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Aerodynamic theory and tests of strut forms. Part II

Description: This report presents the second of two studies under the same title. In this part five theoretical struts are developed from distributed sources and sinks and constructed for pressure and resistance tests in a wind tunnel. The surface pressures for symmetrical inviscid flow are computed for each strut from theory and compared with those found by experiment. The theoretical and experimental pressures are found to agree quantitatively near the bow, only qualitatively over the suction range, the experimental suctions being uniformly a little low, and not at all near the stern. This study is the strut sequel to Fuhrmann's research on airship forms, the one being a study in two dimensions, the other in three. A comparison of results indicates that the agreement between theory and experiment is somewhat better for bodies of revolution than for cylinders when both are shaped for slight resistance. The consistent deficiency of the experimental suctions which is found in the case of struts was not found in the case of airships, for which the experimental suctions were sometimes above sometimes below their theoretical values.
Date: May 1929
Creator: Smith, R H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

Description: This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The comparative performance of Roots type aircraft engine superchargers as affected by change in impeller speed and displacement

Description: This report presents the results of tests made on three sizes of roots type aircraft engine superchargers. The impeller contours and diameters of these machines were the same, but the length were 11, 8 1/4, and 4 inches, giving displacements of 0.509, 0.382, and 0.185 cubic foot per impeller revolution. The information obtained serves as a basis for the examination of the individual effects of impeller speed and displacement on performance and of the comparative performance when speed and displacement are altered simultaneously to meet definite service requirements. According to simple theory, when assuming no losses, the air weight handled and the power required for a given pressure difference are directly proportional to the speed and the displacement. These simple relations are altered considerably by the losses. When comparing the performance of different sizes of machines whose impeller speeds are so related that the same service requirements are met, it is found that the individual effects of speed and displacement are canceled to a large extent, and the only considerable difference is the difference in the power losses which decrease with increase in the displacement and the accompanying decrease in speed. This difference is small in relation to the net power of the engine supercharger unit, so that a supercharger with short impellers may be used in those applications where the space available is very limited with any considerable sacrifice in performance.
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Ware, Marsden & Wilson, Ernest E
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag of C-class airship hulls of various fineness ratios

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests on eight C-class airship hulls with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The purpose of the tests was to determine the variation of resistance with fineness ratio, and also to find the pressure and friction elements of the total drag for the model having the least shape coefficient. Seven C-class airship hulls with fineness ratios of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 were made and verified. These models and also the previously constructed original C-class hull, whose fineness ratio is 4.62, were then tested in the 8 by 8 foot tunnel for drag of 0 degree pitch and yaw, at various wind speeds. The original hull, which was found to have the least shape coefficient, was then tested for pressure distribution over the surface at various wind speeds. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on rolling and yawing moments in level flight

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the rolling and yawing moments due to ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and U. S. A. 27 wing sections. Some attention is devoted to a study of the effect of scale on rolling and yawing moments and to the effect of slightly rounding the wing tips. The results apply to level flight with the wing chord set at an angle of attack of +4 degrees and to conditions of zero pitch, zero yaw, and zero roll of the airplane. It is planned later to extend the investigation to other attitudes for monoplane and biplane combinations. The work was conducted in the 10 foot wind tunnel of the Bureau of Standards on models of 60-inch span and 10-inch chord. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Heald, R H & Strother, D H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forces on elliptic cylinders in uniform air stream

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on four elliptic cylinders with various fineness ratios, conducted in the Navy Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington. The object of the tests was to investigate the characteristics of sections suitable for streamline wire which normally has an elliptic section with a fineness ratio of 4.0; also to learn whether a reduction in fineness ratio would result in improvement; also to determine the pressure distribution on the model of fineness ratio of 4. Four elliptic cylinders with fineness ratios of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 were made and then tested in the 8 by 8 wind tunnel; first, for cross-wind force, drag, and yawing moment at 30 miles an hour and various angles of yaw; next for drag 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds; then for end effect on the smallest and largest models; and lastly for pressure distribution over the surface of the largest model at 0 degree pitch and 0 degree yaw and various wind speeds. In all tests, the length of the model was transverse to the current. The results are given for standard air density, p = .002378 slug per cubic foot. This account is a slight revised form of report no. 315. A summary of conclusions is given at the end of the text. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F; Smith, R H & Louden, F A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full scale tests of wood propellers on a VE-7 airplane in the propeller research tunnel

