Environmental Policy Collection - 896 Matching Results

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Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened concerns about the region's future. Issues such as Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers attracts congressional attention because its projects can have significant local and regional economic benefits and environmental effects, in addition to their water resource development purposes. This report provides an overview of the Corps civil works program. It covers the congressional authorization and appropriation process, the standard project development process, and other Corps activities and authorities. It also includes an Appendix on the evolution of Corps civil works missions and authorities and a description of the limits on the Corps' role in levee accreditation and improvements for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues
This report focuses on the mandated minimum usage requirements - referred to as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) - whereby a minimum volume of biofuels is to be used in the national transportation fuel supply each year. It describes the general nature of the biofuels RFS and its implementation, and outlines some of the emerging issues related to the sustainability of the continued growth in U.S. biofuels production needed to fulfill the expanding RFS mandate, as well as the emergence of potential unintended consequences of this rapid expansion. This report does not address the broader public policy issue of how best to support U.S. energy policy.
Seafood Safety: Background and Issues
Although seafood consumption can contribute to a healthy diet, some fish and shellfish can cause foodborne illnesses or contain environmental contaminants. This report discusses whether current food safety programs are sufficiently protecting consumers, and if not, what changes should be considered.
Convention for the Protection of Plants : message from the President of the United States transmitting the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants of December 2, 1961, as revised at Geneva on November 10, 1972, on October 23, 1978, and on March 19, 1991, and signed by the United States on October 25, 1991
This treaty takes action to control the introduction and spread of pests of plants and plant products. The treaty protects natural as well as cultivated plants, so it has implications for agriculture as well as biodiversity. While the IPPC's primary focus is on plants and plant products moving in international trade, the convention also covers research materials, biological control organisms, and anything else that can act as a vector for the spread of plant pests including containers, soil, vehicles, and machinery.
Protocol amending the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds : message from the President of the United States transmitting a protocol between the United States and Canada amending the 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory birds in Canada and the United States, with related exchange of notes, signed at Washington on December 14, 1995
This treaty is an amendment between the United States and Canada to the statute making it unlawful to pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill or sell certain birds. The statute does not discriminate between live or dead birds and also grants full protection to any bird parts including feathers, eggs and nests.
South Pacific Regional Environment Programme Agreement : message from the President of the United States transmitting agreement establishing the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, done at Apia on June 16, 1993
The South Pacific Regional Environment Programme is to promote cooperation in the South Pacific islands region and to provide assistance in order to protect and improve the environment and to ensure sustainable development.
Inter-American Convention on Sea Turtles : message from the President of the United States transmitting Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, with annexes, done at Caracas December 1, 1996, (The "Convention"), which was signed by the United States, subject to ratification on December 13, 1996
This treaty provides the legal framework for member countries in the Americas and the Caribbean to take actions for the benefit of sea turtles
International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) : message from the President of the United States transmitting International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), adopted at the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations at Rome on November 17, 1997.
This treaty updates a previous international agreement aimed at promoting international cooperation to control and prevent the spread of harmful plant pests.
Agreement with Russian Federation concerning polar bear population : message from the President of the United States transmitting Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Conservation and Management of the Alaska-Chukotka Polar Bear Population, done at Washington on October 16, 2000.
This treaty is an agreement between the United States and Russia to work towards a legal and scientific frame work for the conservation and management of polar bears .
Protocol amending 1949 Convention of Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission : message from the President of the United States transmitting protocol to amend the 1949 Convention on the Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, done at Guayaquil, June 11, 1999, and signed by the United States, subject to ratification, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, on the same date
This treaty allows organizations that are not governments of states to join the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Convention, and be subject to its conservation and management protocols.
Agreement amending treaty with Canada concerning Pacific Coast albacore tuna vessels and port privileges : message from the President of the United States transmitting agreement amending treaty between the government of the United States of America and the government of Canada on Pacific Coast albacore tuna vessels and port privileges done at Washington, D.C., May 26, 1981 (The "Treaty"), effected by an exchange of diplomatic notes at Washington on July 17, 2002, and August 13, 2002 (The "Agreement")
This document amends a treaty between the United States and Canada to manage tuna fishing.
Amendments to 1987 Treaty on Fisheries with Pacific Island States : message from the President of the United States transmitting amendments to the 1987 Treaty on Fisheries Between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America, with annexes and agreed statements, done at Port Moresby, April 2, 1987 (The "Treaty"), done at Koror, Palau, March 30, 1999, and at Kiritimati, Kiribati, March 24, 2002 : also transmitted, related amendments to the treaty annexes, and the memorandum of understanding
This treaty further develops relationships between the United States and Pacific nations in the areas of fisheries management and conservation.
