From Summary: "Tests of two 10-foot-diameter two-blade propellers which differed only in shank design have been made in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel. The propellers are designated by their blade design numbers, NACA 10-(5)(08)-03, which had aerodynamically efficient airfoil shank sections, and NACA l0-(5)(08)-03R which had thick cylindrical shank sections typical of conventional blades. The propellers mere tested on a 2000-horsepower dynamometer through a range of blade-angles from 20deg to 55deg at various rotational speeds and at airspeeds up to 496 miles per hour. The resultant tip speeds obtained simulate actual flight conditions, and the variation of air-stream Mach number with advance ratio is within the range of full-scale constant-speed propeller operation."
From Introduction: "Experimental investigations (reference 1) have shown that in some cases the thrust can be more than doubled by means of tail-pipe burning. A comparison is made of a standard turbojet engine, whose thrust is augmented by tail-pipe burning, and a ram-jet engine. The performance characteristics for the ram-jet engine were computed entirely from theoretical considerations and on the assumption that the burner-inlet velocity was constant."
From Introduction: "The development of the measuring apparatus and techniques is presented herein. The application of the analogy to flows through nozzles and about circular cylinders at subsonic velocities extending into supercritical range is also presented."
Report presenting testing to determine the bearing strength characteristics of some magnesium-alloy sand castings and the relation between those and more commonly determined tensile properties. The primary sand-cast magnesium alloys of interest for aircraft design are AM403, AM260, and AM265. Results of all of the tension, compression, and shear tests are provided in tables.
On the basis of a recently developed theory for finite sweptback wings at supersonic speeds, calculations of the supersonic wave drag at zero lift were made for a series of wings having thin symmetrical biconvex sections with untapered plan forms and various angles of sweepback and aspect ratios. The results are presented in a unified form so that a single chart permits the direct determination of the wave drag for this family of airfoils for an extensive range of aspect ratio and sweepback angle for stream Mach numbers up to a value corresponding to that at which the Mach line coincides with the wing leading edge. The calculations showed that in general the wave-drag coefficient decreased with increasing sweepback. At Mach numbers for which the Mach lines are appreciably ahead of the wing leading edge, the 'wave-drag coefficient decreased to an important extent with increases in aspect ratio or slenderness ratio. At Mach numbers for which the Mach lines approach the wing leading edge (Mach numbers approaching a value equal to the secant of the angle of sweepback), the wave-drag coefficient decreased with reductions in aspect ratio or slenderness ratio. In order to check the results obtained by the theory, a comparison was made with the results of tests at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of sweptback wing attached to a freely falling body. The variation of the drag with Mach number and aspect ratio as given by the theory appeared to be in reasonable.
In order to facilitate solutions of the general problem of helicopter selection, the aerodynamic performance of rotors is presented in the form of charts showing relations between primary design and performance variables. By the use of conventional helicopter theory, certain variables are plotted and other variables are considered fixed. Charts constructed in such a manner show typical results, trends, and limits of helicopter performance. Performance conditions considered include hovering, horizontal flight, climb, and ceiling. Special problems discussed include vertical climb and the use of rotor-speed-reduction gears for hovering.
Theoretical analysts of lateral dynamic motion of tailless and conventional airplanes was made for fighter and heavy transport. Their reactions to a lateral gust and control power required by each for simple maneuvers were determined and compared. Both types of airplanes require almost identical aileron control power to perform a given maneuver; tailless airplane requires about 1-2 to 1-3 directional control power of conventional airplane. Tailless airplane also shows greatest displacement for a given disturbance and has least damping in oscillatory mode.
Low Mach number longitudinal-stability and control characteristics as predicted by use of wind tunnel data from a powered 3/16-scale model are compared with flight test measurements of a Navy BTD-1 airplane. The accuracy of the wind tunnel data and the discrepancies involved in attempting to correlate with flight data are discussed and analyzed. The comparison showed that wind tunnel predictions were, in general, in good agreement with flight test data. The predicted values were for the most part sufficiently accurate to show the satisfactory and unsatisfactory characteristics in the preliminary design stage and to indicate possible methods of improvement. The discrepancies which did occur were attributed principally to physical dissimilarities between model and airplane and the instability to determine accurately the flight power conditions. The effect of Mach number was considered negligible since the maximum flight test value was about 0.5. In order to simulate more closely the flight conditions and hence obtain more accurate data for predictions, it appears desirable to perform large-scale tests of unorthodox control surfaces such as the sealed vaned elevators with which the airplane was equipped.