Description: The investigation described in this report was made primarily to afford a comparison between propeller tests in the new propeller research tunnel and flight tests and small model tests on propellers. Three wood propellers which had been previously tested in flight on a VE-7 airplane, and of which models had also been tested in a wind tunnel, were tested again on a VE-7 airplane in the propeller research tunnel. The results of these tests are in fair agreement with those of the flight and model tests. Tests were also made with the tail surfaces removed, and with both the wing and tail surfaces removed. It was found that the effect of the tail surfaces on the propeller characteristics was negligible, but that the wings reduced the maximum propulsive efficiency about 5 percent. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full scale tests on a thin metal propeller at various tip speeds

Description: This report describes an investigation made in order to determine the effect of tip speed on the characteristics of a thin-bladed metal propeller. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane with a 180-HP E-2 engine, and tested in the 20-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It was found that the effect of tip speed on the propulsive efficiency was negligible within the range of the tests, which was from 600 to 1,000 feet per second (about 0.5 to 0.9 the velocity of sound in air). (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a series of metal propellers on a VE-7 airplane

Description: An adjustable blade metal propeller was tested at five different angle settings, forming a series varying in pitch. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The efficiencies were found to be from 4 to 7 per cent higher than those of standard wood propellers operating under the same conditions. The results are given in convenient form for use in selecting propellers for aircraft.
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The gaseous explosive reaction : a study of the kinetics of composite fuels

Description: This report deals with the results of a series of studies of the kinetics of gaseous explosive reactions where the fuel under observation, instead of being a simple gas, is a known mixture of simple gases. In the practical application of the gaseous explosive reaction as a source of power in the gas engine, the fuels employed are composite, with characteristics that are apt to be due to the characteristics of their components and hence may be somewhat complex. The simplest problem that could be proposed in an investigation either of the thermodynamics or kinetics of the gaseous explosive reaction of a composite fuel would seem to be a separate study of the reaction characteristics of each component of the fuel and then a study of the reaction characteristics of the various known mixtures of those components forming composite fuels more and more complex. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Stevens, F W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments

Description: This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Bureau of Standards under a research authorization from, and with the financial assistance of, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The choice of a damping liquid for aircraft instruments is difficult owing to the range of temperature at which aircraft operate. Temperature changes affect the viscosity tremendously. The investigation was undertaken with the object of finding liquids of various viscosities otherwise suitable which had a minimum change in viscosity with temperature. The new data relate largely to solutions. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of the following liquids and solutions was determined in the temperature interval -18 degrees to +30 degrees C. (1) solutions of animal and vegetable oils in xylene. These were poppy-seed oil, two samples of neat's-foot oils, castor oil, and linseed oil. (2) solutions of mineral oil in xylene. These were Squibb's petrolatum of naphthene base and transformer oil. (3) glycerine solutions in ethyl alcohol and in mixture of 50-50 ethyl alcohol and water. (4) mixtures of normal butyl alcohol with methyl alcohol. (5) individual liquids, kerosene, mineral spirits, xylene, recoil oil. The apparatus consisted of four capillary-tube viscometers, which were immersed in a liquid bath in order to secure temperature control. The method of calibration and the related experimental data are presented.
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Keulegan, G H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane equipped with several different sets of wings

Description: This investigation was conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va., at the request of the Army Air Corps, for the purpose of comparing the full scale lift and drag characteristics of an airplane equipped with several sets of wings of commonly used airfoil sections. A Sperry Messenger Airplane with wings of R.A.F.-15, U.S.A.-5, U.S.A.-27, and Gottingen 387 airfoil sections was flown and the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane with each set of wings were determined by means of glide tests. The results are presented in tabular and curve form. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Crowley, J W , Jr & Green, M W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the use of discharge valves and an intake control for improving the performance of N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger

