Congressional Research Service Reports - 627 Matching Results

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Transnational Crime Issues: Human Trafficking

Description: This report discusses U.S. and international responses to the issue of human trafficking. Human trafficking is a domestic and international phenomenon that refers to the subjection of men, women, and children to exploitative conditions that may be tantamount to slavery.
Date: July 19, 2018
Creator: Rosen, Liana W. & Weber, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, and the second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs.
Date: July 6, 2018
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UPDATE: Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part I)

Description: This report discusses the decision of the Supreme Court in the case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council." In a 5-4 decision, the Court held that public-sector agency fee arrangements violate the First Amendment, overruling its 1977 decision in Abood v. Detroit Board of Education.
Date: June 27, 2018
Creator: Killion, Victoria L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Minimum Wages: An Overview

Description: This report begins with a brief discussion of Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) minimum wage coverage. It then provides a summary of state minimum wage laws, followed by an examination of rates and mechanisms of adjustments in states with minimum wage levels above the FLSA rate (Table 1 provides summary data). Next, the report discusses the interaction of federal and state minimum wages over time, and finally, the Appendix provides detailed information on the major components of minimum wage policies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Date: February 28, 2018
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLRB Rejects Former Standards Following Appointment of New Members

Description: This report discusses recent decisions by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) after President Trump appointed two new members to the board. The decisions overturn a variety of significant past decisions and are summarized in the report.
Date: January 18, 2018
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 1)

Description: First part of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council," concerning whether requiring non-union member employees is constitutional. It provides general background on an earlier case regarding the issue "Abood v. Detroit Board of Education" and the case law leading up to "Janus."
Date: December 4, 2017
Creator: Killion, Victoria L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Sector Union Dues: Grappling with Fixed Stars and Stare Decisis (Part 2)

Description: Second part of a report discussing the upcoming Supreme Court case of "Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Council," concerning whether requiring non-union member employees is constitutional. It begins with a brief summary of the parties' arguments, highlights some key statements from the prior decisions of Justice Gorsuch (who is likely to be a critical voice), and finally explores the potential implications of the decision.
Date: December 4, 2017
Creator: Killion, Victoria L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Employment and the Save Local Business Act

Description: This report discusses the proposed "Save Local Business Act" in the House and its provisions and implications for employers and employees in businesses where unions exist. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) broadening of the definition of what constituted a joint employer in the case of Browning-Ferris Industries of California led to resist by some in the business community and the "Save Local Business Act" seeks to restore the former more narrow definition of joint employers.
Date: November 15, 2017
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

Description: This report provides employment, wage, and unemployment information for the computer occupations, mathematical occupations, engineers, life scientists, physical scientists, and science and engineering (S&E) management occupations, as follows: The section on "Current Employment, Wages, and Unemployment" provides a statistical snapshot of occupational employment, wage, and unemployment data for the S&E workforce in 2016 (the latest year for which data are available). The section on "Recent Trends in Employment, Wages, and Unemployment" provides a perspective on how S&E employment, wages, and unemployment changed during the period 2012-2016. The section on "Employment Projections, 2016-2026" provides an analysis of projections by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for how the number employed in S&E occupations is expected to change during the 2016-2026 period, as well as how many openings will be created by growth, labor force exits, and occupational transfers. A final section, "Concluding Observations," provides stakeholder perspectives that Congress may consider as it seeks to ensure that the United States has an adequate S&E workforce to meet the demands of the 21st century.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Trafficking: New Global Estimates of Forced Labor and Modern Slavery

Description: This report discusses a new report by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Walk Free Foundation that estimates that 40.3 million people worldwide were victims of modern slavery (including forced labor run by individuals and governments, forced marriages, and sex trafficking) which used a new methodology that combined multiple data sources and statistical probability calculations. A brief overview of the findings, past reports and variance between State Department Trafficking in Persons (TIP reports and other reports such as this one, and varying definitions of the terms modern slavery, human trafficking, and forced labor are discussed. Current bills to reauthorize the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in Congress are also discussed.
Date: October 18, 2017
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Labor Day Speech Resources: Fact Sheet

