Congressional Research Service Reports - 730 Matching Results

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Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program

Description: This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast.
Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Stimulus: Issues and Policy

Description: This report discusses the passing of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which included tax cut and spending provisions totaling at a cost of $787 billion in an attempt to mitigate the economic fallout of the housing and financial crises on the general economy. The report examines issues surrounding fiscal stimulus such as timeliness, the magnitude of stimulus, long-term effects and previously adopted policies.
Date: November 27, 2009
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L. & Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Supreme Court Accepts Five Environmental Cases During Its 2008-2009 Term

Description: In the Supreme Court's 2008-2009 term, which likely will conclude in late June, 2009, the Court has accepted for argument five environmental cases--an unusually large number out of the roughly 85 cases accepted for argument. The reason for this interest in environmental cases at this particular time is speculative; the Court generally does not explain why it accepts cases. This report reviews the cases, decided and undecided, and then briefly comments.
Date: February 27, 2009
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006: A Fact Sheet on Department of Defense Authority to Train and Equip Foreign Military Forces

Description: This report provides background on Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act, which provides the Secretary of Defense with authority to train and equip foreign military forces and foreign maritime security forces.
Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Care for Noncitizens in Immigration Detention

Description: This report begins with an overview of noncitizen detention and then examines the procedures and issues with detainee health care. This report concludes with a discussion of legislation introduced in the 110th Congress related to detainee health care.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biofuels Provisions in the 2007 Energy Bill and the 2008 Farm Bill: A Side-by-Side Comparison

Description: The report discusses the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), also known as the 2007 energy bill. It also describes the key elements of EISA and the 2008 Farm Bill. The report provides a table with comparison of current or prior law with biofuels provisions in EISA and the enacted Farm Bill.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Capehart, Tom; Schnepf, Randy & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

Description: This report is designed to assist Members of the 110th Congress as they consider the costs and benefits of the U.S.-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA). It examines the provisions KORUS FTA in the context of the overall U.S.-South Korean economic relationship, U.S. objectives, and South Korean objectives.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.; Manyin, Mark E.; Jones, Vivian C.; Cooney, Stephen; Jurenas, Remy & Siskin, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Economic Conditions

Description: This report provides background on China's economic rise and current economic structure and the challenges China faces to keep its economy growing strong, and describes Chinese economic policies that are of concern to U.S. policymakers.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barriers to Corporate Fraud: How They Work, Why They Fail

Description: The report focuses on the internal controls on American corporations (including corporate governance, business ethics, managerial structure and compensation, internal counsel, and whistleblowers), as well as external controls (government regulation, external auditors and accountants, and the judicial process). A recurring theme is the limited efficacy of many safeguards and watchdogs in cases of "control fraud," where fraud is directed or abetted by top management, and where unethical or abusive practices may become the organizational norm. Another broad question raised by the report is whether the post-Enron scandals were a one-time event, made possible by the stock market bubble of the 1990s and several other unique historical developments which together constituted a "perfect storm," or whether fraud is a cyclical phenomenon associated with the end of long bull markets.
Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean Acidification

Description: This report discusses the increasing concern, within the scientific community, that rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could detrimentally alter marine ecosystems. The report discusses how ocean acidification happens, its possible outcomes, as well as natural and human responses that could possibly limit or reduce the rate of the process.
Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: "Border Searches" Under the Fourth Amendment

Description: This report addresses the scope of the government's authority to search and seize individuals at the border pursuant to the constitutional framework that encompasses the border search exception to the warrant and probable cause requirements of the Fourth Amendment. This report also describes the varying levels of suspicion generally associated with each type of border search as interpreted by the courts. In addition, this report highlights some of the border security recommendations made by the 9/11 Commission and legislative actions taken in the 108th, 109th, and 110th Congresses.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

Description: This report provides background on the development of intelligence satellites and identifies the roles various agencies play in their management and use. Issues surrounding the current policy and proposed changes are discussed, including the findings of an Independent Study Group (ISG) with respect to the increased sharing of satellite intelligence data. There follows a discussion of legal considerations, including whether satellite reconnaissance might constitute a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment; an overview of statutory authorities, as well as restrictions that might apply; and a brief description of executive branch authorities and Department of Defense directives that might apply. The report concludes by suggesting policy issues Congress may consider as it deliberates the potential advantages and pitfalls that may be encountered in expanding the role of satellite intelligence for homeland security purposes.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr. & Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arab League Boycott of Israel

Description: This report briefly discusses the Arab League's boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since Israel's founding in 1948, as well as U.S. efforts to end the boycott and prevent U.S. firms in participating in the boycott.
Date: August 27, 2008
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Investment and National Security: Economic Considerations

Description: This report assesses recent international developments as the leaders from a number of nations work to reach a consensus on an informal set of best practices regarding national restrictions on foreign investment for national security purposes. This report also provides one possible approach for assessing the costs and benefits involved in using national policies to direct, or to restrict, foreign direct investment for national security reasons.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Stimulus: Issues and Policy

Description: This report discusses the passing of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which included tax cut and spending provisions totaling at a cost of $787 billion in an attempt to mitigate the economic fallout of the housing and financial crises on the general economy. The report examines issues surrounding fiscal stimulus such as timeliness, the magnitude of stimulus, long-term effects and previously adopted policies.
Date: February 27, 2009
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L. & Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Description: This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies and identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included.
Date: January 27, 2009
Creator: Petersen, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unemployment Insurance Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Description: This report addresses some of the more common questions about unemployment insurance in the 2009 stimulus package. This report does not provide operational details of unemployment insurance programs such as UC, EB, or EUC08, nor does it address the TAA or DUA programs.
Date: February 27, 2008
Creator: Shelton, Alison M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report explores the reasoning behind the development of the technologies and design options for a planned new cruiser called the CG(X). It also discusses the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs.
Date: October 27, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department