From Summary: "The heat losses from the envelope surface of a U.S. Navy K-type airship are evaluated to determine if the use of heat is a feasible means of preventing ice and snow accumulations on lighter-than-air craft during flight and when moored uncovered. Consideration is given to heat losses in clear air (no liquid water present in the atmosphere) and in probable conditions of icing and snow. The results of the analysis indicate that the amount of heat required in flight to raise the surface temperature of the entire envelope to the extent considered adequate for ice protection, based on experience with tests of heavier-than-air craft, is very large."
Spin tests of a 1/16-scale model of the Chance Vought XF5U-1 airplane have been performed in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effect of control position and movement upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics ae well as the effects of propellers, of stability flaps, and of various revisions to the design configuration have been determined for the normal fighter loading. The investigation also included spin recovery parachute, tumbling, and pilot-escape tests. For the original design configuration, with or without windmilling propellers, the recovery characteristics of the model were considered unsatisfactory. Increasing the maximum upward deflection of the ailavators from 45 deg to 65 deg resulted in greatly improved recovery characteristics. Dimensional revisions to the original airplane configuration, which satisfactorily improved the general spin and recovery characteristics of the model, consisted of: (1) a supplementary vertical tail 34 inches by 59 inches (full-scale) attached to a boom 80 inches aft of the trailing edge of the airplane in the plane of symmetry, (2) a large semispan undersurface spoiler placed along the airplane quarter-chord line and opened on the outboard side in a spin, or (3) two additional vertical tails 64 inches by 52 inches (full-scale) located at the tips of the ailavators. A satisfactory parachute arrangement for emergency spin recovery from demonstration spins was found to be an arrangement consisting of a 13.3-foot parachute attached by a 30-foot towline to the arresting gear mast on the airplane and opened simultaneously with an 8-foot parachute on the outboard end of the wing attached by a 3-foot towline. Tests indicated that pilot escape from a spin would be extremely hazardous unless the pilot is mechanically ejected from the cockpit. Model tumbling tests indicated that the airplane would not tumble.
Solutions of impact of a rigid prismatic float connected by a massless spring to a rigid upper mass are presented. The solutions are based on hydrodynamic theory which has been experimentally confirmed for a rigid structure. Equations are given for defining the spring constant and the ratio of the sprung mass to the lower mass so that the two-mass system provides representation of the fundamental mode of an airplane wing. The forces calculated are more accurate than the forces which would be predicted for a rigid airframe since the effect of the fundamental mode on the hydrodynamic force is taken into account. In a comparison of the theoretical data with data for a severe flight-test landing impact, the effect of the fundamental mode on the hydrodynamic force is considered and response data are compared with experimental data.
Report presenting an investigation in the 18- by 18-inch supersonic tunnel to determine design conditions for optimum performance of shock diffusers at Mach number 1.85 with a series of projecting single-shock cones with varying angles. Each cone was tested with a curved and a straight diffuser-inlet section. The effect of angle of attack was investigated for several configurations.
Report presenting an investigation in the 18- by 18-inch supersonic tunnel to determine the total-pressure recovery obtainable at Mach number 1.85 with a shock diffuser with projective cones designed to produce two oblique shocks ahead of the diffuser inlet. The variation of total-pressure recovery with tip projection was investigated for four cones with different included angles. A maximum total-pressure recovery of 94.5 percent was attained with the best configuration at an angle of 0 degrees.
An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee XB-53 airplane has been conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. In the investigation it was found that with flaps neutral satisfactory flight behavior at low speeds was obtainable with an increase in height of the vertical tail and with the inboard slats opened. In the flap-down slat-open condition the longitudinal stability was satisfactory, but it was impossible to obtain satisfactory lateral-flight characteristics even with the increase in height of the vertical tail because of the negative effective dihedral, low directional stability, and large-adverse yawing moments of the ailerons.
Report presenting testing in the 300 mph 7- by 10-foot tunnel of an airplane model with a 42.8 degree sweptback wing with an aspect ratio 4.00, taper ratio 0.50, a 42.8 degree sweptback horizontal tail, and a 40.3 degree sweptback vertical tail to determine the low-speed lateral stability and control characteristics. Some changes made to improve the aerodynamic characteristics included lowering the wing, incorporating a smaller-fineness-ratio fuselage, and increasing the vertical tail size. Results regarding various configurations, including the semihigh wing with large fuselage, low wing with large fuselage, low wing with small fuselage and small vertical tail, and low wing with small fuselage and large vertical tail are provided.
Report presenting testing of an airplane model with a 42.8 degree sweptback wing with an aspect ratio of 4.00, taper ratio of 0.50, and a 42.8 degree sweptback horizontal tail, and a 40.3 degree sweptback vertical tail to determine its low-speed longitudinal stability and control characteristics. Other variables investigated include the vertical-wing location, fuselage size, horizontal-tail location, and stall-control vanes on the wing.
Report presenting a method for predicting the stability of automatically controlled aircraft by comparing the calculated frequency-response curves for the aircraft and experimentally determined frequency-response curves for the automatic pilot. The method is applicable only to stabilization in roll. It can be used to establish the specifications of performance required for the automatic control device for pilotless aircraft designed as missiles.
Report presenting a method for predicting the stability of automatically controlled aircraft by a comparison of calculated frequency-response curves for the aircraft and experimentally determined frequency-response curves for the automatic pilot. The method is expected to be useful to establish the specifications of the performance required of the automatic control device for pilotless aircraft designed as missiles.
From Summary: "At the request of the Air Material Command, Arm Air Forces, an investigation was conducted at the NACA Cleveland laboratory to determine the performance characteristics of the XJ-41-V turbojet-engine compressor. The complete compressor was mounted on a collecting chamber having an annular air-flow passage simulating the burner annulus of the engine and was driven by an electric motor. The compressor was extensively instrumented to determine the overall performance of the compressor, the characteristic performance of each of the compressor components, the state of the air stream in the simulated burner annulus, and the operation of the compressor bearings."
At the request of the Air Materiel Command, Army Air Forces, an investigation of the low-speed, power-off, stability and control characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane has been conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The results of the portion of the investigation consisting of tests of a 1/10-scale model to study the stability of the XP-85 when attached to the trapeze and during retraction into the B-36 bomb bay are presented herein. In the power-off condition the stability was satisfactory with all oscillations well damped and the nose-restraining collar could be placed in position without difficulty. In a simulated power-on condition the model had a constant-amplitude rolling and sidewise motion and when the collar was layered, a violent motion resulted if the collar struck the model but failed to hold it in the proper manner. Folding of the wings and retraction into the bomb bay offered no problem once the airplane was properly held by the collar. It is recommended that the power be cut immediately after hooking on and that a restricting mechanism be incorporated in the center of the trapeze to eliminate the sidewise motion. It also appears desirable to have the retracting procedure controlled by the XP-85 pilot or an observer in the mother ship to insure that the parasite is in proper position after hooking up before bringing the collar down.
Tests of a powered dynamic model of the Columbia XJL-1 amphibian were made in Langley tank no.1 to determine the hydrodynamic stability and spray characteristics of the basic hull and to investigate the effects of modifications on these characteristics. Modifications to the forebody chime flare, the step, and the afterbody, and an increase in the angle of incidence of the wing were included in the test program. The seaworthiness and spray characteristics were studied from simulated taxi runs in smooth and rough water. The trim limits of stability, the range of stable positions of the enter of gravity for take-off, and the landing stability were determined in smooth water. The aerodynamic lift, pitching moment, and thrust were determined at speeds up to take-off speed.
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