Congressional Research Service Reports - 270 Matching Results

Search Results

Court-Ordered Access to Smart Phones: In Brief
This report specifically examines certain encryption issues that have been raised in the investigation of the December 2, 2015, terrorist attack in San Bernardino, CA. This report highlights certain issues that policymakers may examine as they follow the ongoing dispute between law enforcement and technology companies, and it focuses on questions related to the government's request.
Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress
With Congress considering a possible change regarding sensitive covert action policy, this memorandum describes the statutory provision authorizing Gang of Eight notifications, reviews the legislative history of the provision, and examine both the impact of such notifications on congressional oversight as well as options that Congress might consider to possibly improve oversight.
Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are often of considerable interest to many Members of Congress. NIEs address issues of major national security importance which may require congressional action. However, NIEs have occasionally proved unreliable because they were based on insufficient evidence or contained faulty analysis. This report explores this issue and discusses the NIE process and its relevance to congressional policymaking.
The SSCI Study of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program: Issues to Consider
This report briefly discusses issues pertaining to the 500-page Executive Summary of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) Detention and Interrogation Program, which released to the public on December 9, 2014 describes the history of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program from late 2001 to January 2009, including a review of each of the 119 individuals known to have been held in CIA custody.
European Union Efforts to Counter Disinformation
This report discusses European Union efforts to counter the use of propaganda by both state and non-state actors, including new strategies to combat disinformation.
Intelligence Community Spending: Trends and Issues
This report examines Intelligence Community (IC) funding over the past several decades, with an emphasis on the period from 2007-2017--the period in which total national and military intelligence program (NIP and MIP) spending dollars have been publicly disclosed on an annual basis. Intelligence-related spending (such as the Homeland Security Intelligence Program) that does not fall within the NIP and MIP is outside the scope of this report.
Memorandum: Summary of the Substantive Provisions of S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017 and H.R. 3989, The USA Liberty Act of 2017
This report summarizes the substantive provisions of S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017, as reported by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on October 25, 2017, and H.R. 3989, the USA Liberty Act of 2017, as ordered to be reported by the House Judiciary Committee on November 8, 2017. Both bills primarily amend and reauthorize Title VII of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).
Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?
This report discusses the National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) that represent the highest and most formal level of strategic analysis by the U.S. intelligence community.
Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities
This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications.
Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities and Recent Developments
This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications and is targeted at foreigners who are not within the United States, but may also inadvertently acquire the communications of U.S. persons.
Terrorist Financing: The 9/11 Commission Recommendation
This report discusses the 9/11 Commission's recommendation that the U.S. government shift the focus of its efforts to counter terrorist financing from a strategy based on seizing terrorist assets to a strategy based on exploiting intelligence gathered from financial investigations.
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: A Sketch
This report discusses the sunset of a handful of communications-related sections of the USA PATRIOT Act and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act on March 10, 2006. The authority of the expiring sections remains in effect only as it relates to foreign intelligence investigations begun before sunset or to offenses or potential offenses begun or occurring before that date. Thereafter, the law reverts to its previous form unless it has been amended in the interim or subsequently renewed.
Renewed Crypto Wars?
This report briefly examines renewed tensions between tech companies and the government regarding encryption "back doors" and how quickly-advancing technologies could impact law enforcement investigations.
Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes
This report begins with an overview of both the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Court of Review, including the jurisdiction of these courts, how the judges are appointed, and the FISC’s practices and procedures for reviewing and issuing surveillance orders. The report then discusses the scope and underlying legal principles behind congressional regulation of the procedures of the federal courts, and applies those principles with respect to the various proposals to reform the FISA judicial review process.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general.
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Were to Expire on December 31, 2005
This report examines various provisions of the Patriot Act that were set to expire on December 31, 2005. Their expiration date has been postponed until March 10, 2006. The expiring sections deal with the power of federal authorities to conduct searches and seizures, generally searches and seizures relating to communications.
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Selected Cross-Cutting Issues
This report focuses on cross-cutting management issues that affect the Intelligence Community's (IC's) ability to counter "pervasive and emerging threats" to the United States and balance resources both appropriately and wisely. The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is charged with integrating the community of intelligence agencies so that they operate effectively as one team.
Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues
This report explains the management structure for the National Intelligence Program (NIP), and Military Intelligence Program (MIP), to include their two separate budget processes and the roles of the Director of National Intelligence and the Under Secretary of Defense (Intelligence). The concluding section of this report considers the ability of the U.S. government to make the best use of its intelligence-related resources when: (1) total intelligence spending is impossible to calculate; (2) its management and oversight is completely decentralized; and (3) IC funding alone is largely divided into two categories (NIP and MIP)-- managed within the executive branch separately, justified to Congress separately, and overseen by separate congressional committees.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report discusses legislative initiatives to address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
To address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis. In December 2004, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was signed, providing for a Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with substantial authorities to manage the national intelligence effort. Making cooperation effective presents substantial leadership and managerial challenges. International terrorism in particular presents a difficult analytical challenge. Counterterrorism requires the close coordination of intelligence and law enforcement agencies, but there remain many institutional and procedural issues that complicate cooperation between the two sets of agencies.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Encryption Export Controls
This report discusses encryption export controls, beginning with background on the development and use of encryption, and continuing with a description of export controls imposed under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and the Export Administration Act (EAA); a discussion of recent federal court rulings in First Amendment challenges to AECA and EAA regulations; and a summary of 106th Congress legislation aimed at liberalizing law and policy affecting encryption exports.
Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR): The U-2 Aircraft and Global Hawk UAV Programs
Among airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconaissance (ISR) platforms, the U-2 Dragon Lady and the RQ-4A Global Hawk are especially valuable. This report discusses how best to use existing and planned manned and unmanned ISR aircraft to most effectively satisfy the Department of Defense's (Dod) requirements for timely and accurate information on enemy forces.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: Applicability of the MI-5 Model to the United States
This paper summarizes pending legislation relating to domestic intelligence, briefly explains the jurisdiction and functions of MI-5, and describes some of the factors that may be relevant to a discussion regarding the applicability of the MI-5 domestic intelligence model to the United States.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Intelligence Issues for Congress
This report discusses legislative initiatives to address the challenges facing the U.S. Intelligence Community in the 21st century.