Agreement with Canada on Pacific hake/whiting : message from the President of the United States transmitting agreement between the government of the United States of America and the government of Canada on Pacific hake/whiting (the "agreement"), done at Seattle, November 21, 2003
This treaty establishes agreed percentage shares of the trans-boundary stock of Pacific hake, also known as Pacific whiting. It also creates a process through which U.S. and Canadian scientists and fisheries managers will recommend the total catch of Pacific hake each year.
Protocol with Mexico amending Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals : message from the President of the United States transmitting a protocol between the government of the United States of America and the government of the United Mexican States amending the Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, signed at Mexico City on May 5, 1997
This treaty between the United States and Mexico deals with hunting ducks and collecting duck eggs by indigenous people in North America. This treaty amends the Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Canada and the United States.
Arbor day, its purpose and observance.
Discusses Arbor Day as a holiday that recognizes the importance of United States forests and discusses a citizen's duty to preserve them and foster new growth of trees.
Soil and water conservation in the Pacific Northwest.
Describes types of erosion and methods for preventing the erosion of soil by water and wind.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes.
Describes the importance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria on crops of legumes.
.China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change —The Progress Report 2009
Chinese government published the White Paper on China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change, stating the policies and actions that the country had adopted for addressing climate change as well as the progresses. To follow up, this report will briefly describe the latest progresses that China has achieved in addressing climate change since 2008.
Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge to 2050
Climate change is already with us. Scientific evidence shows that past emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are already affecting the Earth’s climate.Without further policies to combat climate change, the OECD projects GHG emissions will grow by about 52% by 2050.This Policy Brief highlights the OECD’s work on the likely impact of various courses of action to mitigate climate change, and the costs of inaction.
.CHINA’S PEACEFUL DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: A LEGAL PERSPECTIVE
.Climate Change Issues during China’s Peaceful Development and its International Impact. International Law on Climate Change Involved in China’s Peaceful Development. Policy and Legal Reactions to Climate Change involved in China’s peaceful Development.
China’s National Climate Change Programme
Government of China hereby formulates China’s National Climate Change Programme, outlining objectives, basic principles, key areas of actions, as well as policies and measures to address climate change for the period up to 2010. Guided by the Scientific Approach of Development, China will sincerely carry out all the tasks in the CNCCP, strive to build a resource conservative and environmentally friendly society, enhance national capacity to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and make further contribution to the protection of the global climate system.
Investment and Growth from Climate Action A Briefing by CDP to Support the EU 2030 Climate and Energy Package
CDP has created this briefing confident that it will provide a useful further contribution to these policy debates.The briefing is launched alongside its global report ‘The A List: The CDP Climate Performance Leadership Index 2014’. CDP’s Climate Performance Leadership Index (CPLI) is an index highlighting companies that exhibit leadership through their actions to mitigate climate change.
A Balancing Act: China’s Role in Climate Change
Climate change has reached the apex of the global agenda at a time when China faces significant development and energy security challenges. The political leadership and leading intellectuals are debating the direction of a new development pathway that provides both growth to meet development objectives, and dramatically reduces energy intensity and pollution. While the official position has not changed significantly, there are four key aspects that illustrate how climate change is conceived by the Chinese leadership. This signals that China may come to play a much more important role in global mitigation of climate change than was thought only a couple of years ago.
CLIMATE CHANGE 2014 SYNTHESIS REPORT
This Synthesis Report is based on the reports of the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), including relevant Special Reports. It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). This summary follows the structure of the longer report, which addresses the following topics: Observed changes and their causes; Future climate change, risks and impacts; Future pathways for adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development; Adaptation and mitigation.
.China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change
.China has formulated and implemented its national climate change programme, and adopted a series of policies and measures in this regard. China addresses climate change in the context of implementing sustainable development strategy, combined with its accelerated steps to build a resource-conserving and environmental-friendly society and an innovation-oriented country.