Description: This report presents the results of an analytical investigation on the practicability of using mechanically operated discharge valves in conjunction with a manually operated intake control for improving the performance of N. A. C. A. Roots type superchargers. These valves, which may be either of the oscillating or rotating type, are placed in the discharge opening of the supercharger and are so shaped and synchronized with the supercharger impellers that they do not open until the air has been compressed to the delivery pressure. The intake control limits the quantity of air compressed to engine requirements by permitting the excess air to escape from the compression chamber before compression begins. The percentage power saving and the actual horsepower saved were computed for altitudes from 0 to 20,000 feet. These computations are based on the pressure-volume cards for the conventional and the modified roots type superchargers and on the results of laboratory tests of the conventional type. The use of discharge valves shows a power saving of approximately 26 per cent at a critical altitude of 20,000 feet. In addition, these valves reduce the amplitude of the discharge pulsations and increase the volumetric efficiency. With slow-speed roots blowers operating at high-pressure differences even better results would be expected. For aircraft engine superchargers operating at high speeds these discharge valves increase the performance as above, but have the disadvantages of increasing the weight and of adding a high-speed mechanism to a simple machine. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Wilson, Ernest E
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The measurement of maximum cylinder pressures

Description: The work presented in this report was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a suitable method for measuring the maximum pressures occurring in aircraft engine cylinders. The study and development of instruments for the measurement of maximum cylinder pressures has been conducted in connection with carburetor and oil engine investigations on a single cylinder aircraft-type engine. Five maximum cylinder-pressure devices have been designed, and tested, in addition to the testing of three commercial indicators. Values of maximum cylinder pressures are given as obtained with various indicators for the same pressures and for various kinds and values of maximum cylinder pressures, produced chiefly by variation of the injection advance angle in high-speed oil engine. The investigations indicate that the greatest accuracy in determining maximum cylinder pressures can be obtained with an electric, balanced-pressure, diaphragm or disk-type indicator so constructed as to have a diaphragm or disk of relatively large area and minimum seat width and mass.
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Hicks, Chester W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary investigation of supercharging an air-cooled engine in flight

Description: This report presents the results of preliminary tests made on the effects of supercharging an air-cooled engine under airplane flight conditions. Service training airplanes were used in the investigation equipped with production types of Wright J engines. A N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger was driven from the rear of the engine. In addition to measuring those quantities that would enable the determination of the climb performance, measurements were made of the cylinder-head temperatures and the carburetor pressures and temperatures. The supercharging equipment was not removed from the airplane when making flights without supercharging, but a by-pass valve, which controlled the amount of supercharging by returning to the atmosphere the surplus air delivered by the supercharger, was left full open. With the supercharger so geared that ground-level pressure could be maintained to 18,500 feet, it was found that the absolute ceiling was increased from 19,400 to 32,600 feet, that the time to climb to 16,00 feet was decreased from 32 to 16 minutes, and that this amount of supercharging apparently did not injure the engine. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Ware, Marsden & Schey, Oscar W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution over a rectangular monoplane wing model up to 90 degree angle of attack

Description: The pressure distribution tests described in this report, covering angles of attack up to 90 degrees, were made on a rectangular monoplane wing model in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. These tests indicate that a rectangular wing, by reason of its large tip loads, is uneconomical aerodynamically and structurally, has pronounced lateral instability above maximum lift, and is not adaptable to accurate calculation based on the classical wing theory. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Loeser, Oscar, Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The pressure distribution over the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces of the F6C-4 pursuit airplane in violent maneuvers

Description: This investigation of the pressure distribution on the tail surfaces of a pursuit airplane in violent maneuvers was conducted for the purpose of determining the maximum loads likely to be encountered on these surfaces in flight. The information is a part of that needed for a revision of existing loading specifications to bring these into closer agreement with the actual flight conditions. A standard F6C-4 airplane was used and the pressure distribution over the right horizontal and complete vertical tail surfaces was recorded throughout violent maneuvers. The results show that the existing loading specifications do not conform satisfactorily to the loadings existent in critical conditions, and in some cases were exceeded by the loads obtained. An acceleration of 10.5 G. Was recorded in one maneuver in which the pilot suffered severely; it is therefore indicated that the limits of the physical resistance of the pilot to violent maneuvers are being approached. Navy specifications for the structural design of tail surfaces are included as an appendix. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Rhode, R V
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure distribution tests on PW-9 wing models from -18 degree through 90 degree angle of attack

