From Summary: "Wind-tunnel tests of a full-scale two-blade NACA 10-(10)(08)-03 (high camber) propeller have been made for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. The results of these tests have been compared with results from previous tests of the NACA 10-(3) (08)-03 (low camber) and NACA 10-(5)(08)-03 (medium camber) propellers to evaluate the effects of blade-section camber on propeller aerodynamic characteristics."
From Summary: "An investigation was made in the Langley 300 mph 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes. For comparison, tests were made on a streamline body simulating the fuselage of a modern transport airplane. The results of the tests, which include the interference effects of a 21-percent-thick support wing, indicated that for corresponding configurations the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 7 had lower minimum drag coefficients than the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 5. Longitudinal and lateral stability was generally about the same for all hull models tested and about the same as that of a conventional hull."
From Summary: "An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel and in the Langley two-dimensional low-pressure tunnel of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections at low Mach numbers and several Reynolds numbers. The airfoils were equipped with 0.15-chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plan trailing-edge flaps. The section lift and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for both airfoils with the flaps deflected individually and in combination."
From Introduction: "Since these results were not applicable to the present problem, a theoretical analysis of the aerodynamic properties of slender wing-body combinations was undertaken. The results of this investigation were first reported in reference 5 and were later extended in reference 6 to include cruciform-wing and body combinations. The present report summarizes and extends the theory and results previously presented in these references."
From Introduction: "This report is concerned with the derivation of expressions for the velocity potential and associated forces and moments for oscillating triangular wings in supersonic flow. The purpose of the present report is to make use of the expanded form of the velocity potential to obtain the forces and moments, based on the first terms of this potential, for a rigid triangular wing performing vertical and pitching sinusoidal oscillations in mixed supersonic flow."
From Summary: "A theoretical investigation is made of the airfoil profile for minimum pressure drag at zero lift in supersonic flow. In the first part of the report a general method is developed for calculating the profile having the least pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, such as a given structural requirement or a given thickness ratio. To illustrate the general method, the optimum airfoil, defined as the airfoil having minimum pressure drag for a given auxiliary condition, is calculated in a second part of the report using the equations of linearized supersonic flow."
The results of an analog investigation of several turbojet-engine control configurations is presented in this report. Both proportional and proportional-plus-integral controllers were studied, and compensating terms for engine interaction were added to the control system. Data were obtained on the stability limits and the transient responses of these various configurations. Analytical expressions in terms of the component transfer functions were developed for the configurations studied, and the optimum form for the compensation terms was determined. It was found that the addition of the integral term, while making the system slower and more oscillatory, was desirable in that it made the final values of the system parameters independent of source of disturbance and also eliminated droop in these parameters. Definite improvement in system characteristics resulted from the use of proper compensation terms. At comparable gain points the compensated system was faster and more stable. Complete compensation eliminated engine interaction, permitting each loop to be developed to an optimum point independently.
From Introduction: "The purpose of the present report is to present a comprehensive summary of theoretical investigations of comprehensible laminar boundary layers which have been carried out since 1949 at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn under the sponsorship and with the financial assistance of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The results of these investigations are contained primarily in references 1 to 7."
From Introduction: "The primary purpose of the investigation described in the present described in the present report is to formulate a method which is of value for qualitative calculations of base pressure both on airfoils and bodies."
From Introduction: "Although the final equations obtained by this method are the same as those of Schmidt and Beckmann, this more general approach not only clearly demonstrates the significance of all the important parameters and assumptions and hence leads to a better understanding of this type of flow but also indicates the quantitative limitations of the theory. In addition, the numerical solutions of references 2 and 3 are herein extended to cover a more complete range of parameters."
From Summary: "This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection."
From Summary: "A theoretical analysis has been made of means of improving the uncontrolled motions of personal airplanes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether such airplanes could be made to fly uncontrolled for an indefinite period of time without getting into dangerous attitudes and for a reasonable period of time (1 to 3 min) without deviating excessively from their original course. The results of this analysis indicated that the uncontrolled motions of a personal airplane could be made safe as regards spiral tendencies and could be greatly improved as regards maintenance of course without resort to an autopilot."
A simplified procedure is shown for calculating the once-per-revolution oscillating aerodynamic thrust loads on propellers of tractor airplanes at zero yaw. The only flow field information required for the application of the procedure is a knowledge of the upflow angles at the horizontal center line of the propeller disk. Methods are presented whereby these angles may be computed without recourse to experimental survey of the flow field. The loads computed by the simplified procedure are compared with those computed by a more rigorous method and the procedure is applied to several airplane configurations which are believed typical of current designs. The results are generally satisfactory.