Description: This report provides Members of Congress with resources for information and speech samples for use at Labor Day celebrations.
Date: August 23, 2017
Creator: Cervantes, Valerie S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Labor's 2016 Fiduciary Rule: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses fiduciary standard with respect to his or her advice, an individual had to, which include: (1) make recommendations on investing in, purchasing, or selling securities or other property, or give advice as to the value (2) on a regular basis (3) pursuant to a mutual understanding that the advice (4) will serve as a primary basis for investment decisions, and (5) will be individualized to the particular needs of the plan regarding such matters as, among other things, investment policies or strategy, overall portfolio composition, or diversification of plan investments.
Date: July 3, 2017
Creator: Topoleski, John J. & Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief

Description: This report discuses the federal minimum wage and the various groups of workers who are covered and not covered by minimum wage requirements. Arguments for and against raising the federal minimum wage are also discussed.
Date: June 2, 2017
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H-2A and H-2B Temporary Worker Visas: Policy and Related Issues

Description: This report covers the H-2A agricultural guest worker program and the H-2B nonagricultural guest worker program. It explores the statutory and regulatory provisions that govern each program, focusing in particular on the much-debated labor certification process. It discusses past and present legislative efforts to reform the H-2A and H-2B programs and to create new guest worker visas, and identifies and analyzes key policy considerations to help inform future congressional action.
Date: May 10, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival

Description: This report examines the current status of the manufacturing sector in the U.S., which is a subject of ongoing interest in Congress. After rebounding from the 2007-09 recession, U.S. manufacturing output has grown little since the second half of 2014 while employment in the U.S. sector has been flat. These trends defy expectations that forces such as higher labor costs, heightened concern about the risk of disruptions to complex supply chains, and the development of inexpensive domestic supplies of natural gas.
Date: May 5, 2017
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workers' Compensation: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses workers' compensation in the United States beginning with a brief history of its origins and its elements. Costs, federal oversight of state programs, and Texas and Oklahoma's noncompulsory workers' compensation programs are also discussed.
Date: April 20, 2017
Creator: Szymendara, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

Description: This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity.
Date: January 18, 2017
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: Cost-of-Living Adjustments

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding Social Security recipients that usually receive an annual cost-of-living adjustment (COLA).
Date: October 27, 2016
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Liou, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Much Slack Remains in the Labor Market?

Description: The amount of "slack" in the labor market--jobless or underemployed workers--has consequences for the appropriate stance of monetary policy, the future path of the budget deficit, and counter-cyclical spending on programs such as unemployment insurance. This report briefly examines this concept in the context of the current economy.
Date: August 5, 2016
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trafficking in Persons and U.S. Foreign Policy Responses in the 114th Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of recent global trends and U.S. foreign policy responses to address human trafficking. The report focuses in particular on efforts conducted by the State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) and the President's Interagency Task Force (PITF) on human trafficking, as well as discussion of the 2016 TIP Report.
Date: August 5, 2016
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workers' Compensation: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses workers' compensation, which provides cash and medical benefits to workers who are injured or become ill in the course of their employment and provides benefits to the survivors of workers killed on the job. Benefits are provided without regard to fault and are the exclusive remedy for workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths.
Date: August 3, 2016
Creator: Szymendera, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Limits on Permanent Employment-Based Immigration: Analysis of the Per-country Ceilings

Description: The report opens with brief explanations of the employment-based preference categories and the per-country ceilings governing annual admissions of lawful permanent residents (LPRs). It continues with a statistical analysis of the pending caseload of approved employment-based LPR petitions and concludes with a set of legislative options to revise per-country ceilings that are meant to serve as springboards for further discussions.
Date: July 28, 2016
Creator: Argueta, Carla N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Declining Dynamism in the U.S. Labor Market

Description: This report discusses certain measures of the U.S. labor market "dynamism" or "fluidity"--including job reallocation, worker churn, and geographic labor mobility-- which some observers note have been declining for the past 20 years or more.
Date: June 15, 2016
Creator: Perkins, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)

Description: This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits, which are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster. DUA is funded through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) through each state's UC agency.
Date: June 6, 2016
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department