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100% Renewable Energy - and Beyond - for Cities
This booklet sketches out the options and the processes that have started to transform urban energy systems. The document promotes carbon neutrality for communities and cities and argues that even the largest cities can make this transition, drawing on renewable energy supplies from within their boundaries, as well as from farther away. In addition to assuring urban energy security, these developments can also stimulate the growth of a very large new green economy sector.
2010 Forest Carbon Workgroup: Final Report
This document provides a detailed report and recommendations of the 2010 Forest Carbon Work group to the Director of the Department of Ecology and the Commissioner of Public Lands. The recommendations relate to the critical role Washington’s forest lands will play in addressing the challenge of climate change; appropriate responses to pressure for conversion of working forest lands to non-forest uses; and the role of ecosystem service markets, including carbon offset markets, and other incentive systems in bringing about desired results. The 2010 Work group included some members of a similar 2008 Work group and built on the results of that 2008 effort. The report appendix contains purpose statements by each participating interest, explaining its rationale for participation. In light of the 2010 Work group emphasis, this document focused on three topics: Forest carbon considerations in avoiding forest land use conversion; incentives to reward forest landowners for providing ecosystem services, including carbon storage and improvement of forest health; and features of forest carbon offset protocols and registries that are appropriate for use by forest offset project developers in Washington State.
Active Climate Legislative Commissions and Executive Branch Advisory Groups
This map shows states with government bodies that study the impacts of climate change and recommend policies for mitigation and adaptation.
Administering Green Programs in Congress: Issues and Options
This report discusses "green" programs and the higher profile they have gained since the 110th Congress. "Green" programs are those designed to create an environmentally friendly work environment and conserve energy. This report discusses initiatives and policy options that would improve the "greening" process on Capitol Hill.
Africa Adaptation Programme: An insight into AAP and Country project Profiles
The Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) has been designed to support the long-term efforts of targeted countries to further develop their capability to successfully identify, design and implement holistic adaptation and disaster risk reduction programmes that are aligned with national development priorities. This report provides insight into the Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) and its related country project profiles. The AAP has shifted into implementation, with Namibia and Tunisia as the first countries to complete national inception workshops. Eighteen out of the total twenty programme countries will complete national inception processes and start full-fledged implementation in the coming months.
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section.
Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage
This paper analyze the possible effects of implementing all high end pledges put forward by countries under the Copenhagen Accord. Among other analysis, the report predict that, (if the Copenhagen Accord would be fully implemented), the world could bridge a major part of the required efforts by 2020 in order to keep average global temperature increase below 2ºC. However, the report also argue that most high end targets are conditional on others taking similar action, on a legally binding international agreement or on the need for further international financial or technical support making their degree of implementation uncertain.
Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage
This paper responds to the mandate given in the Emissions Trading Directive (EU ETS directive, Article 10b) to the Commission to submit by end of June 2010 an analytical report assessing the situation of energy-intensive sectors that have been determined to be exposed to significant risks of carbon leakage in the light of the international negotiations.
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers attracts congressional attention because its projects can have significant local and regional economic benefits and environmental effects, in addition to their water resource development purposes. This report provides an overview of the Corps civil works program. It covers the congressional authorization and appropriation process, the standard project development process, and other Corps activities and authorities. It also includes an Appendix on the evolution of Corps civil works missions and authorities and a description of the limits on the Corps' role in levee accreditation and improvements for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
Assessing the Costs of Climate Change and Adaptation in South Asia
.This Asian Development Bank (ADB) study examined the economic costs associated with the impacts of climate change and the cost and benefits of adaptation in Bangladesh,Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. The study aimed to (i) assess the biophysical impacts of climate change in the region, including individual country impacts, and (ii) estimate the total economic loss to the countries in the region by 2100, taking into account the different scenarios and impacts projected across vulnerable sectors, and then to estimate the magnitude of funding for adaptation measures required to avert such potential losses. Results of the study will aid development of future policies and programs for climate change adaptation in the region, including initiatives for regional cooperation and capacity building in climate change management. The study covered the following sectors: agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, water, marine and coastal resources (except Bhutan and Nepal), health, and energy.
Biodiversity Delivering Results
The publication showcases the achievements and results from UNDP projects undertaken around the world. It highlights UNDP efforts, funded by GEF, to mainstream biodiversity issues, build institutional capacity around the world, and support the implementation of the Program of Work on Protected Areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Biomass Feedstocks for Biopower: Background and Selected Issues
The production of bioenergy - renewable energy derived from biomass - could potentially increase national energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and contribute to rural economic growth. This report provides analyses of commonly discussed biomass feedstocks and their relative potential for power generation. Additional biopower issues - feedstock accessibility, the biomass power plant carbon-neutrality debate, and unintended consequences of legislative activities to promote bioenergy - are also discussed.
