Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy
No Description Available.
Iraq's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments
This report discusses suspicions of an Iranian nuclear weapons program, and Iran’s current plans — to construct seven nuclear power plants (1000 MW each) by 2025.
Legislative Approaches to Chemical Facility Security
This report discusses current chemical facility security efforts, issues in defining chemical facilities, policy challenges in developing chemical facility security legislation, and the various policy approaches.
Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy
No Description Available.
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America
This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Civilian Patrols Along the Border: Legal and Policy Issues
This report opens with a discussion on the federal authority to enforce immigration law at the border and some U.S. Border Patrol operations that have affected illegal migration patterns along the southwest border. Next, the report provides a history of civilian border patrol groups, with a particular focus on the “Minuteman Project” and other groups operating along the southwest border. It then highlights issues of authority that might arise, and includes, as an appendix, a table that sets forth various state laws that may be useful to civilians performing immigration-related enforcement activities. The report also addresses some of the legal and policy issues, as mentioned above, that have surfaced from civilian involvement in immigration enforcement at the border. The report concludes with summaries of legislation introduced in the 109th Congress that address the use of civilian border patrols.
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program
No Description Available.
The European Union in 2006 and Beyond
The European Union (EU) experienced significant changes in 2004 as it enlarged from 15 to 25 members and continued work on a new constitutional treaty to institute internal reforms and further EU political integration. In 2005, the EU is expected to build on these efforts and seek to implement several recent foreign policy and defense initiatives. This report describes the current status of the EU’s “constitution,” EU enlargement, the EU’s evolving foreign and defense policies, and possible implications for U.S.-EU relations.
Immigration Enforcement within the United States
This report provides an analysis of immigration enforcement within the United States. The report opens with a definition of immigration enforcement, a discussion of the statutory authority to conduct immigration enforcement, and an overview of immigration enforcement related legislation since 1986. It follows with an exposition on the dichotomy of interior and border enforcement. The report then details different aspects of immigration enforcement in the United States including detention and removal, alien smuggling and trafficking, document and benefit fraud, worksite enforcement, inspections at ports of entry, and patrolling the border between ports of entry. The report continues with a discussion of the role of state and local law enforcement in the enforcement of immigration laws. The report then presents a comparative analysis of the resources devoted to divergent immigration enforcement activities. It concludes with a discussion of crosscutting immigration enforcement issues related to the structure of the Department of Homeland Security.
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
No Description Available.
Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture
No Description Available.
The U.N. Convention Against Torture: Overview of U.S. Implementation Policy Concerning the Removal of Aliens
No Description Available.
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues
No Description Available.
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues
No Description Available.
Bringing Peace to Chechnya?: Assessments and Implications
A consistent theme of U.S. and other international criticism of Russia is that Russian troops use excessive and indiscriminate force to quell separatism in Chechnya and commit serious human rights abuses. There appeared to be fewer Administration suggestions to Russia that it should open peace talks with “moderate” separatists, more tolerance for Russia’s argument that it primarily was battling terrorism in Chechnya, and some hope that elections and rebuilding in Chechnya could contribute to a “political settlement.” But some in the Administration also argue that Russia is showing declining interest in the adoption of Western democratic and human rights “values,” and that such slippage could ultimately harm bilateral relations.
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America
This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Implementing International Agreements on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act
The focus of this report is on proposed amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). This report does not constitute a legal analysis of the bills or of existing law. Instead, it begins by describing the three international agreements and relevant provisions of TSCA. The report then summarizes selected provisions of H.R. 4591 and H.R. 4800, as introduced, and compares them in a brief narrative and more detailed table.
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
This report provides background and analysis and discusses the most recent regarding the law of the sea convention.
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro- Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. As of March 2006, six persons indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) remained at large, including wartime Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic.
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
No Description Available.
NATO and Energy Security
No Description Available.
Transnational Organized Crime: Principal Threats and U.S. Responses
No Description Available.
Transnational Organized Crime: Principal Threats and U.S. Responses
No Description Available.
Material Support of Terrorists and Foreign Terrorist Organizations: Sunset Amendments
No Description Available.
Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: Selected Organizational Issues
No Description Available.
Toward More Effective Immigration Policies: Selected Organizational Issues
No Description Available.
U.S.-European Union Trade Relations: Issues and Policy Challenges
No Description Available.
The Middle East Peace Talks
This report discusses the Middle East peace talks, including the new peace process with the most recent developments,and the war against terrorism.
U.S.-India Bilateral Agreements and "Global Partnership"
No Description Available.
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues
No Description Available.
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process
No Description Available.
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality
For the first time in its history, the Palestinian parliament is set to be led by Hamas, which the United States and European Union have designated a foreign terrorist organization. Although some lauded the generally free and fair election in January 2006, others criticized the outcome and accused Hamas of “hijacking” democracy. This report provides an overview of the new political realities in the West Bank and Gaza after the election, the challenges Fatah and Hamas face, and possible implications for U.S. policy.
India's Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views
This report provides background on India’s nuclear fuel cycle, a discussion of various issues involved in separating civilian and military nuclear facilities and potential concerns for Congress as it considers whether the United States has adequate assurances that its nuclear cooperation does not assist, encourage, or induce India’s nuclear weapons development, production, or proliferation.
State and Urban Area Homeland Security Plans and Exercises: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
Palestinian Elections
No Description Available.
Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy
This report provides background and analysis on Sudan, and discusses the humanitarian crises, peace talks, terrorism and U.S. policy towards Sudan.
North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program
No Description Available.
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description Available.
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report, which will be updated periodically, focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. These interactions are increasingly tense in 2006 due to violence in the border region and debate over U.S. immigration reform. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral "Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America."
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America.
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2006
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America.
Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
No Description Available.
The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement
No Description Available.
The Middle East Peace Talks
This report examines the current climate regarding peace talks in the Middle East. Congress is interested in the peace talks because of its oversight role in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy, its support for Israel, and keen constituent interest. It is concerned about U.S. financial and other commitments and the Palestinians' fulfillment of their commitments to Israel.
Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues
No Description Available.
Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): Background and Issues for Congress
No Description Available.
U.S.-Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations
No Description Available.
Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends
No Description Available.
China: Economic Sanctions
This report discusses a list of economic sanctions that the United States currently maintains against China. The influence of Congress on U.S. policy toward China, once significant because so much hung on the annual possibility that favorable trade terms could be suspended, has more recently been diffused. Sanctions that remain in place today can all be modified, eased, or lifted altogether by the President, without congressional input.