Computations were made to determine the temperature distribution and cooling of solid gas-turbine blades.A range of temperatures was used from 1500 degrees to 2500 degrees F, blade-root temperatures from 100 degrees to 1000 degrees F, blade thermal conductivity from 8 to 220 BTU/(hr)(sq ft)(degrees F/ft), and net gas to metal heat transfer coefficients from 75 to 250 BTU/(hr)(sq ft)(degrees F).
A theoretical analysis of the radial temperature distribution through the rotor and constant cross sectional area blades near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the rotor and blade temperatures of a specific turbine using a gas flow of 55 pounds per second, a coolant flow of 6.42 pounds per second, and an average coolant temperature of 200 degrees F. The effect of using kerosene, water, and ethylene glycol was determined. The effect of varying blade length and coolant passage lengths with water as the coolant was also determined. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.
An analysis was developed for calculating the radial temperature distribution in a gas turbine with only the temperatures of the gas and the cooling air and the surface heat-transfer coefficient known. This analysis was applied to determine the temperatures of a complete wheel of a conventional single-stage impulse exhaust-gas turbine. The temperatures were first calculated for the case of the turbine operating at design conditions of speed, gas flow, etc. and with only the customary cooling arising from exposure of the outer blade flange and one face of the rotor to the air. Calculations were next made for the case of fins applied to the outer blade flange and the rotor. Finally the effects of using part of the nozzles (from 0 to 40 percent) for supplying cooling air and the effects of varying the metal thermal conductivity from 12 to 260 Btu per hour per foot per degree Farenheit on the wheel temperatures were determined. The gas temperatures at the nozzle box used in the calculations ranged from 1600F to 2000F. The results showed that if more than a few hundred degrees of cooling of turbine blades are required other means than indirect cooling with fins on the rotor and outer blade flange would be necessary. The amount of cooling indicated for the type of finning used could produce some improvement in efficiency and a large increase in durability of the wheel. The results also showed that if a large difference is to exist between the effective temperature of the exhaust gas and that of the blade material, as must be the case with present turbine materials and the high exhaust-gas temperatures desired (2000F and above), two alternatives are suggested: (a) If metal with a thermal conductivity comparable with copper is used, then the blade temperature can be reduced ...
An investigation was conducted to correlate the engine service performance of cast Vitallium turbine buckets with standard laboratory metallurgical data. Data were obtained from four I-40 turbine wheels of Timken alloy with cast Vitallium buckets. In order to accelerate bucket deterioration, the turbine wheels were subjected to 20-minute cycles consisting of 5 minutes at idle and 15 minutes at rated speed. A bucket broke on the first wheel during cycle 22 after 7 hours and 20 minutes. The broken bucket was replaced and during the third cycle after the replacement a second bucket broke after a total running time of 8 hours and 12 minutes, The first bucket failure on the second wheel occurred during cycle 29 after 9 hours and 28 minutes; no further failure occurred during 66 additional cycles. Total running time on this wheel was 31 hours and 40 minutes. The third wheel was run for 229 cycles (76 hr and 20 min, total running time) without a. failure. The fourth wheel was operated for 105 cycles (35 hr, total running time) without a failure. Examination of the bro?en buckets indicated that the failures were probably due to fatigue, Massive eutectic areas that existed near the trailing edge probably contributed to the low fatigue strength.
A series of investigations of several 1/14-scale models of an inboard nacelle for the XB-36 airplane was made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels. The purpose of these investigations was to develop a low-drag wing-nacelle pusher combination which incorporated an internal air-flow system. As a result of these investigations, a nacelle was developed which had external drag coefficients considerably lower than the original basic form with the external nacelle drag approximately one-half to two-thirds of those of conventional tractor designs. The largest reductions in drag resulted from sealing the gaps between the wing flaps and nacelle, reducing the thickness of the nacelle training-edge lip, and bringing the under-wing air inlet to the wing leading edge. It was found that without the engine cooling fan adequate cooling air would be available for all conditions of flight except for cruise and climb at 40,000 feet. Sufficient oil cooling at an altitude of 40,000 feet may be obtained by the use of flap-type exit doors.
