the conditions of linearized theory, and subject to imposed constraints on lift, pitching moment, base area, or volume. The problem is transformed to one of determining two-dimensional potential flows satisfying either Laplace's or Poisson's equations with boundary values fixed by the imposed conditions. A general method for determining integral relations between perturbation velocity components is developed. This analysis is not restricted in application to optimum cases; it may be used for any supersonic wing problem.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Heaslet, Max A & Fuller, Franklyn B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of chord size on weight and cooling characteristics of air-cooled turbine blades

Description: An analysis has been made to determine the effect of chord size on the weight and cooling characteristics of shell-supported, air-cooled gas-turbine blades. In uncooled turbines with solid blades, the general practice has been to design turbines with high aspect ratio (small blade chord) to achieve substantial turbine weight reduction. With air-cooled blades, this study shows that turbine blade weight is affected to a much smaller degree by the size of the blade chord.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Esgar, Jack B; Schum, Eugene F & Curren, Arthur N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of fuel variables on carbon formation in turbojet-engine combustors

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of fuel properties and of a number of fuel additives on combustion-chamber carbon deposition and exhaust-gas smoke formation in a single tubular turbojet-engine combustor. Limited tests were conducted with a number of the fuels in several full-scale turbojet engines to verify single-combustor data.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Jonash, Edmund R; Wear, Jerrold D & Cook, William P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elliptic cones alone and with wings at supersonic speed

Description: To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for elliptic cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. Elliptic cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. Elliptic and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for elliptic cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of elliptic cones.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Jorgensen, Leland H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental determination of effects of frequency and amplitude on the lateral stability derivatives for a delta, a swept, and unswept wing oscillating in yaw

Description: Three wing models were oscillated in yaw about their vertical axes to determine the effects of systematic variations of frequency and amplitude of oscillation on the in-phase and out-of-phase combination lateral stability derivatives resulting from this motion. The tests were made at low speeds for a 60 degree delta wing, a 45 degree swept wing, and an unswept wing; the swept and unswept wings had aspect ratios of 4. The results indicate that large changes in the magnitude of the stability derivatives due to the variation of frequency occur at high angles of attack, particularly for the delta wing. The greatest variations of the derivatives with frequency take place for the lowest frequencies of oscillation; at the higher frequencies, the effects of frequency are smaller and the derivatives become more linear with angle of attack. Effects of amplitude of oscillation on the stability derivatives for delta wings were evident for certain high angles of attack and for the lowest frequencies of oscillation. As the frequency became high, the amplitude effects tended to disappear.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Fisher, Lewis R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental investigation of sting-support effects on drag and a comparison with jet effects at transonic speeds

Description: Various dummy stings were tested on the rear of a related series of afterbody shapes for Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.10 and Reynolds numbers based on body length from 15.0 x 16 to the 6th power to 17.4 x 10 to the 6th power. A method is presented whereby approximate sting interference corrections can be made to models having afterbody shapes and sting supports similar to those of these tests if the Reynolds numbers are of the same order of magnitude and a turbulent boundary layer exists at the model base. Also presented is an analysis of jet duplication by use of a sting.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Cahn, Maurice S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale investigation of several jet-engine noise-reduction nozzles

Description: A number of noise-suppression nozzles were tested on full-scale engines. In general, these nozzles achieved noise reduction by the mixing interference of adjacent jets, that is, by using multiple-slot-nozzles. Several of the nozzles achieved reductions in sound power of approximately 5 decibels (nearly 70 percent) with small thrust losses (approx. 1 percent). The maximum sound-pressure level was reduced by as much as 18 decibels in particular frequency bands. Some of the nozzles showed considerable spatial asymmetry; that is, the sound field was not rotationally symmetrical. A method of calculating the limiting frequency effected by such nozzles is presented. Furthermore data are shown that appear to indicate that further reductions in sound power will not be easily achieved from nozzles using mixing interference as a means of noise suppression.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Coles, Willard D & Callaghan, Edmund E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground simulator studies of the effects of valve friction, stick friction, flexibility, and backwash on power control system quality

Description: Report presents results of tests made on a power control system by means of a ground simulator to determine the effects of various combinations of valve friction and stick friction on the ability of the pilot to control the system. Various friction conditions were simulated with a rigid control system, a flexible system, and a rigid system having some backlash. For the tests, the period and damping of the simulated airplane were held constant.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Brown, B Porter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth of disturbances in a flame-generated shear region

Description: Results are presented of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the growth of transverse velocity disturbances in the shear region caused by a flame in a duct. In the theoretical stability analysis, a flow field arising from a flame in a duct was analyzed. The flow was neutrally stable to symmetric disturbances and unstable to antisymmetric ones. In the experimental part of the program disturbances of various frequencies were imposed on a flame stabilized in a duct, and the effects were measured by shadow photography and photomultiplier-probe surveys.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Blackshear, Perry L , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incompressible flutter characteristics of representative aircraft wings

Description: This report gives the results of a detailed study of the flutter characteristics of four representative aircraft wings. This study was made using the electric-analog computer at the California Institute of Technology. During the course of this investigation eight important parameters of each wing were varied and, in addition, the effects of mass, inertia, pitching spring, and location of a concentrated mass were investigated for all four wings and at several sweepback angles.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Wilts, C H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Description: A discontinuous variation of coefficients of the differential equation describing the linear control system before nonlinear elements are added is studied in detail. The nonlinear feedback is applied to a second-order system. Simulation techniques are used to study performance of the nonlinear control system and to compare it with the linear system for a wide variety of inputs. A detailed quantitative study of the influence of relay delays and of a transport delay is presented.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Flugge-Lotz, I; Taylor, C F & Lindberg, H E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of separated flows in supersonic and subsonic streams with emphasis on the effect of transition

