Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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The United States Flag: Federal Law Relating to Display and Associated Questions

Description: This report presents, verbatim, the United States "Flag Code" as found in Title 4 of the United States Code and the section of Title 36 which designates the Star-Spangled Banner as the national anthem and provides instructions on how to display the flag during its rendition. The report also addresses several of the frequently asked questions concerning the flag.
Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act

Description: This report focuses on options for Congress for three types of exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act (CWA, 40 U.S.C. §§8901-8909): siting works, donor recognition, and the placement and status of museums, which are generally not considered commemorative works.
Date: September 24, 2013
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia

Description: This report contains a catalog of the 18 authorized works that have been completed and dedicated since 1986. For each memorial, the report provides a rationale for each authorized work, as expressed by a Member of Congress, as well as the statutory authority for its creation; and identifies the group or groups which sponsored the commemoration, the memorial's location, and the dedication date. A picture of each work is also included.
Date: October 9, 2014
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2010

Description: Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved.
Date: March 14, 2011
Creator: Glassman, Matthew Eric
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals 1776-2003

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: July 23, 2003
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

Description: This report discusses in detail the evolution of a national critical infrastructure policy and the institutional structures established to implement it. The report highlights three issues of Congressional concern: allocating resources based on risk; information sharing; and, regulation.
Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument

Description: This report discusses controversial issues regarding the creation of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. Issues include the President's use of the Antiquities Act of 1906 to create the Monument; the Monument's general effect on land uses; the implications for development of minerals and school trust lands; and the bearing on the designation of wilderness.
Date: December 21, 1998
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Monument Issues

Description: No Description Available.
Date: December 19, 2001
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Monument Issues

Description: No Description Available.
Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Monument Issues

Description: No Description Available.
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999

Description: Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually.
Date: August 9, 1999
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2003

Description: Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved.
Date: November 14, 2003
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Frazier-Thompson, Judith B
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

Description: This report discusses the Antiquities Act of 1906, monument issues and controversies, as well as administration and legislative activities.
Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol & Alexander, Kristina
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act

Description: This report discusses the Antiquities Act of 1906, which authorizes the President to proclaim national monuments on federal lands that contain historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, or other objects of historic or scientific interest. The President is to reserve "the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected." The act was designed to protect federal lands and resources quickly, and Presidents have proclaimed a total of 137 monuments. Congress has modified many of these proclamations and has abolished some monuments. Congress also has created monuments under its own authority.
Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Vincent, Carol H. & Alexander, Kristina
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorations in Congress: Options for Honoring Individuals, Groups, and Events

Description: This report summarizes the evolution of commemorative legislation as well as the laws, rules, and procedures that have been adopted to control the types of commemoratives considered and enacted.
Date: April 22, 2015
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.; Christensen, Michelle D.; Elwell, Craig K.; Glassman, Matthew E.; Hatch, Garrett & Heitshusen, Valerie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Display of the Confederate Flag at Federal Cemeteries

Description: This report discusses policies regarding the display of the Confederate Flag at national cemeteries. If a state observes a Confederate Memorial Day, NPS cemeteries in the state may permit a sponsoring group to decorate the graves of Confederate veterans with small Confederate flags. Additionally, according to the National Park Service (NPS) reference manual, such flags may also be displayed on the nationally observed Memorial Day, to accompany the U.S. flag on the graves of Confederate veterans.
Date: July 10, 2015
Creator: Comay, Laura B. & Salazar Torreon, Barbara
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: Report that explores the history of the Purple Heart and changes in eligibility over time as well as several current issues facing Congress.
Date: September 7, 2012
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Gilroy, Fenwick
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report explores the history of the Purple Heart and changes in eligibility over time as well as several current issues facing Congress.
Date: December 31, 2015
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Days, Weeks, and Months: Background and Current Practice

Description: This report summarizes the different types of commemorative time periods--federal holidays; patriotic and national observances; and commemorative days, weeks, and months. Second, it discusses the current rules in the House and Senate that govern this type of legislation. Finally, the report discusses options for Congress, including introducing legislation in the House and Senate, and asking the president to issue a proclamation.
Date: March 25, 2016
Creator: Straus, Jacob R. & Nagel, Jared C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department