Congressional Research Service Reports - 537 Matching Results

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The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer

Description: This report discusses concerns about food safety, the resources required to ensure food safety, and whether federal food safety laws themselves, first enacted in the early 1900s, have kept pace with the significant changes that have occurred in the food production, processing, and marketing sectors since then.
Date: December 16, 2016
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Orlando Shooting Revives Debate over Restricting Blood Donations by Gay Men

Description: This report discusses new FDA guidance regarding blood donations from sexually-active gay men. Since the 1980s, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that men who have sex with men (MSM) be indefinitely deferred (i.e., permanently banned) from donating blood. This action was taken to help control the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through the blood supply.
Date: August 1, 2016
Creator: Redhead, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The FDA Medical Device User Fee Program: MDUFA IV Reauthorization

Description: This report describes current law regarding medical device user fees, the impact of Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act (MDUFMA) on Federal Drug Administration (FDA) review time of various medical device applications, and the agency's medical device program budget.
Date: June 6, 2016
Creator: Johnson, Judith A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program

Description: This report discusses various issues regarding the Family Planning Program, Title X of the Public Health Service Act. Enacted in 1970, it is the only domestic federal program devoted solely to family planning and related preventive health services.
Date: March 15, 2016
Creator: Napili, Angela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Care for Veterans: Suicide Prevention

Description: This report focuses on suicide prevention activities of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VHA's approach to suicide prevention is based on a public health framework, which has three major components: (1) surveillance, (2) risk and protective factors, and (3) interventions.
Date: February 23, 2016
Creator: Bagalman, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Veterans Health Administration and Medical Education: A Fact Sheet

Description: This report supplies facts about the Veterans Health Administration and its medical education. It describes the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and its involvement in the medical training of health care professionals. The report also gives details on the VA's academic affiliations, its funding of physician training, and its ongoing graduate medical education (GME) expansion. Figure 1 on page 3 shows the amount the VA spent on education and training from FY2010 to FY2015.
Date: January 19, 2016
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J. & Panangala, Sidath V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: Overview and Impact of the Affordable Care Act

Description: This report discusses the impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which makes federal funds available to metropolitan areas and states to that provide a number of health care services for HIV/AIDS patients.
Date: December 21, 2015
Creator: Johnson, Judith A. & Heisler, Elayne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program

Description: This report discusses various issues regarding the Family Planning Program, Title X of the Public Health Service Act. Enacted in 1970, it is the only domestic federal program devoted solely to family planning and related preventive health services.
Date: May 6, 2015
Creator: Napili, Angela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measles: Background and Federal Role in Vaccine Policy

Description: This report presents basic information about measles, its history in the United States, available treatments to prevent individuals from contracting measles, and the federal role in combating measles--from funding, to research, to the authority of the federal government in requiring mandatory childhood vaccinations.
Date: February 9, 2015
Creator: Barry, Matthew B. & Cole, Jared P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Care for Veterans: Suicide Prevention

Description: This report focuses on suicide prevention activities of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VHA's approach to suicide prevention is based on a public health framework, which has three major components: (1) surveillance, (2) risk and protective factors, and (3) interventions.
Date: January 30, 2015
Creator: Bagalman, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests

Description: In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Date: December 17, 2014
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K. & Johnson, Judith A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hospital-Based Emergency Departments: Background and Policy Considerations

Description: This report describes Emergency departments (EDs), the role they play in the health care delivery system, and current federal involvement in supporting EDs. It then discusses the causes and consequences of three commonly identified and interrelated challenges that EDs face: (1) crowding, (2) providing repeat care to a subset of patients who are frequent users, and (3) providing care to a large population who have behavioral health conditions when an ED lacks the appropriate resources to provide such treatment. The report concludes with policy options that Congress may consider to potentially improve ED functioning and reduce payer costs.
Date: December 8, 2014
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J. & Tyler, Nancy Leigh
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation

Description: This report discusses presumptive service connection, its legislative history, and current challenges in making evidence-based determinations of presumptions. It also discusses the Agent Orange Act (P.L. 102-4) and suggests implications of the process established by the act for future presumptive service-connected determinations.
Date: November 18, 2014
Creator: Panangala, Sidath Viranga; Shedd, Daniel T. & Moulta-Ali, Umar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. and International Health Responses to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa

Description: In March 2014, an Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was reported in Guinea, West Africa. The outbreak is the first in West Africa and has caused an unprecedented number of cases and deaths. The outbreak is continuing to spread in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia (the "affected countries"); it has been contained in Nigeria and Senegal, and has been detected in Mali. As of October 22, 2014, more than 10,000 people have contracted EVD, more than half of whom have died. This report focuses on the health impacts of the outbreak and discusses U.S. and international responses to those health challenges.
Date: October 29, 2014
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program

Description: This report looks at several bills addressing the Family Planning Program (Title X of the Public Health Service Act) which have been introduced in the 112th Congress, including: funding for abortion-providing entities, elimination of the program, and prohibitions on government spending for the program.
Date: September 3, 2014
Creator: Napili, Angela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 2014 Ebola Outbreak: International and U.S. Responses

Description: This report discusses the Ebola virus disease (Ebola or EVD), which is a severe, often fatal disease that was first detected near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1976.
Date: August 26, 2014
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Description: This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States, specifically examining the health-related grounds for exclusion. It provides this information in the context of recent outbreaks of communicable diseases abroad such as Ebola in West Africa, avian influenza in China, polio in the middle east, and dengue fever in the Caribbean.
Date: August 13, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ebola: 2014 Outbreak in West Africa

Description: This report gives a overview of the West African Ebola outbreak that began in March, 2014. The report discusses the nature of the disease as well as local and international responses to it. The report also briefly examines U.S policy and congressional actions in the wake of the outbreak.
Date: August 8, 2014
Creator: Cook, Nicolas & Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safe at Home? Letting Ebola-Stricken Americans Return

Description: This report examines the U.S. practice of isolation and quarantine for citizens arriving in the country who have been infected with or exposed to a dangerous communicable disease. The report frames this information in the context of the two American healthcare workers who were brought back into the U.S. for treatment after contracting the Ebola virus in West Africa in the Summer of 2014.
Date: August 5, 2014
Creator: Lister, Sarah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws

Description: This report provides an overview of the legal precedent for mandatory vaccination laws, and of state laws that require certain individuals or populations, including school-aged children and health care workers, to be vaccinated against various communicable diseases. Also discussed are state laws providing for mandatory vaccinations during a public health emergency or outbreak of a communicable disease.
Date: May 21, 2014
Creator: Cole, Jared P. & Swendiman, Kathleen S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

Description: This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. It describes this issue in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address related issues on a legislative front.
Date: April 28, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department