Report presenting the results of flight testing to determine the zero-lift drag of an NACA 65-009 airfoil at a specified aspect ratio. The results are compared to previous testing of unswept and swept-back arrangements. The swept-forward and swept-back airfoils were found to produce lower values of zero-drag lift than the unswept airfoil.
Report presenting the results of a study to determine the effect of rotation on the dynamic-stress distribution in vibrating cantilever beams. Both theoretical and experimental results are obtained by means of stroboscopic photographs and strain gauges. Both types of results indicated that the introduction of centrifugal force had no effect on the maximum dynamic-stress locations in a vibrating cantilever beam fixed at the center of rotation within the investigated speed range.
Tests of two-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(06.3)-06 and NACA 4-(3)(06.4)-09 blade designs (blade activity factors of 179 and 263, respectively) have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 70 degrees for free-stream Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to determine the effects of high solidity and compressibility on propeller characteristics. The tests are part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds. Results previously reported for similar tests of two-blade propellers having the NACA 4-308-03 and NACA 4-308-045 blade designs (blade activity factors of 87 and 133, respectively) are included for comparison. The results showed that the 0.06- and 0.09-solidity blades, although producing efficiencies of the order of 90 percent, were less efficient than blades of conventional solidity. The variation in average blade lift coefficient with solidity at a constant blade angle and advance-diameter ratio through the speed range of these tests was found to be analogous to the variation of wing lift coefficient with aspect ratio, indicating that high-solidity blades may be desirable at very high speeds. Because of power limitations of the test equipment, conclusive evidence of the possible favorable effects of increased blade solidity at high speeds was not obtained. Further tests are desirable.
Flight and ground investigations have been made to compare an exhaust-ejector installation with a standard exhaust-collector-ring installation on air-cooled aircraft engines in a twin-engine airplane. The ground investigation allowed that, whereas the standard engine would have overheated above 600 horsepower, the engine with exhaust ejectors cooled at take-off operating conditions at zero ram. The exhaust ejectors provided as much cooling with cowl flaps closed as the conventional cowl flaps induced when full open at low airspeeds. The propulsive thrust of the exhaust-ejector installation was calculated to be slightly less than the thrust of the collector-ring-installation.
Report presenting flight measurements of internal cockpit pressure in several fighter-type airplanes equipped with conventional or bubble canopies. Data are presented for variation in cockpit pressure with indicated airspeed and angle of sideslip for canopy-closed and canopy-open positions. A method is also included for predicting cockpit pressure in accelerated flight from measurements made in accelerated flight.
A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.
Formulas are presented for the calculation of the additional mass corrections to the moments of inertia of airplanes. These formulas are of particular value in converting the virtual moments of inertia of airplanes or models experimentally determined in air to the true moments of inertia. A correlation of additional moments of inertia calculated by these formulas with experimental additional moments of inertia obtained from vacuum chamber tests of 40 spin-tunnel models indicates that formulas give satisfactory estimations of the additional moments of inertia.
Report discussing an investigation of the DM-1 glider, which has an approximately triangular plan form, with auxiliary studies of a model of triangular wings. The pitching-moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and angle of attack with the lift coefficient are provided. Results indicated that the angles of descent without power are likely to be prohibitive and airplanes with the tested type of wings will not be able to land safely without power.
Based upon a simplified representation of the mode of operation of the pulse-jet tube, the effect of the influences mentioned in the title were investigated and it will be shown that, for a jet tube with a fccmndesigned to be aerodynamically favorable, the ability to operate is at least questionable. By taking into account the course of the development of pressure by combustion, a new insight has been obtained into the processes of motion within the jet tube, an insight that explains a number of empirical observations, namely: certain particulars of the sequence of pressure variations; the existence of an optimum valve-opening ratio; the occurrence of an intrusion of air; and the existence of a flight speed above lrhichthe jet tube ceases to operate. At too great an opening ratio or at too great a flight s-peed, the continuous flow through the tube is too predominant over the oscilla~ory process to perinitthe occurrence of an explosion powerful enough to maintain continuous operation. Certain possible means of making the operation of the jet tube more independent of the flight speed and of reducing the flow losses were proposed and discussed.