Description: At the request of the Army Air Corps, an investigation of the pressure distribution over PW-9 wing models was conducted in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The primary purpose of these tests was to obtain wind-tunnel data on the load distribution on the cellule to be correlated with similar information obtained in flight tests, both to be used for design purposes. Because of the importance of the conditions beyond the stall as affecting the control and stability, this investigation was extended through 90 degree angle of attack. The results for the range of normal flight have been given in NACA Technical Report No. 271. The present paper presents the same results in a different form and includes, in addition, those over the greater range of angle of attack, -18 degrees through 90 degrees. The results show that: (1) at angles of attack above maximum lift, the biplane upper wing pressures are decreased by the shielding action of the lower wing. (2) the burble of the biplane lower wing, with respect to the angle of attack, is delayed, due to the shielding action of the lower wing. (3) the center of pressure of the biplane upper wing (semispan) is, in general, displaced forward and outward with reference to that of the wing as a monoplane, while for the lower wing there is but slight difference for both conditions. (4) the overhanging portion of the upper wing is little affected by the presence of the lower wing.
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Loeser, Oscar E , Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of observed airplane performance to standard conditions

Description: This report shows how the actual performance of an airplane varies with air temperature when the pressure is held constant. This leads to comparatively simple methods of reducing observed data to standard conditions. The new methods which may be considered exact for all practical purposes, have been used by the Navy Department for about a year, with very satisfactory results. The report also contains a brief historical review of the important papers which have been published on the subject of performance reduction, and traces the development of the standard atmosphere. (author).
Date: January 1929
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of wing flutter

Description: Part I describes vibration tests, in a wind tunnel, of simple airfoils and of the tail plane of an M0-1 airplane model; it also describes the air flow about this model. From these tests are drawn inferences as to the cause and cure of aerodynamic wing vibrations. Part II derives stability criteria for wing vibrations in pitch and roll, and gives design rules to obviate instability. Part III shows how to design spars to flex equally under a given wing loading and thereby economically minimize the twisting in pitch that permits cumulative flutter. Resonant flutter is not likely to ensue from turbulence of air flow along past wings and tail planes in usual flying conditions. To be flutterproof a wing must be void of reversible autorotation and not have its centroid far aft of its pitching axis, i. e., axis of pitching motion. Danger of flutter is minimized by so proportioning the wing's torsional resisting moment to the air pitching moment at high-speed angles that the torsional flexure is always small. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F & Bear, R M
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theories of flow similitude

Description: The laws of comparison of dynamically similar fluid motions are derived by three different methods based on the same principle and yielding the same or equivalent formulas. This report outlines the three current methods of comparing dynamically similar motions, more especially of fluids, initiated respectively by Newton, Stokes (or Helmholtz), and Rayleigh. These three methods, viz., the integral, the differential, and the dimensional, are enough alike to be studied profitably together. They are treated in succession then compared. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Zahm, A F
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The twenty-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: This report describes in detail the new propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va. This tunnel has an open jet air stream 20 feet in diameter in which velocities up to 110 M. P. H. Are obtained. Although the tunnel was built primarily to make possible accurate full-scale tests on aircraft propellers, it may also be used for making aerodynamic tests on full-size fuselages, landing gears, tail surfaces, and other aircraft parts, and on model wings of large size. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wood, Donald H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two practical methods for the calculation of the horizontal tail area necessary for a statically stable airplane

Description: This report is concerned with the problem of calculation of the horizontal tail area necessary to give a statically stable airplane. Two entirely different methods are developed, and reduced to simple formulas easily applied to any design combination. Detailed instructions are given for use of the formulas, and all calculations are illustrated by examples. The relative importance of the factors influencing stability is also shown. (author).
Date: January 1929
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The variation in engine power with altitude determined from measurements in flight with a hub dynamometer

Description: The rate of change in power of aircraft engines with altitude has been the subject of considerable discussion. Only a small amount of data from direct measurements of the power delivered by airplane engines during flight, however, has been published. This report presents the results of direct measurements of the power delivered by a Liberty 12 airplane engine taken with a hub dynamometer at standard altitudes from zero to 13,000 feet. Six flights were made with the engine installed in a modified DH-4 airplane. The experimental relation of brake horsepower to altitude is compared with two theoretical relations and with the experimental results, for a second Liberty 12 engine, given in NACA Technical Report no. 252. The rate of change in power with altitude of a third Liberty engine, measured with a calibrated propeller, is also given for comparison. The data presented substantiate the theoretical relation of brake horsepower to altitude based on the correction of ground level indicated horsepower for change in atmospheric temperature and pressure with the subsequent deduction of friction horsepower corrected for altitude. (author).
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Gove, W D
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department