Investigations were made to develop a simplified method for designing exhaust-pipe shrouds to provide desired or maximum cooling of exhaust installations. Analysis of heat exchange and pressure drop of an adequate exhaust-pipe shroud system requires equations for predicting design temperatures and pressure drop on cooling air side of system. Present experiments derive such equations for usual straight annular exhaust-pipe shroud systems for both parallel flow and counter flow. Equations and methods presented are believed to be applicable under certain conditions to the design of shrouds for tail pipes of jet engines.
Flight tests were made in natural icing conditions with two 8-ft-chord heated airfoils of different sections. Measurements of meteorological variables conducive to ice formation were made simultaneously with the procurement of airfoil thermal data. The extent of knowledge on the meteorology of icing, the impingement of water drops on airfoil surfaces, and the processes of heat transfer and evaporation from a wetted airfoil surface have been increased to a point where the design of heated wings on a fundamental, wet-air basis now can be undertaken with reasonable certainty.
Note presenting a verification of previously derived equations for calculating the rate of heat transfer from airfoils in icing conditions, which have come about as a result of an investigation of the meteorological conditions conducive to the formation of ice on aircraft and a study of the process of airfoil thermal ice prevention. The results indicated that knowledge of these components has increased to a point where the design of heated wings on a fundamental, wet-air basis can now be undertaken with reasonable certainty.
A preliminary analytical investigation was made to determine the feasibility of the basic idea of controlled failure points as safety valves for the primary airplane structure. The present analysis considers the possibilities of the breakable wing tip which, in failing as a weak link, would relieve the bending moments on the wing structure. The analysis was carried out by computing the time histories of the wing and stabilizer angle of attack in a 10g pull-up for an XF8F airplane with tips fixed and comparing the results with those for the same maneuver, that is, elevator motion but with tips jettisoned at 8g. The calculations indicate that the increased stability accompanying the loss of the wing tips reduces the bending moment an additional amount above that which would be expected from the initial loss in lift and the inboard shift in load. The vortex shed when the tips are lost may induce a transient load requiring that the tail be made stronger than otherwise.
Report presenting the drag of a series of wing-body combinations by the free-fall method in order to provide information on the drag characteristics of promising transonic and supersonic airplane arrangements. Time histories, Mach number variations, and drag coefficients for several areas of the body are provided.
Report presenting a comparison of the vertical-tail loads determined from pressure-distribution measurements in flight in various maneuvers with the corresponding vertical-tail loads. Some of the maneuvers investigated included slow rolls, steady sideslips, fishtails, and rolling pull-outs.
A method is derived for calculating the damping coefficients in pitch and roll for a series of triangular wings and a restricted series of sweptback wings at supersonic speeds. The elementary "supersonic source" solution of the linearized equation of motion is used to find the potential function of a line of doublets, and the flows are obtained by surface distributions of these doublet lines. The damping derivatives for triangular wings are found to be a function of the ratio of the tangent of the apex angle to the tangent of the Mach angle. As this ratio becomes equal to and greater than 1.0 for triangular wings, the damping derivatives, in pitch and in roll, become constant. The damping derivative in roll becomes equal to one-half the value calculated for an infinite rectangular wing, and the damping derivative in pitch for pitching about the apex becomes equal to 3.375 times that of an infinite rectangular wing.
The flight investigation of the C-54D airplane was initiated to determine the necessity of changes or additions to existing handling-qualities requirements to cove the case of instrument approaches with large airplanes. This paper gives a brief synopsis of the results and presents the measured data of tests to determine the stability and control characteristics. It was found that no new requirements were necessary to cover the problems of instrument approaches. The C-54D airplane tested met the Amy and Navy stability and control requirements except for the following items. The control-system friction with autopilot installed vas double that allowed by the requirements. The amount of friction was found to impair the controllability of the airplane in precision flying. The lateral and directional characteristics were good except that the maximum pb/2V was slightly below the minimum required, and the elevator-control forces to obtain the maximum pb/2V at low speeds were above the Army and Navy requirements. The longitudinal stability and control characteristics were good except that the elevator-control forces exceeded the limits of the Army and Navy requirements in turns and in landings. The stalling characteristics were considered good in all conditions with the stall warning in the form of tail buffeting occurring at speeds approximately 5 miles per hour above the stall.