From Introduction: "A simple method of solving plane-plastic-stress problems with axial symmetry in the strain-hardening range for finite strains were developed at the NACA Lewis laboratory during 1949-1950. This method is based on the deformation theory of Hencky and Nadai (references 7 to 9), which is derived for the condition of constant directions and ratios of the principal stresses during loading."
Flow-angle and pressure surveys behind five, thin, pointed-tip wings of varying plan form have been made at Mach numbers 1.62 and 2.41. Schlieren studies at a Mach number 1.93 for the same five plan-form wings were made to illustrate the behavior of the vortex sheet. The surveys were conducted at 1.5, 3, and 4 root chords behind three triangular wings of 50 degree, 63 degree, and 72 degree leading-edge sweep angle, and behind the 50 degree triangular wing reversed. The flow behind a pointed-tip wing having a sweptback leading edge and a sweptforward trailing edge (both 50 degrees) was also surveyed. Experiment and one of the theoretical methods are compared for the reversed triangular wing and the pointed-tip wing with the 50 degree sweptback leading edge and sweptforward trailing edge.
From Summary: An approximate method for determining the allowable stress-limited blade-temperature distribution is included, with brief accounts of a method for determining the maximum allowable effective gas temperatures and the cooling-air requirements. Numerical examples that illustrate the use of the various temperature-distribution equations and of the nondimensional charts are also included.
From Summary: "This report presents analytical methods for computing temperature distributions in liquid-cooled turbine blades, or in simplified shapes used to approximate sections of the blade. The individual analyses are first presented in terms of their mathematical development. Nondimensional charts to simplify some temperature-distribution calculations are also given."
From Introduction: "The results of the aforementioned study are presented in this report together with the method of analysis employed. The net stability change is shown together with the individual contributions due to flexibility of wing, tail, and fuselage, both including and neglecting the effect of inertial loads."
A performance analysis has been made to determine whether boundary-layer control by suction might reduce the minimum take-off and landing distances of a four-place or five-place airplane or a liaison type of airplane below those obtainable with conventional high-lift devices. The airplane was assumed to have a cruise duration of 5 hours at 60-percent power and to be operating from airstrips having a ground friction coefficient of 0.2 or a combined ground and braking coefficient of 0.4. The payload was fixed at 1500 pounds, the wing span was varied from 25 to 100 feet, the aspect ratio was varied from 5 to 15, and the power was varied from 300 to 1300 horsepower. Maximum lift coefficients of 5.0 and 2.8 were assumed for the airplanes with and without boundary-layer-control --equipment weight was included. The effects of the boundary-layer control on total take-off distance, total power-off landing distance, landing and take-off ground run, stalling speed, sinking speed, and gliding speed were determined.
From Introduction: "This report presents calculations of the angularity of the air stream with respect to the vertical tail for a rolling airplane, the interference effects of the wing being taken into account. A discussion of the factors which enter into the calculations is given and equations for applying the side-wash results to the determination of the tail contributions to the rolling-stability derivatives are included. The results are compared with some available experimental data."
A method of strength analysis of short sheet-stringer panels subjected to compression is presented which takes into account the effect that the riveted attachments between the plate and the stiffeners have on the strength of panels. An analysis of experimental data shows that panel strength is highly influenced by rivet pitch, diameter, and location and that the degree of influence for a given riveting depends on the panel configuration and panel material.
A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.
With the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation for the boundary layer and data on the wall-shearing stress and heat transfer in forced-convection flow, a calculation was carried out for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. The calculation is for a fluid with a Prandtl number that is close to 1. A formula was derived for the heat-transfer coefficient that was in good agreement with experimental data in the range of Grashof numbers from 10sup10 to 10sup12. Because of the good agreement between the theoretical formula and the experimental data, the formula may be used to obtain data for high Grashof numbers. The calculation also yielded formulas for the maximum velocity in the boundary layer and for boundary-layer thickness.
From Introduction: "In the analysis given herein, which was made at the NACA Lewis laboratory, the expression for eddy diffusivity given in reference 1 is modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity in reducing the turbulence in the region close to the wall. The effects of variable viscosity and of length-to-diameter ratio are also investigated."
From Introduction: "This report extends the short-bearing pressure-distribution function of Michell and Cardullo to give equations for the various bearing characteristics. This short-bearing approximation makes available formulas relating eccentricity ratio to applied load, attitude angle, angular position of peak film pressure to unit pressure on projected area."
From Summary: "A method based on the concept of Station Functions is presented for calculating the modes and the frequencies of nonuniform cantilever beams vibrating in torsion, bending, and coupled bending-torsion motion. The method combines some of the advantages of the Rayleigh-Ritz and Stodola methods, in that a continuous loading function for the beam is used, with the advantages of the influence-coefficient method, in that the continuous loading function is obtained in terms of the displacements of a finite number of stations along the beam."
