Congressional Research Service Reports - 1,909 Matching Results

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The Size and Role of Government: Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses some of the arguments surrounding the proper size of government that are economic in nature, including the questions of what role the state plays in economic activity and how the economy is affected by government intervention.
Date: March 22, 2004
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of the Tax Burden Across Individuals: An Overview

Description: This report discusses in the first section different philosophies about how the tax burden should be distributed, and what those philosophies imply for the shape of the tax system. In particular, it addresses the question of the justifications for a progressive tax system (one where the share of income collected as a tax rises as income rises). This section is presented for the interested reader, but is not a necessary preliminary to examining the analysis in the second section, which presents estimates of the distribution of the federal and total U.S. tax burden. The third section of the report discusses the measures that can be used to characterize the distributional effects of tax changes.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Shvedov, Maxim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barriers to Corporate Fraud: How They Work, Why They Fail

Description: The report focuses on the internal controls on American corporations (including corporate governance, business ethics, managerial structure and compensation, internal counsel, and whistleblowers), as well as external controls (government regulation, external auditors and accountants, and the judicial process). A recurring theme is the limited efficacy of many safeguards and watchdogs in cases of "control fraud," where fraud is directed or abetted by top management, and where unethical or abusive practices may become the organizational norm. Another broad question raised by the report is whether the post-Enron scandals were a one-time event, made possible by the stock market bubble of the 1990s and several other unique historical developments which together constituted a "perfect storm," or whether fraud is a cyclical phenomenon associated with the end of long bull markets.
Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines Turkmenistan's halting economic and political reforms under the authoritarian leadership of President Saparmurad Niyazov. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance, including support for grassroots democratization and advocacy for human rights, and provides basic facts and biographical information.
Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: The Cost-of-Living Adjustment in January 2005

Description: This report discusses how the cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for Social Security benefits are determined. The 2.7% COLA payable in January 2005 was triggered by the rise in the CPI-W (Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers) from the third quarter of 2003 to the third quarter of 2004. This COLA triggers identical percentage increases in Supplemental Security Income (SSI), veterans' pensions, and railroad retirement benefits, and causes other changes in the Social Security program.
Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Sidor, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2004

Description: This report describes and discusses changes to the list of recipients of the Medal since the release of the committee print, Medal of Honor Recipients: 1863-1978, which lists recipients and provides the full text of the citations describing the actions that resulted in the awarding of the Medal.
Date: June 21, 2004
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Management Laws: A Compendium

Description: This report is a companion to CRS Report RL32388, General Management Laws: Major Themes and Management Policy Options. In combination, these reports have three main objectives: (1) to identify and describe the major management laws under which the executive branch of the federal government is required to operate, including their rationale, design, and scope; (2) to assist Members of Congress and their staff in oversight of executive branch management; and (3) to help Congress when considering potential changes to the management laws themselves, as well as other legislation, including authorization statutes and appropriations.
Date: May 19, 2004
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kyrgyzstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines faltering reforms and other challenges to Kyrgyzstan's independence that have raised U.S. concerns. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance for democratization and other programs, including asic facts and biographical information.
Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: The Windfall Benefit Provision

Description: This report discusses the windfall elimination provision, which reduces the Social Security benefits of workers who also have pension benefits from employment not covered by Social Security. Its purpose is to remove an advantage these workers would otherwise receive because of Social Security's benefit formula that favors workers with smaller amounts of Social Security-covered career earnings. Opponents contend that the provision is basically inaccurate and often unfair. In both the 107th and 108th Congresses, five bills have been introduced that would modify or repeal the provision.
Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Haltzel, Laura
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Description: This report discusses open ocean aquaculture, which is defined as the rearing of marine organisms under controlled conditions in exposed, high-energy ocean environments beyond significant coastal influence, is one possible option for meeting increasing consumer demand for marine products and offering new and alternative employment opportunities.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Borgatti, Rachel & Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liberia: Transition to Peace

Description: This report covers recent events in Liberia and related U.S. policy. In 2003, Liberia began a post-conflict transition process to achieve enduring peace, socio-economic reconstruction and democratic governance.
Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplemental Educational Services for Children from Low-Income Families Under ESEA Title I-A

Description: This report discusses supplemental educational services in the general sense, which include educational activities provided outside of normal school hours that are designed to augment or enhance the educational services provided during regular periods of instruction.
Date: February 24, 2004
Creator: Smole, David P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Private Bills: Procedure in the House

Description: This report briefly discusses private bills, which are bills providing benefits to specified individuals (including corporate bodies). Individuals sometimes request relief through private law when administrative or legal remedies are exhausted, but Congress seems more often to view private legislation as appropriate when no other remedy is available, and when enactment would, in a broad sense, afford equity.
Date: October 21, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Description: This report discusses S. 113, a bill to extend the coverage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") to non-U.S. persons who engage in international terrorism or activities in preparation for terrorist acts, without a showing of membership in or affiliation with an international terrorist group.
Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Description: This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments.
Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department