From Summary: "Results of local-instability tests of H-, Z-, and C-section plate assemblies of four extruded aluminum alloys and two magnesium alloys, obtained in an extensive investigation to determine plate compressive strengths of aircraft structural materials, are summarized. On the basis of the general relationships found between the plate compressive strengths and the compressive stress-strain curves, methods applicable to flat plates and based upon the use of the compressive stress-strain curve are suggested for determining the critical compressive stress and the average stress at maximum load."
An investigation has been conducted on a one-sixth segment of an annular turbojet combustor to determine the effects of modification in air-flow distribution and total-pressure loss on the performance of the segment. The performance features investigated during this series of determinations were the altitude operational limits and the temperature-rise efficiency. Altitude operational limits of the combustor segment, for the 19XB engine using the original combustor-basket design were approximately 38,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and 26,000 feet at 10,000 rpm. The altitude operational limits were approximately 50,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and 38,000 feet at 10,000 rpm for a combustor-basket design in which the air-passage area in the basket was redistributed so as to admit gradually no more than 20 percent of the air along the first half of the basket. In this case the total pressure loss through the combustor segment was not appreciably changed from the total-pressure loss for the original combustor basket design. Altitude operational limits of the combustor segment for the 19XB engine were above 52,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and were approximately 23,000 feet at 10,000 rpm for a combustor-basket design in which the distribution of the air-passage area in the basket was that of the original design but where the total-pressure loss was increased to 19 times the inlet reference kinetic pressure at an inlet-to-outlet density ratio of 2.4. The total-pressure loss for the original design was 14 times the inlet kinetic reference pressure at an inlet-to-outlet density ratio of 2.4.
Report presenting a series of tests made with a CFR engine to determine the effect of inlet-valve capacity, inlet and exhaust pressure, and valve timing on the volumetric efficiency at various speeds. Three combinations of inlet and exhaust pressures and seven valve-timing arrangements were used.
This article explains results developed from the following research: 'The Stability of Plates and Shells beyond the Elastic Limit.' A significant improvement is found in the derivation of the relations between the stress factors and the strains resulting from the instability of plates and shells. In a strict analysis, the problem reduces to the solution of two simultaneous nonlinear partial differential equations of the fourth order in the deflection and stress function, and in the approximate analysis to a single linear equation of the Bryan type. Solutions are given for the special cases of a rectangular plate buckling into a cylindrical form, and of an arbitrarily shaped plate under uniform compression. These solutions indicate that the accuracy obtained by the approximate method is satisfactory.
The gust and draft velocities from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights at Clinton County Army Air Field, Ohio, from July 12, to July 18, 1947 are presented.
An experimental investigation was made of a preloaded spring-tab flutter model to determine the effects on flutter speed of aspect ratio, tab frequency, and preloaded spring constant. The rudder was mass-balanced, and the flutter mode studied was essentially one of three degrees of freedom (fin bending coupled with rudder and tab oscillations). Inasmuch as the spring was preloaded, the tab-spring system was a nonlinear one. Frequency of the tab was the most significant parameter in this study, and an increase in flutter speed with increasing frequency is indicated. At a given frequency, the tab of high aspect ratio is shown to have a slightly lower flutter speed than the one of low aspect ratio. Because the frequency of the preloaded spring tab was found to vary radically with amplitude, the flutter speed decreased with increase in initial displacement of the tab.
From Summary: "The results of an experimental investigation of an NACA submerged-air-inlet system on a 1/5-scale model of a fighter airplane are presented. Preliminary development tests were conducted to select the optimum entrance configuration. Duct-system total-pressure losses and pressure distributions over the lip and ramp of this air intake were obtained."
This report contains the flight-test results of the stalling characteristics measured during the flying-qualities investigation of the Lockheed P-8OA airplane (Army No. 44-85099). The tests were conducted in straight and turning flight with and without wing-tip tanks. These tests showed satisfactory stalling characteristics and adequate stall warning for all configurations and conditions tested.