Calculations are made to determine the trajectories of liquid droplets introduced into the air disturbances generated by an airplane engaged in aerial spraying. The effects of such factors as the positions at which droplets are ejected into the disturbances, airplane lift coefficient, and altitude are investigated. The distribution of deposit on the ground is computed for several droplet-size spectra, variations in the rate at which mass is ejected along the span, and lateral flight-path spacings. Consideration is then given to the problem of adjusting these factors with the aim of improving the uniformity and increasing the effective width of the deposit. The results indicate that the lateral dispersion of droplets is increased when the spanwise position at which particles are ejected is moved toward the wing tip. Greater dispersion also results when the airplane lift coefficient or altitude is increased.
A technique is developed for the application of a channel design method to the design of high-solidity cascades with prescribed velocity distributions as a function of arc length along the blade-element profile. The technique is applied to both incompressible and subsonic compressible, nonviscous, irrotational fluid motion. For compressible flow, the ratio of specific heats is assumed equal to -1.0. An impulse cascade with 90 degree turning was designed for incompressible flow and was tested at the design angle of attack over a range of downstream Mach number from 0.2 to coke flow. To achieve good efficiency, the cascade was designed for prescribed velocities and maximum blade loading according to limitations imposed by considerations of boundary-layer separation.
From Introduction: "The present paper is restricted to a discussion of wing theory subject to the assumptions of linearized compressible flow. It therefore employs solutions of Laplace's equation and the wave equation for cases where the boundary condition are specified in the plane of the wing."
Basic general equations governing the three-dimensional compressible flow of gas through a compressor or turbine are given in terms of total enthalpy, entropy, and velocity components of the gas. Two methods of solution are obtained for the simplified, steady axially symmetric flow; one involves the use of a number of successive planes normal to the axis of the machine and short distances apart, and the other involves only three stations for a stage in which an appropriate radial-flow path is used. Methods of calculation for the limiting cases of zero and infinite blade aspect ratios and an approximate method of calculation for finite blade aspect ratio are also given. In these methods, the blade loading and the shape of the annular passage wall may be arbitrarily specified.
In the process of analyzing the longitudinal frequency-response characteristics of aircraft, information on some of the methods of analysis has been obtained by the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. In the investigation of these methods, the practical applications and limitations were stressed. In general, the methods considered may be classed as: (1) analysis of sinusoidal response, (2) analysis of transient response as to harmonic content through determination of the Fourier integral by manual or machine methods, and (3) analysis of the transient through the use of least-squares solutions of the coefficients of an assumed equation for either the transient time response or frequency response (sometimes referred to as curve-fitting methods). (author).
An approximate analysis of the nonlinear effects of initial twist and large deflections on the torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to a nonuniform temperature distribution is presented. The Von Karman large-deflection equations are satisfied through the use of a variational principle. The results show that initial twist and applied moments can have significant effects on the changes in stiffness produced by nonuniform heating, particularly in the region of the buckling temperature difference. Results calculated by this approximate analysis are in satisfactory agreement with measured torsional deformations and changes in natural frequency. (author).
A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane of applying area-suction boundary-layer control to the trailing-edge flaps. Flight tests of a similar airplane were then conducted to determine the effect of boundary-layer control in the handling qualities and operation of the airplane, particularly during landing. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that area suction applied to the trailing-edge flaps produced significant increases in flap lift increment. Although the flap boundary-layer control reduced the stall speed only slightly, a reduction in minimum comfortable approach speed of about 12 knots was obtained.
By means of linearized-body theory and reverse-flow theorems, the wave drag of a system of fusiform bodies at zero angle of attack and supersonic speeds is studied to determine the effect of varying the relative location of the component parts. The investigation is limited to two-body and three-body arrangements of Sears-Haack minimum-drag bodies. It is found that in certain arrangements the interference effects are beneficial, and may even result in the two or three-body system having no more wave drag than that of the principal body alone. The most favorable location appears to be one in which the maximum cross-section of the auxiliary body is slightly forward of the Mach cone from the tail of the main body. The least favorable is the region between the Mach cone from the nose and the forecone from the tail of the main body. (author).
A method is presented for obtaining the attenuation of a shock wave in a shock tube due to the unsteady boundary layer along the shock-tube walls. It is assumed that the boundary layer is thin relative to the tube diameter and induces one-dimensional longitudinal pressure waves whose strength is proportional to the vertical velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The contributions of the various regions in a shock tube to shock attenuation are indicated. The method is shown to be in reasonably good agreement with existing experimental data.
An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.