Climate Change Mitigation and Green Growth in Developing Asia
Developing Asia is the driver of today’s emissions intensive global economy. As the principal source of future emissions, the region is critical to the task of global climate change mitigation. Reflecting this global reality and a range of related domestic issues, the governments of the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Viet Nam have embarked upon an ambitious policy agenda. This report reviews the present and future policy settings for climate change mitigation and green growth in Asia’s major emerging economies. Although recent targets and commitments will involve a fundamental change in emissions trajectories, the urgency and extent of necessary global action requires ambition to be raised even further in developing Asia. An additional transformation will be required for the trajectory of emissions and energy demand, as well as the future composition of the power generation mix. Achieving these transformations will not be easy. There are a substantial number of policy instruments available, yet significant obstacles stand in the way of their effective deployment. Governments face a number of policy challenges, including: energy sector reform, economic reform, strengthening institutional capacity, and securing international support. The principal conclusion of this analysis is that the task facing Asia’s policymakers is not simply one of setting targets and pursuing narrowly focused policies to reach them. Rather, a broad–scale approach involving all sections of the economy and government will be required to achieve the shift to a sustainable, low-emissions development trajectory.
Second National Communication on Climate Change of The People’s Republic of China
The Second National Communication on Climate Change of the People’s Republic of China, is divided into 8 parts with relevant chapters underneath: national circumstances, national GHG inventory, climate change impacts and adaptation, policies and actions for climate change mitigation.
Scoping assessment of knowledge needs in climate change adaptation in China
The goal of this review is to identify ways to strengthen the links between scientific and technical knowledge with action on climate change adaptation. The study focuses on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and rural development, the two sectors thought to be most vulnerable. It draws on a literature review for context, but employs case study research as its main methodology.
Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia
Contrary to popular perception, ECA faces significant threats from climate change, with a number of the most serious risks already in evidence. Vulnerability over the next ten to twenty years will be dominated by socio‐economic factors and legacy issues. Even countries and sectors that stand to benefit from climate change are poorly positioned to do so. The next decade offers a window of opportunity for ECA countries to make their development more resilient to climate change while reaping numerous co‐benefits.
China Climate Change Partnership Framework
.Mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation into national and sub-national policies, planning, and investment frameworks. Establishment of innovative partnerships and dissemination of dissemination of technologies to mitigate climate change and increase local access to sustainable energy. Accelerated action by China in assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation plans and mechanisms.
China and Climate Change: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement
The aim of this report is to provide strategic guidance to U.S. policymakers on engaging China on climate change. In the first section, I set the context by discussing China’s energy use, emissions, and future projections, including potential emissions reductions and trajectories under different policies. In section two, I review China’s recent policies to address climate change and energy conservation. I focus on the status of implementation of its energy-efficiency goals under its 11th Five Year Plan. I also anticipate future developments in Chinese energy and climate policy. Finally, in section three, I propose a strategy for U.S. engagement of China on climate change.
Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Forecast and Policy Recommendations Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction in Alaska
This report describes potential mitigation measures to include in a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Alaska. The report states that each of the measures requires further study.
Technology Transfer to China to Address Climate Change Mitigation
This paper analyzes whether and how transfer of climate mitigation technologies to China occurs, by studying cases of seven technologies that are at the stage of deployment or diffusion. Most of these technologies were already transferred to China in terms of both technology adoption and local production. International division of labor of manufacturing and localization policies by the Chinese government facilitated local production by China, which resulted in deep cuts in production costs. Such cost reduction, coupled with technology diffusion policies by the Chinese government, then accelerated deployment and diffusion in China and other emerging economies that import Chinese products.
PROGRESS ON ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AN ANALYSIS OF BROAD TRENDS
This paper provides an assessment of broad trends in progress on assessment and implementation of adaptation to climate change in “developed countries”, defined here as being Member states of the OECD and/or Parties listed under Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Primary inputs to this analysis are the National Communications (NCs) by these countries to the UNFCCC. NCs follow a standardised reporting format which facilitates cross-national comparison. They also reflect “whole government” perspectives. At the same time, however, the coverage of particular issues within these documents need not be comprehensive, nor might it necessarily reflect policy priorities on the ground. Therefore, this paper also examines other policies and projects which highlight progress on implementing adaptation, but which have not been reflected in the NCs.
Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change -Summary for Policymakers
The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) assesses literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group III contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) and previous reports and incorporates subsequent new findings and research. The report also assesses mitigation options at different levels of governance and in different economic sectors, and the societal implications of different mitigation policies, but does not recommend any particular option for mitigation
China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change 2011
.The Chinese government constantly sets great store by the issue of climate change and has included addressing climate change into its mid- and long-term planning for economic and social development as a major issue concerning its overall economic and social development.
Finacial Institutions Taking Action on Climate Change
This report details finance sector leadership actions and their contribution to solving the climate change challenge across the following six areas: 1. Low carbon and energy efficiency finance and investing, 2. Emissions reducing finance and investing, 3. Adaptation finance and investing, 4. Measurement and transparency, 5. Engagement with companies, 6. Engagement with policy makers.