Flight tests were made of six noninstrumented rocket-powered "Tin Can" models of AAF Project MX-800. Velocity and drag data were obtained by use of CU Doppler radar. The existence of stability and adequate structural strength for flight near zero lift was checked by visual and photographic observation. Drag data obtained during the tests agreed reasonably well with estimates based on experimental data from NACA RM-2 rocket-powered drag research models.
The numerous patent applications on arrow-stabilized projectiles indicate that the idea of projectiles without spin is not new, but has appeared in various proposals throughout the last decades. As far as projectiles for subsonic speeds are concerned, suitable shapes have been developed for sometime, for example, numerous grenades. Most of the patent applications, though, are not practicable particularly for projectiles with supersonic speed. This is because the inventor usually does not have any knowledge of aerodynamic flow around the projectile nor any particular understanding of the practical solution. The lack of wind tunnels for the development of projectiles made it necessary to use firing tests for development. These are obviously extremely tedious or expensive and lead almost always to failures. The often expressed opinion that arrow-stabilized projectiles cannot fly supersonically can be traced to this condition. That this is not the case has been shown for the first time by Roechling on long projectiles with foldable fins. Since no aerodynamic investigations were made for the development of these projectiles, only tedious series of firing tests with systematic variation of the fins could lead to satisfactory results. These particular projectiles though have a disadvantage which lies in the nature cf foldable fins. They occasionally do not open uniformly in flight, thus causing unsymmetry in flow and greater scatter. The junctions of fins and body are very bad aerodynamically and increase the drag. It must be possible to develop high-performance arrow-stabilized projectiles based on the aerodynamic research conducted during the last few years at Peenemuende and new construction ideas. Thus the final shape, ready for operational use, could be developed in the wind tunnel without loss of expensive time in firing tests. The principle of arrow-stabilized performance has been applied to a large number of caliburs which were stabilized by various means ...
Report presenting additional work in an investigation to determine the effects of preheating and postheating on the quality and strength of spot welds in aluminum alloys. The results showed that in alternating-current spot welding of aluminum alloys, the weld time is very important with regard to the quality of welds produced.
Memorandum presenting high-speed wind-tunnel tests of four thin NACA 63-series airfoil sections with a design lift coefficient of 0.2 with the uniform-load type of mean camber line to determine the effectiveness of forward movement of the minimum-pressure position in improving the high-speed lift characteristics of low-drag airfoils. Results regarding the tunnel-wall effects, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, and moment coefficient are provided.
A three-dimensional investigation of straight-sided-profile plain ailerons on a wing with 30 degrees and 45 degrees of sweepback and sweepforward was made in a high-speed wind tunnel for aileron deflections from -10 degrees to 10 degrees and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.96. Wing configurations of 30 degrees generally reduced the severity of the large changes in rolling-moment and aileron hinge-moment coefficients experienced by the upswept wing configurations as the result of compression shock and extended to higher Mach numbers the speeds at which such changes occurred.
Note presenting a determination of the compressive buckling stress of outstanding flanges reinforced by bulbs using the torsion-bending theory for flanges with 54 shapes and a range of lengths. The results were analyzed to determine the shape of flange that gave the greatest support to the structure to which it was attached.
An introduction to the problem of determining the fundamental limitations on the performance possibilities of rocket-powered aircraft is presented. Previous material on the subject is reviewed and given in condensed form along with supplementary analyses. Some of the problems discussed are: 1) limiting velocity of a rocket projectile; 2) limiting velocity of a rocket jet; 3) jet efficiency; 4) nozzle characteristics; 5) maximum attainable altitudes; 6) ranges. Formulas are presented relating the performance of a rocket-powered aircraft to basic weight and nozzle dimensional parameters. The use of these formulas is illustrated by their application to the special case of a nonlifting rocket projectile.
Report presenting a study of the characteristics of a large-scale triangular wing to include the effects of section modifications. The wing in this report is the same as the one in the previous report but features various degrees of rounding of the wing leading edge and wing maximum thickness rather than having sharp edges. Results regarding the effects of airfoil section modifications, visible trailing vortices, and surveys in the extended chord plane are provided.
