Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
This CRS report discusses policy issues regarding military-to-mliitary contacts with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and provides a record of contacts since 1993. The United States suspended military contacts with China and imposed sanctions on arms sales in response to the Tiananmen Crackdown in 1989. In 1993, the Clinton Administration began to re-engage the PRC leadership up to the highest level and including China's military, the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Renewed military exchanges with the PLA have not regained the closeness reached in the 1980s, when U.S.-PRC strategic cooperation against the Soviet Union included U.S. arms sales to China. Issues for Congress include whether the current Administration under President Bush has complied with legislation overseeing dealings with the PLA and has determined a program of contacts with the PLA that advances a prioritized list of U.S. security interests.
The NATO Summit at Bucharest, 2008
NATO held a summit in Bucharest, Romania, April 2-4, 2008. The summit did not become the occasion to adopt major new ideas or initiatives. A "Strategic Vision" paper on Afghanistan clarified several issues but did not lead to a greater sharing of the combat burden among NATO governments. Croatia and Albania, but not Macedonia, were invited to begin accession negotiations for membership. In a contentious debate, neither Georgia nor Ukraine were admitted to the MAP process. The debate over missile defense led to the consolidation of an evolving allied position. See also CRS Report RL34415, Enlargement Issues at NATO's Bucharest Summit, coordinated by Paul Gallis.
Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
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Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
Trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community. The overwhelming majority of those trafficked are women and children. In December 2005, Congress adopted the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005. The State Department, on June 5, 2006, issued a mandate that categorized countries into four groups according to the efforts they were making to combat trafficking. Those countries (Tier Three) that do not cooperate in the fight against trafficking have been made subject to U.S. sanctions since 2003. In the second session of the 109th Congress, both chambers are expected to continue to address the human trafficking issue as part of their authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
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Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
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Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response
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Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean
This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional anti-trafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising several issues for policy consideration that may be helpful as the 109th Congress continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
The State Department's new Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) is intended to address longstanding concerns, both within Congress and the broader foreign policy community, over the perceived lack of the appropriate capabilities and processes to deal with transitions from conflict to sustainable stability. Effectively distributing resources among the various executive branch actors, maintaining clear lines of authority and jurisdiction, and balancing short- and long-term objectives are major challenges for designing, planning, and conducting post-conflict operations. This report outlines the functions of S/CRS, as well as funding of S/CRS and relevant legislation.
Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Peacekeeping and Post-Conflict Capabilities: The State Department’s Office for Reconstruction and Stabilization
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Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations
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Serbia and Montenegro: Current Situation and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the state of politics in Serbia and Montenegro following the downfall of Serbian leader, Slobodan Milosevec in October 2000. In particular, the report focuses on aid from the United States to support political reforms and the various conditions set regarding the war crimes tribunal.
Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Issues in the 109th Congress
Spurred in part by occasional warnings of potential terrorist threats in the post- 9/11 era, some policymakers have intensified their focus on continuity of operations (COOP) issues. COOP planning is a segment of federal government contingency planning linked to continuity of government (COG). Together, COOP and COG are designed to ensure survival of a constitutional form of government and the continuity of essential federal functions. This report focuses primarily on executive branch COOP activities.
Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the background of COOP planning, discusses elements of an effective COOP plan, and reviews the current policies governing COOP planning in the executive branch. The final two sections address issues and policy questions, including, among other matters, the status of agency preparedness, maintaining COOP preparedness, congressional committee oversight of COOP activity, and funding for contingency planning.
Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the background of COOP planning, discusses elements of an effective COOP plan, and reviews the current policies governing COOP planning in the executive branch. The final two sections address issues and policy questions, including, among other matters, the status of agency preparedness, maintaining COOP preparedness, congressional committee oversight of COOP activity, and funding for contingency planning.
The Middle East: Selected Key Issues and Options for the 112th Congress
This report provides an overview of key issues, relating to the Middle East including the war in Afghanistan, terrorism, foreign assistance, democracy promotion, a summary of past congressional action on these issues, and options for congressional consideration during the 112th Congress.
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Policy: Key Issues in the 107th Congress
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Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Policy: Key Issues in the 107th Congress
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Implications of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations upon the Regulation of Consular Identification Cards
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Implications of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations upon the Regulation of Consular Identification Cards
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Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon:
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Colombia Adopts Revised Peace Accord: What Next?
This report discusses the Colombian government's revised peace accord, signed in November 2016 by President Juan Manuel Santos and the FARC's leader (known as Timochenko).
Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of the situation in Ukraine. Following the February 2014 collapse of the Kremlin-supported government of President Viktor Yanukovych, there was an emergence of a pro-Western, pro-reform government and an energized public generally anxious to lessen Moscow's influence, committed to addressing the need for serious reform and determined to draw closer to Europe and the United States.
The Pacific Islands: Policy Issues
This report presents Congress with a diverse array of policy issues regarding Pacific Islands region, also known as the South Pacific or Southwest Pacific.
Democratic Republic of Congo: Targeted Sanctions
This report discusses human rights and humanitarian hardship in war-ravaged eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report discusses Iran's national security policy. Some experts forecast that Iran's foreign and defense policies might shift after international sanctions were eased in January 2016 in accordance with the July 2015 multilateral nuclear agreement with Iran (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, JCPOA).
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report provides a brief history of the state of Qatar, discussing its governance and human rights. The report also includes U.S. - Qatari defense and security cooperation and economic issues.
Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances
This report examines developments in U.S. policy restricting travel and remittances to Cuba, including significant changes that have occurred, current permissible travel and remittances, enforcement of the travel restrictions, and debate on lifting the travel restrictions.
Cabo Verde: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses Cabo Verde, a small island nation located off the west coast of Africa; its geographic location has made the country a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine bound for Europe and a key refueling stop-over for trans-Atlantic air traffic between Africa and the United States.
Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations
This report presents an overview of Qatar's history and recent economic and political developments. The report discusses U.S. relations with Qatar, U.S. military cooperation and foreign assistance, political reform and elections, as well as human rights and social issues.
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses.
Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations
This report presents an overview of Qatar's history and recent economic and political developments. The report discusses U.S. relations with Qatar, U.S. military cooperation and foreign assistance, political reform and elections, as well as human rights and social issues.
Venezuela: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela. For more than a decade, Venezuela has experienced significant political changes under the rule of populist President Hugo Chávez, and for a number of years there has been concern about the deterioration of democratic institutions and threats to freedom of expression in the country.
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses.
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 113th Congress.
U.S.-Iraq Strategic Framework and Status of Forces Agreement: Congressional Response
This report is divided into two main parts: the first describes in detail the actions taken by Congress concerning the planned Iraq Agreements, including legislative initiatives and congressional hearings; the second provides a range of options for further congressional action concerning Congress's role in negotiating, executing, and implementing the Iraq Agreements.