Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security
Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress.
Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms.
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time.
AIDS in Africa
This report discusses the AIDS issues in Africa and the Bush administration call to double U.S. international funding for AIDS.
Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa
This report provides a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of AFRICOM. Although the command is still in the early stages of its development, a discussion of AFRICOM’s mission, its coordination with other government agencies, and its basing and manpower requirements is included.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals.
America Competes 2010: FY2012 Funding and FY2008-FY2011 Funding Summary
This report discusses how funding affects the America COMPETES program, and subsequently U.S. interests in R&D in STEM disciplines.
Foreign Aid Reform: Agency Coordination
This report discusses the many agencies involved with U.S. foreign assistance, the mechanisms currently in place to coordinate foreign aid programs, particularly those related to development assistance, and agency coordination issues that Congress may consider as part of foreign assistance reform.
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement
This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy.
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international science and technology (S&T) policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance other country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and Eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries. A second section deals with the impact of recent Russian energy policy on neighboring countries, all of them formerly part of the Soviet Union, de facto or de jure, and all heavily dependent on Russian energy imports.
Palestinian Initiatives for 2011 at the United Nations
This report provides information on the United Nations (U.N.) framework and process for options being discussed regarding possible Palestinian statehood, including overviews of the following topics: the U.N. and recognition of states, observer status in the United Nations, and the criteria and process for United Nations membership. The report also analyzes the prospects for avoiding U.N. action by reaching an Israel-PLO agreement to resume negotiations, as well as the possibility of a compromise U.N. resolution that could set forth parameters for future Israeli-Palestinian negotiations but stop short of addressing the question of Palestinian statehood beyond expressing aspirations.
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries. A second section deals with the impact of recent Russian energy policy on neighboring countries, all of them formerly part of the Soviet Union, de facto or de jure, and all heavily dependent on Russian energy imports.
Laos: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description Available.
U.S.-Funded Assistance Programs in China
This report provides legislative and policy background concerning U.S. assistance programs in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) does not have an official presence in China. The majority of congressional foreign operations appropriations for the PRC promotes the rule of law, civil society, and political development in the country. These programs constitute a key component of U.S. efforts to promote democratic change in the PRC. Other related U.S. activities include participation in official bilateral dialogues on human rights, public diplomacy programs, and open criticism of PRC policies.
U.S. Assistance Programs in China
This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the People's Republic of China (PRC), particularly U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programming, foreign operations appropriations, policy history, and legislative background.
U.S. Assistance Programs in China
This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the People's Republic of China (PRC), undertaken by the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The report also discusses related foreign operations appropriations, policy history, and legislative background. International programs supported by U.S. departments and agencies other than the Department of State and USAID, as well as Department of State public diplomacy programs, are not covered in this report.
Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy
This report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S. policy toward Moldova.
Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy
This report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S. policy toward Moldova.
U.S. Assistance Programs in China
This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the People's Republic of China (PRC), undertaken by the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The report also discusses related foreign operations appropriations, policy history, and legislative background.
Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive
This report provides information and analysis relevant for Congress on the following: Assessments of U.S.-Turkey relations, Turkish foreign policy, and Turkey's strategic orientation.
Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria.
Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy
On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. On February 18, the United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other European Union countries have also recognized Kosovo. Serbia and Russia have heatedly objected to the recognition of Kosovo's independence. Independent Kosovo faces many challenges, including its relations with Serbia and Serbs in Kosovo, as well as weak institutions and an underdeveloped economy.
North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?
This report discusses the possibility of removing North Korea from the U.S. terrorism list. It includes background on U.S. negotiations with North Korea, various terrorist state designations, the process and rationale for adding or removing countries from the list, and other related information.
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress).
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress).
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress).
Congressional Action on Iraq 1990-2002: A Compilation of Legislation
This report is a compilation of legislation on Iraq from 1990 to the present. The list is composed of resolutions and public laws relating to military action and/or diplomatic pressure to be taken against Iraq.1 The list does not include foreign aid appropriations bills passed since FY1994 that deny U.S. funds to any nation in violation of the United Nations sanctions regime against Iraq.2 Also, measures that were not passed only in either the House or the Senate are not included (with the exception of the proposals in the 107th Congress).
Vietnam-U.S. Relations: The Debate Over Normalization
No Description Available.
Iraq: A Compilation of Legislation Enacted and Resolutions Adopted by Congress, 1990-2003
No Description Available.
Iraq: A Compilation of Legislation Enacted and Resolutions Adopted by Congress, 1990-2003
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress
The United States and Mexico have a special relationship as neighbors and partners under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The friendly relationship has been strengthened by President Bush's meetings with President Fox but has been weakened by disagreements over Iraq and other issues. Major congressional issues are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political and human rights issues.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses the United States and Mexico relations and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The major issues discussed by Congress are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political issues.
China and "Falun Gong"
“Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
U.S.-Funded Assistance Programs in China
This report discusses United States foreign operations appropriations for the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which primarily support democracy-related programs, particularly rule of law training, and support Tibetan communities. The U.S. Congress has played a leading role in providing funding for such programs, which has grown from $10 million in FY2002 to $23 million in FY2006. Major funding areas include legal training, legal aid, criminal defense, labor rights, and non-governmental organization (NGO) development in China, monitoring human rights conditions in the PRC from outside China, and preserving Tibetan culture.
Iraq: International Support for U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Bosnia Stabilization Force (SFOR) and U.S. Policy
In December 1995, a NATO-led implementation force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia to enforce the military aspects of the Bosnian peace agreement. After fierce debate, the House and Senate passed separate resolutions in December 1995 expressing support for the U.S. troops in Bosnia, although not necessarily for the mission itself. Legislative efforts to bar funds for the deployment of U.S. troops to Bosnia were narrowly rejected. In the 105th Congress, similar efforts to bar a U.S. deployment after June 1998 were also rejected, although the FY 1998 defense authorization and appropriations laws contain reporting requirements that must be fulfilled before an extended deployment may take place. The defense appropriation measure requires the President to seek a supplemental appropriation for any deployment after June 1998.
Religious Persecution Abroad: Congressional Concerns and Actions
No Description Available.