Pressure distribution over an extended leading-edge flap on a 42 degree swept-back wing was investigated. Results indicate that the flap normal-force coefficient increased almost linearly with the angle of attack to a maximum value of 3.25. The maximum section normal-force coefficient was located about 30 percent of the flap span outboard of the inboard end and had a value of 3.75. Peak negative pressures built up at the flap leading edge as the angle of attack was increased and caused the chordwise location of the flap center of pressure to be move forward.
Efficiency investigations have been made on a single-stage modification of the turbine of a Mark 25 aerial torpedo to determine the performance of the unit with five different turbine nozzles. The output of the turbine blades was computed by analyzing the windage and mechanical-friction losses of the unit. The turbine was faund to be most efficient with a cast nozzle having sharp-edged inlets to the nine nozzle ports. An analysis af the effectiveness af the first and second stages of the standard Mark 25 torpedo turbine indicates that the first- stage turbine contributes nearly all the brake power produced at blade-jet speed ratios above 0.26.
Note presenting an investigation to determine the interference effects of three fuselages on the readings of a pitot-static tube extending various distances forward from the noses of the fuselages. The fuselages investigated were bodies of revolution with maximum diameters equal to 12 percent of the fuselage length and with circular-nose, elliptical-nose, and pointed-nose shapes. Results regarding interference at zero angle of attack, effect of free-stream impact pressure, and effect of tube diameter are provided.
Report presenting wind-tunnel testing conducted on three sharp-edge wing models with a thickness ratio of 5 percent and a common triangular plan form of aspect ratio 2. Measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moment were made at Mach number 1.53. The experimental lift and moment curves were found to conform essentially with the superposition principle of the linear theory.
Report presenting a method for determining the temperature and flow of heated gas necessary for ice prevention of hollow propeller blades in flight and icing conditions. A variety of conditions are taken into consideration and suggested simplifications and short methods are provided in order to not overcomplicate the design modifications.
Report presenting a detailed method for determining the temperature and flow of heated gas necessary for ice prevention of hollow propeller blades in flight and icing conditions. Expressions for the total external and internal heat transfer are combined to determine the surface temperatures of each segment.
"A preliminary investigation of the over-all performance of a simply constructed, short-life, turbojet engine was conducted. The unit was operated at a pressure altitude of 15,000 feet for ram-pressure ratios of 1.2 to 1.8. The corrected engine speed was varied from the minimum for good combustion to about 17,000 rpm, which is approximately 75 percent of rated speed. The performance is given by generalized parameters that permit the calculation of performance at any altitude" (p. 1).
Report presenting flight testing on two propeller-driven airplanes with wings of NACA 66-series and NACA 230-series airfoil sections to determine the effect of deflecting the landing flaps upward on the high-speed longitudinal-control characteristics.
From Summary: "Pressures and temperatures throughout the X24C-4B turbojet engine are presented in both tabular and graphical forms to show the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and engine speed on the internal operation of the engine. These data were obtained in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel at simulated altitudes from 5000 to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.08, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. Location and detail drawings of the instrumentation installed at seven survey stations in the engine are shown."
The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.
The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor in the X24C-4B turbojet engine was analyzed on the basis of results obtained from an investigation of the complete engine in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The engine was operated with four, exhaust nozzles of different outlet area over a range of engine speeds from 6000 to 12,500 rpm, corrected engine speeds from approximately 6100 to 13,600 rpm, and compressor Mach numbers from 0.45 to 1.00. Data are presented for engine operation over a range of simulated altitudes from 15,000 to 45,000 feet and simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.08.
An investigation to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the TG-1OOA gas turbine-propeller engine was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. As part of this investigation, the combustion-chamber performance was determined at pressure altitudes from 5000 to 35,000 feet, compressor-inlet rm-pressure ratios of 1.00 and 1.09, and engine speeds from 8000 to 13,000 rpm. Combustion-chamber performance is presented as a function of corrected engine speed and.correcte& horsepower. For the range of corrected engine speeds investigated, over-all total-pressure-loss ratio, cycle efficiency, ana the frac%ional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers were unaffected by a change in altitude or compressor-inlet ram-pressure ratio. The scatter of combustion- efficiency data tended to obscure any effect of altitude or ram-pressure ratio. For the range of corrected horse-powers investigated, the total-pressure-loss ratio an& the fractional loss in cycle efficiency resulting from pressure losses in the combustion chambers decreased with an increase in corrected horsepower at a constant corrected engine speed. The combustion efficiency remained constant for the range of corrected horse-powers investigated at all corrected engine speeds.