Bird Species and Climate Change: The Global Status Report: A synthesis of Current Scientific Understanding of Anthropogenic Climate Change Impacts on Global Bird Species Now, and Projected Future Effects
This review seeks to provide a global overview of current effects of climate change on birds as well as a picture of future impacts. It provides a scientific assessment of current research data, achieved by surveying hundreds of research articles and reports on the topic.
Bird Species and Climate Change: The Global Status Report: A synthesis of current scientific understanding of anthropogenic climate change impacts on global bird species now, and projected future effects
This review seeks to provide a global overview of current effects of climate change on birds as well as a picture of future impacts. It provides a scientific assessment of current research data, achieved by surveying hundreds of research articles and reports on the topic.
Blending Climate Finance Through National Climate Funds: A Guidebook for the Design and Establishment of National Funds to Achieve Climate Change Priorities
The guidebook provides an overview of NCFs and outlines six key components that are critical for the effective design and establishment of an NCF. It also presents a method for consolidating the decisions around these components into a term sheet that can help to facilitate stakeholder engagement for a robust and transparent design process.
Blue Carbon - First Level Exploration of Blue Carbon in the Arabian Peninsula
Healthy natural coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, saltwater marshlands and seagrass meadows provide a vast array of important co-benefits to coastal communities around the world, including throughout the Arabian Peninsula. These benefits include ecosystem services such as a rich cultural heritage; the protection of shorelines from storms; erosion or sea-level rise; food from fisheries; maintenance of water quality; and landscape beauty for recreation and ecotourism. In a Blue Carbon context these ecosystems also store and sequester potentially vast amounts of carbon in sediments and biomass.
A Blueprint for Ocean And Coastal Sustainability: An Inter-Agency Report Towards the Preparation of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)
"A Blueprint for Ocean and Coastal Sustainability", jointly prepared by UNDP’s Water & Ocean Governance Programme, IOC/UNESCO, FAO and IMO, contextualizes and sets forth a series of ten tangible proposals to shift the oceans management paradigm towards sustainability, and is intended to inform and influence possible Rio+20 outcomes on oceans.
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened concerns about the region's future. Issues such as Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
China and Climate Change: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement
The aim of this report is to provide strategic guidance to U.S. policymakers on engaging China on climate change. In the first section, I set the context by discussing China’s energy use, emissions, and future projections, including potential emissions reductions and trajectories under different policies. In section two, I review China’s recent policies to address climate change and energy conservation. I focus on the status of implementation of its energy-efficiency goals under its 11th Five Year Plan. I also anticipate future developments in Chinese energy and climate policy. Finally, in section three, I propose a strategy for U.S. engagement of China on climate change.
.China’s Climate-Change Policy 1988-2011: From Zero to Hero?
.This report describes the evolution of China’s domestic climate-change policy over the period 1988-2011, using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to explore the policy change. Policy development has been gradual, with the most notable change occurring in 2007, when the National Climate Change Programme elevated climate change to a national policy issue.The ACF points to socioeconomic development and the Climate Change Advocacy Coalition’s policy-oriented learning as explanations for the development of climate-change policy in China.
China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change 2011
.The Chinese government constantly sets great store by the issue of climate change and has included addressing climate change into its mid- and long-term planning for economic and social development as a major issue concerning its overall economic and social development.
China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change (2012)
The Chinese government attaches great importance to the issue of climate change.It defines the objectives, tasks and policy orientation of China’s response to climate change over the next five years and identifies key tasks, including controlling greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to climate change, and strengthening international cooperation.
China's Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change (2013)
.Chinese government has been accelerating the development of major strategic research and planning and strengthening top-level design, and has taken a series of actions to address climate change,with positive results. China continues to play a positive and constructive role in international climate change negotiations and has pushed for positive outcomes and international dialogues and cooperation at the Doha Climate Change Conference, thereby making a significant contribution to addressing global climate change.
Clearing the Waters: A focus on water quality solutions
This report discusses global water issues and offers a variety of proposals for countering the degradation of freshwater ecosystems for the benefit of public health and the environment.
Climate Action Plans
This map depicts states that have completed plans to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.
Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change -Summary for Policymakers
The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) assesses literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group III contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) and previous reports and incorporates subsequent new findings and research. The report also assesses mitigation options at different levels of governance and in different economic sectors, and the societal implications of different mitigation policies, but does not recommend any particular option for mitigation
CLIMATE CHANGE 2014 SYNTHESIS REPORT
This Synthesis Report is based on the reports of the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), including relevant Special Reports. It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). This summary follows the structure of the longer report, which addresses the following topics: Observed changes and their causes; Future climate change, risks and impacts; Future pathways for adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development; Adaptation and mitigation.
Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report
This Synthesis Report is based on the reports of the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), including relevant Special Reports. It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). This summary follows the structure of the longer report, which addresses the following topics: Observed changes and their causes; Future climate change, risks and impacts; Future pathways for adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development; Adaptation and mitigation.
Climate Change Mitigation and Green Growth in Developing Asia
Developing Asia is the driver of today’s emissions intensive global economy. As the principal source of future emissions, the region is critical to the task of global climate change mitigation. Reflecting this global reality and a range of related domestic issues, the governments of the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Viet Nam have embarked upon an ambitious policy agenda. This report reviews the present and future policy settings for climate change mitigation and green growth in Asia’s major emerging economies. Although recent targets and commitments will involve a fundamental change in emissions trajectories, the urgency and extent of necessary global action requires ambition to be raised even further in developing Asia. An additional transformation will be required for the trajectory of emissions and energy demand, as well as the future composition of the power generation mix. Achieving these transformations will not be easy. There are a substantial number of policy instruments available, yet significant obstacles stand in the way of their effective deployment. Governments face a number of policy challenges, including: energy sector reform, economic reform, strengthening institutional capacity, and securing international support. The principal conclusion of this analysis is that the task facing Asia’s policymakers is not simply one of setting targets and pursuing narrowly focused policies to reach them. Rather, a broad–scale approach involving all sections of the economy and government will be required to achieve the shift to a sustainable, low-emissions development trajectory.
Climate Change Plans and Infrastructure in Asian Cities: a Survey of Plans and Priorities
The objectives of the survey of Asian cities are to determine:the status of climate change and other relevant plans for Asian cities and their focus on climate change adaptation versus mitigation, Where demand for climate change related infrastructure projects exists based on these plans, The role of development agencies and other development partners in prioritizing, planning and investing in urban infrastructure.
Climate in Asia and the Pacific: A Synthesis of APN Activities
The synthesis report is part of the APN’s larger aim to contribute, from the science perspective, to the development of policy options for appropriate responses to climate vulnerability and impacts, including adaptation and mitigation, which in turn will contribute to sustainable development.
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage
Since the EU took its historic decisions on combating climate change in 2008, the economic crisis has brought some fundamental changes to the political and economic landscape of the EU's climate policy. The pressure on the EU economy is intense. The EU, however, remains deeply committed to action on climate change. Arresting the rise in global temperature remains one of the biggest challenges facing this generation. This Communication has set out how changed global circumstances have impacted on the targets set in 2008. While the absolute costs of meeting a 20% target have been reduced, representing a welcome relief for businesses facing the uphill battle of recovery, it also represents a risk that the effectiveness of the 20% target as a motor for change diminishes.
The Community Water Initiative Fostering Water Security and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
This publication highlights some case studies that illustrate successful projects funded by the Community Water Initiative (CWI), which have helped foster water security in local communities while simultaneously helping them mitigate and adapt to climate change through: (i) Community-based water supply and sanitation services using low-cost systems manageable by communities; (ii) Water resource conservation and sustainable land management to create resilient systems to combat drought and floods; (iii) Providing clean energy for water pumping; and (iv) Capacity building for community-level governance through community water management committees, women’s empowerment, and the establishment of water user fee schemes.
Cycling in Sweden
Increased use of bicycles can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution - and have positive impacts on human health. The Working Group on Transport (WGT) under OECD’s Environment Policy Committee discussed measures to promote bicycle use at a meeting (27-28 January 2010). Below are the presentations that were made on that occasion.
Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development
This report discusses some vital services that natural ecosystems contribute to human health and development.
Deep Water: the Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling
On May 22, 2010, President Barack Obama announced the creation of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling: an independent,nonpartisan entity, directed to provide a thorough analysis and impartial judgment. The President charged the Commission to determine the causes of the disaster, and to improve the country’s ability to respond to spills, and to recommend reforms to make offshore energy production safer. This report is the result of an intense six-month effort to fulfill the President’s charge. The Commission’s report offers the President, policymakers, industry, and the American people the fullest account available of the largest oil spill in U.S history: the context for the well itself, how the explosion and spill happened, and how industry and government scrambled to respond to an unprecedented emergency.
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response
The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, and the resulting oil spill began a cascade of effects on the coastal areas of the Gulf and on the wealth of species that inhabit those areas. This report addresses the importance of wetlands in general, the ecology of the coastal wetlands in the Gulf, impacts of oil spills on wetland habitats, response options, the implications of hurricane season for the spill's impacts, and cleanup and recovery issues. The emphasis is on the nearshore environment, although a few species found in deeper waters will be mentioned. In addition, some lessons from past spills such as the Exxon Valdez in Alaska will be discussed, along with issues that may arise as response and recovery transition to restoration of the Gulf.