Based upon a simplified representation of the mode of operation of the pulse-jet tube, the effect of the influences mentioned in the title were investigated and it will be shown that, for a jet tube with a form designed to be aerodynamically favorable, the ability to operate is at least questionable. This investigation will account for the important practical observation made by Paul Schmidt that the ratio of the effective valve cross-sectional area to the tube cross section may not be of any random magnitude and will explain why at too great flight speeds the jet tube ceases to operate. Chemical an thermodynamic processes (for example, constituents or mode of fuel-air-mixture formation or heat losses) are unimportant in this regard.
The tests reported herein were made for the purpose of determining the high-speed load distribution on the wing of a 3/16 scale model of the Douglas XSB2D-1 airplane. Comparisons are made between the root bending moment and section torsional moment coefficients as obtained experimentally and derived analytically. The results show good correlation for the bending moment coefficients but considerable disagreement for the torsional moment coefficients, the measured moments being greater than the analytical moments. The effects of Mach number on both the bending moment and torsional moment coefficients were small.
This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.
Report presenting the application of dimensional analysis to the computation of the main bearing of a V-type in-line aircraft engine. Two crankshafts have been considered, one designed for higher operating speed than the other. Two types of engines are considered: one for regular V-type engines and one for production V-type engines.
A study of the relations existing among pin-point autoignition, homogeneous autoignition, and knock has been made by means of the NACA high-speed camera and the full-view combustion apparatus. High-speed photographic records of combustion, together with corresponding pressure-time traces, of benzene, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, S-4, and M-4 fuels at various engine conditions have shown the engine conditions under which each of these phenomena occur and the relation of these phenomena to one another.
An investigation was conducted to compare the knock-limited performance of a 20-percent triptane blend in 28-K fuel with that of 28-R and 33-R fuels at high engine speeds, cruising speeds, and two compression ratios in an K-1830-94 multicylinder engine, Data were obtained with the standard compression ratio of 6.7 and with a compression ratio of 3.0, The three fuels were investigated at engine speeds of 1800, 2250, 2600, and 2800 rpm at high and low blower ratios. A carburetor-air temperature of approximate1y 100 deg F was maintained for the multicylinder-engine runs, Data were obtained on a single R-1830-94 cylinder engine as a means of checking the multicylinder data at the higher speeds. A satisfactory correlation between average mixture temperature and knock-limited manifold pressure was obtained by plotting knock-limited manifold pressure against average mixture temperature for the whole range of engine speeds at constant carburetor air temperature and cylinder-head temperature. The single-cylinder knock-limited performance based on charge-air flow matched that of the multicylinder engine within 6 percent under all the conditions except for 28-R fuel at 2800 rpm; these curves differed from each other by 11 percent in the rich region. The knock rating of 33-R fuel was found to be a little higher than that of the 20-percent triptane blend and 26-R fuel at high mixture temperatures (above 210 deg F) and lean mixtures. The 33-R fuel exhibited rich knock limits appreciably lower than the 20-percent triptane blend, Increasing the compression ratio from 6.7 to 8.0 lowered the knock-limited manifold pressure for all fuels approximately 15 to 18 inches of mercury absolute in the cruising range and 20 to 28 inches of mercury absolute at higher engine speeds. Brake specific fuel consumption was reduced 7 to 9 percent by the increase in compression ratio from 6.7 to 8,0,.
Rim cracking in turbine wheels with welded blades was evaluated. The problem is explained on the basis of the occurrence of plastic flow in the rim during transient starting conditions when thermal compressive stresses resulting from high-temperature gradients exceed the proportional elastic limit of the material.
Report presenting the results of an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a rotating axial-flow blade grid with pressure-increasing effect. Several techniques of measurement were used, including pressure distribution measurements, pitot tubes, and hot wire wake surveys. Results regarding the lift and pressure drag of the blade sections, aerodynamic characteristics of the blade sections, profile drag, and static pressure are provided.