Description: Report presents the results of experimental and theoretical research conducted on flow separation associated with steps, bases, compression corners, curved surfaces, shock-wave boundary-layer reflections, and configurations producing leading-edge separation. Results were obtained from pressure-distribution measurements, shadowgraph observations, high-speed motion pictures, and oil-film studies. The maximum scope of measurement encompassed Mach numbers between 0.4 and 3.6, and length Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 5,000,000.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Chapman, Dean R; Kuehn, Donald M & Larson, Howard K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of some wake vortex characteristics of an inclined ogive-cylinder body at Mach number 2

Description: For a body consisting of a fineness-ratio-3 ogival nose tangent to a cylindrical afterbody 7.3 diameters long, pitot-pressure distributions in the flow field, pressure distributions over the body, and downwash distributions along a line through the vortex centers have been measured for angles of attack to 20 degrees. The Reynolds numbers, based on body diameter, were 0.15 x 10 to the 6th power and 0.44 x 10 to the 6th power. Comparisons of computed and measured vortex paths and downwash distributions are made. (author).
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Jorgensen, Leland H & Perkins, Edward W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the drag of various axially symmetric nose shapes of fineness ratio 3 for Mach numbers from 1.24 to 7.4

Description: Experimental drag measurements at zero angle of attack for various theoretical minimum drag nose shapes, hemispherically blunted cones, and other more common profiles of fineness ratios of about 3 are compared with theoretical results for a Mach number and Reynolds number range of 1.24 to 7.4 and 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 7.5 x 10 to the 6th power (based on body length), respectively. The results of experimental pressure-distribution measurements are used for the development of an empirical expression for predicting the pressure drag of hemispherically blunted cones.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Perkins, Edward W; Jorgensen, Leland H & Sommer, Simon C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

Description: An investigation was made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effect of size and location of a sandpaper type of roughness on the Reynolds number for transition. Transition was observed by means of a hot-wire anemometer located at various chordwise stations for each position of the roughness. These observations indicated that when the roughness is sufficiently submerged in the boundary layer to provide a substantially linear variation of boundary-layer velocity with distance from the surface up to the top of the roughness, turbulent "spots" begin to appear immediately behind the roughness when the Reynolds number based on the velocity at the top of the roughness height exceeds a value of approximately 600. At Reynolds numbers even slightly below the critical value (value for transition), the sandpaper type of roughness introduced no measurable disturbances into the laminar layer downstream of the roughness. The extent of the roughness area does not appear to have an important effect on the critical value of the roughness Reynolds number.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Von Doenhoff, Albert E & Horton, Elmer A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of static pressure on aircraft

Description: Existing data on the errors involved in the measurement of static pressure by means of static-pressure tubes and fuselage vents are presented. The errors associated with the various design features of static-pressure tubes are discussed for the condition of zero angle of attack and for the case where the tube is inclined to flow. Errors which result from variations in the configuration of static-pressure vents are also presented. Errors due to the position of a static-pressure tube in the flow field of the airplane are given for locations ahead of the fuselage nose, ahead of the wing tip, and ahead of the vertical tail fin. The errors of static-pressure vents on the fuselage of an airplane are also presented. Various methods of calibrating static-pressure installations in flight are briefly discussed.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Gracey, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of free-space oscillating pressures near propellers at flight Mach numbers to 0.72

Description: In the course of a short flight program initiated to check the theory of Garrick and Watkins (NACA rep. 1198), a series of measurements at three stations were made of the oscillating pressures near a tapered-blade plan-form propeller and rectangular-blade plan form propeller at flight Mach numbers up to 0.72. In contradiction to the results for the propeller studied in NACA rep. 1198, the oscillating pressures in the plane ahead of the propeller were found to be higher than those immediately behind the propeller. Factors such as variation in torque and thrust distribution, since the blades of the present investigation were operating above their design forward speed, may account for this contradiction. The effect of blade plan form shows that a tapered-blade plan-form propeller will produce lower sound-pressure levels than a rectangular-blade plan-form propeller for the low blade-passage harmonics (the frequencies where structural considerations are important) and produce higher sound-pressure levels for the higher blade-passage harmonics (frequencies where passenger comfort is important).
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Kurbjun, Max C & Vogeley, Arthur W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

Description: "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: May, Charles E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

Description: It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Eggers, A J , Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

Description: A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Hill, P R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for obtaining desired helicopter stability characteristics and procedures for stability predictions

Description: Part I of this report presents a brief review of methods available to the helicopter designer for obtaining desired stability characteristics by modifications to the airframe design. The discussion is based on modifications made during the establishment of flying-qualities criteria and includes sample results of theoretical studies of additional methods. The conclusion is reached that it is now feasible to utilize combinations of methods whereby stability-parameter values are realized which in turn provide the desired stability characteristics. Part II reviews some of the methods of predicting rotor stability derivatives. The procedures by which these rotor derivatives are employed to estimate helicopter stability characteristics have been summarized.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Gustafson, F B & Tapscott, Robert J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department