Congressional Research Service Reports - 378 Matching Results

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The Japanese Health Care System

Description: This report provides (1) a description of the coverage, benefits, financing and administration of the Japanese health insurance plans; (2) a discussion of the way in which reimbursement levels for health care providers are determined; and (3) an analysis of the way in which the provision of health care system is organized in Japan.
Date: October 13, 1989
Creator: Sokolovsky, Joan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japan: Prospects for Greater Market Openness

Description: Japan has made considerable progress in opening its economy to imports, but significant obstacles remain. This report analyzes the underlying causes of Japan's market protection and assesses the prospects for Japan moving in the direction of greater market openness.
Date: June 26, 1989
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compendium of Precedents Involving Evidentiary Rulings and Applications of Evidentiary Principles from Selected Impeachment Trials

Description: At the present time, there are no binding rules of evidence or set of evidentiary principles to be applied in Senate impeachment trials. Rather, recourse is taken to the evidentiary rules and principles applicable in contemporaneous court proceedings and to precedents from past impeachment trial to provide guidance for Senate Impeachment Trial Committees or for the full Senate on evidentiary questions which arise in the impeachment context. This report compiles evidentiary precedents from the Senate impeachment trials of Judges Harry E. Claiborne, Halsted Ritter, Harold Louderback, and Charles Swayne. The evidentiary rulings and principles gleaned from this examination are arranged in subject matter categories, and within those categories, in reverse chronological order by trial.
Date: July 3, 1989
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.; Shampansky, Jay R.; Crump, Karen & Nicholson, Maribel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equal Rights for Women

Description: Amendments to the Constitution to provide equality of rights for women have been reintroduced in every Congress from the 67th i n 1923 to the 100th in 1987. Also proposed in recent years, although not to date in the 100th Congress, has been legislation to improve women's rights without amending the Constitution: a statue to forbid enforcement of a classification based on sex -- except where necessary to achieve a “compelling state interest, " and a measure providing for selective revision of existing Federal laws that discriminate on the basis of sex.
Date: October 14, 1987
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Pay

Description: The question of a salary increase for Members of Congress was considered by both Houses numerous times during the 97th Congress. The issue was last considered during December in the FY83 Further Continuing Appropriations. As sent to the President, the measure provided for a 15% pay increase for Members of the House of Representatives and other senior Federal officials, but not for Senators. The resolution was signed into law by the President on Dec. 21, 1982. Previously, in September, Congress approved a pay cap through Dec. 17, 1982 for Members and other senior Federal officials.
Date: December 27, 1982
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Veto Legislation: 97th Congress

Description: This report has two purposes: first, to describe briefly the main features of each kind of congressional veto procedure, and second, to list under appropriated categories all such provisions submitted in the current Congress that have been located.
Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne; Garcia, Rogelio & Norton, Clark F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gun Control

Description: This report provides basic firearms-related issues and a summary of legislative action.
Date: August 11, 1982
Creator: Hogan, Harry L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monetary Policy: Recent Changes and Current Conditions

Description: This report summarizes the current status of monetary conditions and policy. The report also describes the process though which Congress oversees monetary policy, the recent changes in the financial system which affect monetary policy, and the October 1979 changes in Federal Reserve operating procedures.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Driscoll, David D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Busing for School Desegregation

Description: The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982.
Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Civil Defense and the Effects of Nuclear War

Description: This Info Pack contains material on nuclear weapons and on the anticipated physical, economic, and social consequences of nuclear attacks on the United States, basic information on the civil defense program, and material discussing some of the arguments, pro and con, surrounding the civil defense issues.
Date: March 12, 1982
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview

Description: During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes.
Date: November 10, 1982
Creator: Parker, Larry; Bamberger, Robert L. & Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Caribbean Basin Initiative

Description: On August 5, 1983, President Reagan signed Public Law 98-67, which provides duty-free entry into the United States for certain Caribbean exports and allows U.S. business people to take tax deductions for the expense of attending conventions in the Caribbean region.
Date: April 13, 1983
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam

Description: From 1962 to 1971, the United States Air Force (USAF) sprayed various herbicide mixtures (chemicals that kill plants) in South Vietnam. The purpose of the spraying was to defoliate jungle growth to deprive the Communist forces of ground cover, and to destroy enemy crops to restrict food supplies. The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply "dioxin," is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. CRS has been unable to locate any report of a human death from exposure to pure TCDD. This report discusses the human health effects that have occurred from exposure to TCDD, as well as related Congressional concerns.
Date: June 25, 1982
Creator: Smith, Pamela W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals

Description: For more than a decade, Congress and the Executive Branch have tried to stem spiraling health care costs through various regulatory actions at the Federal and State levels. Planning laws, for example, focus regulatory attention on the capacity of the health care industry to provide health services. Other laws have created programs to monitor and control the use of services provided to individual patients. Direct wage and price controls were applied to the health industry in the early 1970's and in recent years Congress has debated whether to impose controls over hospital spending in the United States. This report discusses the debate surrounding various approaches to lower health care costs.
Date: December 6, 1982
Creator: Lundy, Janet P. & Markus, Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Investment in U.S. Industry

Description: Although the total amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the U.S. is small relative to U.S. direct investment abroad, it is growing rapidly and may have a large effect on some industries and geographic areas of the U.S. The two main issues raised by FDI in the U.S. are first, shall Congress require more extensive data collection efforts than are already underway, and second, should laws be enacted to limit foreign direct investment in the U.S. These two issues turn in substantial measure on whether the benefits of additional data collection and/or restrictions on FDI in the U.S. exceed the costs. This report discusses the legislative history of the issue, the magnitude and distribution of FDI in the U.S., the existing data collection efforts, the potential implications for the U.S., the motivations for FDI in the U.S., and U.S. policy regarding FDI.
Date: October 18, 1982
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): Tax Incentives for Retirement Savings

Description: This report discusses Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRA) and their tax incentives. Many workers covered by employer-sponsored retirement plans do not work long enough with one employer to be entitled to a pension. Others may be covered by a profit-sharing plan to which the employer may have little or no profits to contribute. Since these individuals were "covered" by a retirement plan, they were ineligible to make tax-deductible contributions to a tax-sheltered Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA). Many observers considered this a tax inequity and felt that all employees should be eligible to establish their own IRAs or make tax-deductible contributions to their employer's plan. Congress responded to this situation by approving retirement savings incentives for all workers as part of the tax cut bill (H.R. 4242). All workers, whether or not covered by an employer pension plan, are now permitted tax deductible contributions to IRAs up to $2,000 a year.
Date: November 22, 1982
Creator: Schmitt, Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department