An untwisted wing, which when unswept has an NACA 65-210 section, an aspect ratio of 9.0 and a taper ration of 2.5:1.0, has been tested with no sweep, and 30 deg and 45 deg of sweepback and sweepforward in conjunction with a typical fuselage at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.96 at angles of attack generally between -2 deg and 10 deg in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. Sweep was obtained by rotating the wing semispans about a point in the plane of symmetry. The normal-force, pitching-moment, profile-drag, and loading characteristics for the wings have been obtained from pressure measurements and wake surveys. The results indicate that the wings with +/-30 deg of sweep experienced the severe changes in characteristics associated with the presence of a shock at higher Mach numbers then did the wing without sweep. The differences between the Mach numbers at which the changes occurred for the wings with +/-30 deg sweep and no sweep were generally slightly less than the factor 1/cosDelta(sub r) times the Mach numbers at which the changes occurred for the unswept wing, Delta(sub r) being the sweep angle. The wings with +/-45 deg of sweep did not experience the changes in the characteristics associated with the presence of shock at an angle of attack of 2 deg at Mach numbers up to the highest test value. The magnitudes of changes in the normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients that occurred were less for the wing with 30 deg of sweep than for the unswept wing. The use of sweepforward was superior to sweepback in delaying and reducing the changes in the normal-force coefficients, but was inferior in delaying and reducing the changes in the profile-drag coefficients. Increasing the Mach number to the highest test values had little effect on the positions of the center ...
An investigation of the antiknock effectiveness of various additive-water solutions when used as internal coolants has been conducted at the NACA Cleveland laboratory. Nine compounds have been previously run in a CFR engine and the results are presented. In an effort to find a good anti-knock-coolant additive with more desirable physical properties than those of the nine compounds previously investigated, water solutions of four alkyl amines, three alkanolamines, six amides, and eight heterocyclic compounds were investigated and the results are presented.
The XF-12 airplane is a high-performance photo-reconnaissance aircraft designed for the Army Air Forces by the Republic Aviation Corporation. An investigation of a 1/8.33 - scale powered model was made in the Langley l9-foot pressure tunnel to obtain information relative to the aerodynamic design of the airplane. The model was tested with and without the original vertical tail. and with two revised tails. For the revised tail no. 1, the span of the original vertical .tail was increased about 15 percent and the portion of the vertical tail between the stabilizer and fuselage behind the rudder hinge line was allowed to deflect simultaneously with the main rudder. Revision no. 2 incorporated the increased span, but the lower rudder was locked in the neutral position. For all the tail arrangements investigated it was indicated that the airplane will possess positive effective dihedral and will be directionally stable regardless of flap or power condition. The rudder effectiveness is greater for the revised tails than for the original tail, but this is offset by the increase in directional stability caused by the revised tail. All the rudder arrangements appear inadequate in trimming out the resultant yawing moments at zero yaw in a take - off condition with the left-hand outboard propeller windmilling and the remaining engines developing take-off power.
From Summary: "An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric."
In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.
Report presenting an investigation of the strength and stiffness characteristics of noncircular aluminum alloy sections loaded to failure in torsion. Results regarding torque-twist and torque-stress curves and stress-distribution diagrams are provided.
The characteristics introduced by the turbulence in the process of the flame propagation are considered. On the basis of geometrical and dimensional considerations an expression is obtained for the velocity of the flame propagation in a flow of large scale of turbulence.
Proceeding from the thesis by W. Kinner the present report treats the problem of the circular airfoil in uniform airflow executing small oscillations, the amplitudes of which correspond to whole functions of the second degree in x and y. The pressure distribution is secured by means of Prandtl's acceleration potential. It results in a system of linear equations the coefficients of which can be calculated exactly with the aid of exponential functions and Hankel's functions. The equations necessary are derived in part I; the numerical calculation follows in part II.
Report presenting an investigation to determine the effects of loading on the performance of axial-flow fan and compressor blades in a test blower. Results regarding verification of the two-dimensional design data and effects of blade roughness are provided.
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