The time-average characteristics of boundary layers over a flat plate in nearly quasi-steady flow are determined. The plate may be either insulated or isothermal. The time averages are found without specifying the plate velocity explicitly except that it is positive and has an average value.
Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA rm-10, basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers from 4.4 x 10(6) to 70 x 10(6). The tests were made in the Langley tank no. 1 with the body sting-mounted at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken around the body was in good agreement with flat-plate results, but, apparently because of the slight surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of the boundary layer around the body was not uniform over part of the Reynolds number range.
In the initial phase of a NACA program on fatigue research, axial-load tests on 24S-T3 and 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy sheet have been made at the Battelle Memorial Institute and at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The test specimens were polished and unnotched. The manufacturer of the material, the Aluminum Company of America, has made axial-load tests on 24S-T4 and 75S-T6 rod material. The test techniques used at the three laboratories are described in detail; the test results are presented and are compared with each other and with results obtained on unpolished sheet by the National Bureau of Standards. (author).
The external wave drag of bodies of revolution moving at supersonic speeds can be expressed either in terms of the geometry of the body, or in terms of the body-simulating axial source distribution. For purposes of deriving optimum bodies under various given conditions, it is found that the second of the methods mentioned is the more tractable. By use of a quasi-cylindrical theory, that is, the boundary conditions are applied on the surface of a cylinder rather than on the body itself, the variational problems of the optimum bodies having prescribed volume or caliber are solved. The streamline variations of cross-sectional area and drags of the bodies are exhibited, and some numerical results are given.
General equations are developed for isentropic, frictionless, axisymmetric flow in rotating impellers with blade thickness taken into account and with blade forces eliminated in favor of the blade-surface function. It is shown that the total energy of the gas relative to the rotating coordinate system is dependent on the stream function only, and that if the flow upstream of the impeller is vortex-free, a velocity potential exists which is a function of only the radial and axial distances in the impeller. The characteristic equations for supersonic flow are developed and used to investigate flows in several configurations in order to ascertain the effect of variations of the boundary conditions on the internal flow and the work input. Conditions varied are prerotation of the gas, blade turning rate, gas velocity at the blade tips, blade thickness, and sweep of the leading edge.
Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
A review is presented of available information on the behavior of brittle and ductile materials under conditions of thermal stress and thermal shock. For brittle materials, a simple formula relating physical properties to thermal-shock resistance is derived and used to determine the relative significance of two indices currently in use for rating materials. For ductile materials, thermal-shock resistance depends upon the complex interrelation among several metallurgical variables which seriously affect strength and ductility. These variables are briefly discussed and illustrated from literature sources. The importance of simulating operating conditions in tests for rating materials is especially to be emphasized because of the importance of testing conditions in metallurgy. A number of practical methods that have been used to minimize the deleterious effects of thermal stress and thermal shock are outlined.
A numerical method was developed for calculating thermal stresses in irregular cylinders cooled by one or more internal passages. The use of relaxation methods and elementary methods of finite differences was found to give approximations to the correct values when compared with previously known solutions for concentric circular cylinders possessing symmetrical and asymmetrical temperature distributions.
Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wing-tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional, unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
A wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane of applying blowing-type boundary-layer control to the trailing-edge flaps. Flight tests of a similar airplane were then conducted to determine the effects of boundary-layer control on the handling qualities and operation of the airplane, particularly during landing and take-off. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that blowing over the flaps produced large increases in flap lift increment, and significant increases in maximum lift. The use of blowing permitted reductions in the landing approach speeds of as much as 12 knots.
Approximate shapes of nonlifting bodies having minimum pressure foredrag at high supersonic airspeeds are calculated. With the aid of Newton's law of resistance, the investigation is carried out for various combinations of the conditions of given body length, base diameter, surface area, and volume. In general, it is found that when body length is fixed, the body has a blunt nose; whereas, when the length is not fixed, the body has a sharp nose. The additional effect of curvature of the flow over the surface is investigated to determine its influence on the shapes for minimum drag. The effect is to increase the bluntness of the shapes in the region of the nose and the curvature in the region downstream of the nose. These shape modifications have, according to calculation, only a slight tendency to reduce drag. Several bodies of revolution of fineness ratios 3 and 5, including the calculated shapes of minimum drag for given length and base diameter and for given base diameter and surface area, were tested at Mach numbers from 2.73 to 6.28. A comparison of theoretical and experimental foredrag coefficients indicates that the calculated minimum-drag bodies are reasonable approximations to the correct shape.
In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
An investigation was made of a thin-walled cylinder under axial compression and various internal pressures to study the effect of the internal pressure on the compressive buckling stress of the cylinder. A theoretical analysis based on a large-deflection theory was also made. The theoretically predicted increase of compressive buckling stress due to internal pressure agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author).
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