Developing Dimension: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2012
The 6th “State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets” report shows a significant increase in demand from buyers in the US and major changes in the mix of offsets capturing market share, such as record sales of offsets from Asian wind farms and the coming-of-age of clean development projects in Africa.
Emissions Caps for Electricity
This map shows states that cap greenhouse gas emissions through performance standards or through cap and trade systems.
Energy Efficiency Standards and Targets
This map shows states with policies to promote efficient generation, transmission, and use of energy.
Energy for a Sustainable Future
This report provides a high-level overview and specific recommendations for governments to help achieve universal energy access and reduce energy intensity. The report recommends that energy access be achieved through a combination of grid extension, mini-grid access, and off-grid access approaches. The need for government targets, access to financing, capacity building, and improved utility performance are also discussed.
Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management
The nation's energy choices embody many tradeoffs. Water use is one of those tradeoffs. The energy choices before Congress represent vastly different demands on domestic freshwater. The energy sector's water consumption is projected to rise 50% from 2005 to 2030. This rising water demand derives from both an increase in the amount of energy demanded and shifts to more water-intense energy sources and technologies. This report discusses this issue as well as related issues that may arise for the 112th Congress.
Enhancing Information for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment in Brazil, China and South Africa
This report documents crucial information to support deployment of renewable energies in three key emerging markets - Brazil, China and South Africa - and provides information for policy-making aimed at supporting renewable energy markets in these countries. Specifically this study collates information on solar and wind resources and resource information, renewable energy support policies and goals, risk management and technologies integral to the increased renewable energy technology deployment.
.Environmental Guidance Note for Disaster Risk Reduction: Healthy Ecosystems for Human Security and Climate Change Adaptation
This publication was developed to provide guidance on the benefits of and ways to integrate environmental concerns into disaster risk reduction strategies (DRR) at the local and national levels. As recognised and outlined within the Hyogo Framework for Action priority 4, healthy ecosystems and environmental management are considered key actions in DRR. Although the field of disaster risk management has evolved to recognize the need for addressing sustainable development issues for reducing risk, the environmental dimension has not to date received adequate attention and practical guidance.
EPA's Denial of the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This document addresses a petition to the U.S. EPA to reconsider findings that could have an economic impact on businesses due to the enforcement of the Clean Air Act. The petitioners questioned the climate science and data, and this denial argues that the petitioners used The document denies the petition on the basis of the petitioners providing inadequate and unscientific arguments.
EPA's Response to the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This set of volumes is a response by the EPA to ten petitions filed to challenge the determination that climate change is real. The EPA dismisses the petitioners' claims, reiterating the evidence of anthropogenic global climate change.
EPA's Response to the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This set of volumes is a response by the EPA to ten petitions filed to challenge the determination that climate change is real. The EPA dismisses the petitioners' claims, reiterating the evidence of anthropogenic global climate change.
EPA's Response to the Petitions to Reconsider the Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act
This set of volumes is a response by the EPA to ten petitions filed to challenge the determination that climate change is real. The EPA dismisses the petitioners' claims, reiterating the evidence of anthropogenic global climate change.
Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme
This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission ("Commission") in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide ("CO2") and other greenhouse gases ("GHGs"). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading ("proposed Directive") as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. This report provides descriptions and evaluations of alternative mechanisms for initial allocation of allowances. The report has the following specific objectives: - Provide a typology of alternative initial allocation mechanisms. - Describe the allocation mechanisms that have been used in previous emissions trading programmes. - Develop criteria for evaluating alternative mechanisms. - Evaluate the alternative mechanisms in light of these criteria. - Develop plant-level data that allow one to simulate various initial allocation alternatives and thus shed light on key empirical issues, including feasibility and sector- and plantlevel effects. - Provide an overview of major conclusions and implications.
Executive Order 2010-06 : Governor's Policy on Climate Change
WHEREAS, Arizona was a founding member of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) in February 2007; WHEREAS, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) finalized regulations mandating GHG reporting, effective on December 29, 2009,...WHEREAS, it is critical that Arizona stay informed of and influence any federal regulation and legislation relating to climate change and capping of GHG emission...NOW, THEREFORE, I, Janice K. Brewer, Governor of the State of Arizona,...hereby order and direct as follows: 4. The Climate Change Oversight Group ("Group") is established and charged with monitoring the continued work of the WCI...11. The Group and this Executive Order shall expire December 31, 2012