Report presenting the results of a test program in a supersonic tunnel to determine the maximum lift of wings operating at supersonic speeds. A variety of wing plan forms of several thickness distributions were tested at a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack. The lift results, drag results, and Schileren photographs are described.
Report presenting the results of a study of the movement of shocks on a three-dimensional wing with and without aileron flutter occurring. The studies include a number of changes and variations to the wing and control. Results for the standard wing and aileron, spoilers at 50 percent chord, upper and lower surface, faired bumps at the 50-percent-chord and 70-percent-chord positions, variations of thickness ratio along the span, vent holes between upper and lower surface, aileron-contour change, aileron mass overbalance, dampers, wing flutter, buffeting forces on fixed controls, and static characteristics are provided.
Report presenting supersonic-tunnel tests of two models of similar supersonic airplane configurations at Mach numbers of 1.55, 1.90, and 2.32 to determine values of the drag, lift, pitching moment, yawing moment, and side force. The models were similar except for the vertical wing location relative to the body axis and horizontal tail; one had a high wing and one had a low wing. Results regarding the precision of data, Reynolds numbers of tests, results at the different Mach numbers, and Schileren photographs are provided.
Tests have been conducted to determine the drive-motor torque and the static force and moment characteristics of the AN/SPS-1 radar antenna. Shifting the longitudinal position of the antenna had very little effect on the drive-motor torque, which reached a maximum value expressed in terms of dynamic pressure (T/q)(sub max) of 1.15 at an azimuth angle of 245. The maximum observed values of rolling, pitching, and yawing moments in terms of dynamic pressure are -29.0, 66.6, and 13.4, respectively.
Report presenting an investigation at the tank no. 2 monorail of the landing on smooth water of a dynamic model of a hypothetical jet- and rocket-propelled airplane designed to fly at transonic speeds. The model skipped out of the water and experienced maximum normal accelerations up to 7.4g and maximum longitudinal accelerations up to 4.5g. Results of landing the basic model and landing the modified model that has a slightly different fuselage are provided.
Memorandum presenting an investigation at the tank no. 2 monorail of the landing on smooth water of a scale model of a hypothetical jet- and rocket-propelled airplane designed to fly at transonic speeds. The test is part of an investigation of the feasibility of the operation from water of high-speed airplanes. The results of the test form a basis for evaluating the improvement in hydrodynamic characteristics.
From Summary: "The Weissinger method for determining additional span loading has been used to find the lift-curve slope, spanwise center of pressure, aerodynamic center location, and span loading coefficients of untwisted and uncambered wings having a wide range of plan forms characterized by various combinations of sweep, aspect ratio, and taper ratio. The results are presented as variations of the aerodynamic characteristics with sweep angle for various values of aspect ratio and taper ratio. Methods are also included for determining induced drag and the approximate effects of compressibility."
The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.
"Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a l/8 scale model of the Republic XP-91 airplane were made to determine its low-speed characteristics and the relative merits of a vee and a conventional tail on the model. The results of the tests showed that for the same amount of longitudinal and directional stability the conventional tail gave less roll due to sideslip than did the vee tail. The directional stability of the model was considered inadequate for both the vee and conventional tails; however, increasing the area and aspect ratio of the conventional vertical tail provided adequate directional stability" (p. 1).
Report presenting testing of the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics in yaw of a 42 degree sweptback wing of circular-arc airfoil sections in the pressure tunnel. The wing had an aspect ratio of 3.94, taper ratio of 0.625, and no dihedral or twist. Results regarding lateral-stability parameters of plain wing, effect of wing flaps on lateral-stability parameters, effect of fuselage on lateral-stability parameters, a comparison with the NACA 64(sub 1)-112 wing, characteristics in the extended yaw range, and airflow characteristics in the region of a vertical tail are provided.
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