China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change (2012)
The Chinese government attaches great importance to the issue of climate change.It defines the objectives, tasks and policy orientation of China’s response to climate change over the next five years and identifies key tasks, including controlling greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to climate change, and strengthening international cooperation.
The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review
The study examines climate change issues in Southeast Asia, with a particular focus on Indonesia,Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.The study is intended to enrich the debate on the economics of climate change that includes the economic costs and benefits of unilateral and regional actions. It seeks to raise awareness among stakeholders of the urgency of the grave challenges facing the region, and to build consensus of the governments, business sectors, and civil society on the need for incorporating daptation and mitigation measures into national development planning processes.
China in the International Politics of Climate Change: A Foreign Policy Analysis
This report looks into the developments in China’s political response to the threat of climate change from the late 1980s when the problem emerged on the international political agenda, until 2004. Three theoretically based explanatory models are employed to identify the factors that have influenced Chinese foreign policy-making on climate change in the past, and furthermore how these factors are likely to influence China’s future climate change policy. The three models emphasize respectively: national interests in terms of costs and benefits; domestic political bargaining; and learning through diffusion of knowledge and norms.
Making choices over China: EU-China co-operation on energy and climate
Effective EU-China co-operation is critical to delivering a good deal at Copenhagen and to ensuring ongoing progress towards global decarbonisation. Europe and China are economically and politically interdependent, and have strikingly similar energy and climate change policies. As its largest investor, trade partner and provider of technology, Europe has a strong stake in China’s success.The EU and China should increase the status of energy and climate change in their bilateral relationship. This will require the progressive alignment of the EU’s and the individual member-states climate policies towards China, behind a common European strategy. The 2009 EU-China summit must deliver agreement on some key flagship co-operation projects in order to build China’s trust in the EU as an effective partner.
Assessing the Costs of Climate Change and Adaptation in South Asia
.This Asian Development Bank (ADB) study examined the economic costs associated with the impacts of climate change and the cost and benefits of adaptation in Bangladesh,Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. The study aimed to (i) assess the biophysical impacts of climate change in the region, including individual country impacts, and (ii) estimate the total economic loss to the countries in the region by 2100, taking into account the different scenarios and impacts projected across vulnerable sectors, and then to estimate the magnitude of funding for adaptation measures required to avert such potential losses. Results of the study will aid development of future policies and programs for climate change adaptation in the region, including initiatives for regional cooperation and capacity building in climate change management. The study covered the following sectors: agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, water, marine and coastal resources (except Bhutan and Nepal), health, and energy.
.China’s Climate-Change Policy 1988-2011: From Zero to Hero?
.This report describes the evolution of China’s domestic climate-change policy over the period 1988-2011, using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to explore the policy change. Policy development has been gradual, with the most notable change occurring in 2007, when the National Climate Change Programme elevated climate change to a national policy issue.The ACF points to socioeconomic development and the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition’s policy-oriented learning as explanations for the development of climate-change policy in China.
China’s Scientific & Technological Actions on Climate Change
.The China’s National Climate Change Programme clearly states that climate change issue shall be addressed through S&T advances and innovations, and that strengthening S&T is a major initiative in response to climate change at the national level. In order to implement the key tasks identified in the Outline for S&T Development, to provide S&T support to the CNCCP Programme, to coordinate climate change-related scientific research and technological development, and to enhance the comprehensive S&T capacity in response to climate change. China’s Scientific & Technological Actions on Climate Change
Japan's Climate Change Policies
Japan in Global GHG emissions, International negotiations, Framework for achieving the Kyoto Target, Mid- and Long-term mitigation actions.
China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change (2013)
.Chinese government has been accelerating the development of major strategic research and planning and strengthening top-level design, and has taken a series of actions to address climate change,with positive results. China continues to play a positive and constructive role in international climate change negotiations and has pushed for positive outcomes and international dialogues and cooperation at the Doha Climate Change Conference, thereby making a significant contribution to addressing global climate change.
Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report
This Synthesis Report is based on the reports of the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), including relevant Special Reports. It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). This summary follows the structure of the longer report, which addresses the following topics: Observed changes and their causes; Future climate change, risks and impacts; Future pathways for adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development; Adaptation and mitigation.
Climate Change Plans and Infrastructure in Asian Cities: a Survey of Plans and Priorities
The objectives of the survey of Asian cities are to determine:the status of climate change and other relevant plans for Asian cities and their focus on climate change adaptation versus mitigation, Where demand for climate change related infrastructure projects exists based on these plans, The role of development agencies and other development partners in prioritizing, planning and investing in urban infrastructure.