Congressional Research Service Reports - 36 Matching Results

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Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival

Description: This report examines the current status of the manufacturing sector in the U.S., which is a subject of ongoing interest in Congress. After rebounding from the 2007-09 recession, U.S. manufacturing output has grown little since the second half of 2014. Over the same period, employment in the U.S. manufacturing sector has been flat. These trends defy expectations that forces such as higher labor costs in the emerging economies of Asia, heightened concern about the risk of disruptions to long, complex supply chains, and the development of inexpensive domestic supplies of natural gas would increase the relative attractiveness of the United States as a location for factory production.
Date: June 28, 2016
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview

Description: This report provides a brief overview of The Hollings Manufacturing Partnership (MEP), which is a program of regional centers set up to assist small and medium-sized manufacturing companies use knowledge and technologies developed under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Date: January 28, 2004
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers. It also provides marketing, management, and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program’s eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program’s critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program’s loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million.
Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dairy Policy Issues

Description: Several dairy issues that were debated during the 108th Congress are expected to continue as issues of interest in the 109th Congress. Separate bills were introduced in the 108th Congress to extend authority for both the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) Program and the dairy forward pricing pilot program, and to address dairy producer concerns about the importation of milk protein concentrates.
Date: June 28, 2002
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steel Industry and Trade Issues

Description: No Description Available.
Date: May 28, 2002
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Description: This report provides a historical examination of the SBA's size standards and assesses competing views concerning how to define a small business. It also discusses P.L. 112-239, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, which requires the SBA to make available a justification when establishing or approving a size standard that the size standard is appropriate for each individual industry classification. It addresses the SBA's recent practice of combining size standards within industrial groups as a means to reduce the complexity of its size standards and to provide greater consistency for industrial classifications that have similar economic characteristics; P.L. 114-328, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, which authorizes the SBA to establish different size standards for agricultural enterprises using existing methods and appeal processes.
Date: September 28, 2017
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Tax Provisions That Expired in 2016 ("Tax Extenders")

Description: This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2016. Types of business provisions covered are special business investment (cost recovery), economic development, and other miscellaneous business-related matters.
Date: August 28, 2017
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.; Marples, Donald J.; Lowry, Sean & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monopoly and Monopolization - Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law

Description: This report illustrates the difference between the concepts of “monopoly” and “monopolization” by touching on the monopoly/monopolization thinking in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DoJ) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), as illustrated in (1) statements on merger enforcement made by recent antitrust enforcement officials (generally indicative of the agencies’ concerns about competitive conditions and the effect of various market transactions), (2) the 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines 2 and (3) some observations on the Government actions against the Microsoft and Intel Corporations.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Rubin, Janice E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Description: This report discusses contribution of technological advancement to economic growth and productivity increases. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development.
Date: December 28, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Downturns and Crime

Description: This report examines the relationships between selected variables of economic strength and crime. It begins with an overview of crime rates during times of economic recession in the United States. It then reviews the existing literature in the field analyzing various data sets that examine whether the unemployment rate and foreclosures can be related to increases in the national crime rate.
Date: July 28, 2009
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Power to Regulate Commerce: Limits on Congressional Power

Description: This report discusses the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, which provides that the Congress shall have the power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
Date: December 28, 2010
Creator: Thomas, Kenneth R. & Tatelman, Todd B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Amazon Laws" and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Description: As more purchases are made over the Internet, states are looking for new ways to collect taxes on online sales. There is a common misperception that the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from taxing Internet sales. This report discusses "Amazon laws", which try to capture uncollected taxes on Internet sales and yet still comply with the Constitution's requirements.
Date: November 28, 2014
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Pettit, Carol A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms (TAAF) program, which provides technical assistance to trade affected firms to help them develop strategies to remain competitive in a dynamic international economy.
Date: January 28, 2013
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Foreign Tax Credit's Interest Allocation Rules

Description: This report discusses the "worldwide" allocation of interest rule, which was a provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-357; the Jobs Act). The provision relates to the taxation of multi-national corporations and allows more generous rules for multinationals to use in allocating interest expense for purposes of the U.S. foreign tax credit.
Date: January 28, 2009
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997 and Related Developments

Description: The Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, enacted December 2, 1997, authorized appropriations to Amtrak through FY2002. This CRS report summarizes the provisions of the Act and discusses related developments.
Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department