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African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018
This report provides statistics on the current numbers and roles of African American Members of Congress as well as historical data on African American Members of Congress.
The Senate "Two-Hour Rule" Governing Committee Meeting Times
This report discusses the creation, provisions, and use of the Senate's two-hour rule for committee meetings while the Senate is in session.
U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives
This report discusses the procedures for filling a vacant Senate seat and provides a brief description of the most recent Senate vacancies and the election proceedings used to fill the vacancies. Various legislative proposals to alter the procedures for filling Senate vacancies are also discussed.
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2018
This report provides information about congressional votes regarding their salaries from 1990-2018.
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report discusses Congressional salaries and action related to them in Congress from fiscal year 2010 through pay projections for fiscal year 2019. It also includes a historical table of salary levels for Members of Congress from 1992 to 2018.
Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-2016 (74th-114th Congresses)
This report provides an overview of the "Lame Duck" sessions of Congress since 1935 and discusses how they occur, their purpose, and various characteristics and trends of the sessions.
Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction
This report is a brief summary of House and Senate procedures for reaching agreement on legislation. It discusses the provisions of House Rule XXII and Senate Rule XXVIII as well as other applicable rules, precedents, and practices. The report focuses on the most common and customary procedures. There are many exceptions, complications, and possibilities that are not addressed, and the House and Senate may modify or waive their procedures by unanimous consent or by other means.
The Holman Rule (House Rule XXI, Clause 2(b))
This report provides a history of the Holman Rule provision in House rules and an analysis of precedents that are illustrative of its possible application.
Federal Reserve: Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report provides an overview of the Federal Reserve and legislation related to it proposed or passed during the 115th Congress.
Eight Mechanisms to Enact Procedural Change in the U.S. Senate
This report highlights eight parliamentary mechanisms that might be used to implement procedural change in the Senate and links to additional reading material on the subject.
Germaneness of Debate in the Senate: The Pastore Rule
This report discusses the Pastore rule in the Senate which governs germaneness in debate.
Membership of the 115th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 115th Congress (2017-2018) as of January 3, 2018. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Women in Congress, 1917-2018: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress
This report provides an overview of all women who have served in Congress and includes committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 327 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress.
Cybersecurity: Selected Issues for the 115th Congress
This report covers a variety of topics related to cybersecurity in order to provide context and a framework for further discussion on selected policy areas. These topics include cybersecurity incidents, major federal agency roles and responsibilities, recent policy actions by Congress and the White House, and descriptions of policy issues that may be of interest for the 115th Congress.
Banking Policy Issues in the 115th Congress
This report provides an overview of banking related issues of interest to the 115th Congress.
Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2017
This report identifies and briefly summarizes the 21 budget reconciliation measures enacted into law during the period covering 1980, when reconciliation procedures were first used by both chambers, through 2017.
Guide to Committee Activity Reports: Purpose, Rules, and Contents
This report provides a discussion of the types of information that may be included in the activity reports, variations across reports and time, and the filing process. A table provides a comparison of the committee activity reports and other congressional publications, including the types of information found in each as well as their timeframe for coverage and publication.
Resolving Legislative Differences in the Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses
This report summarizes the procedures the two houses of Congress use most frequently to resolve their legislative differences. It is based upon an interpretation of the rules and published precedents of the House and Senate and an analysis of the application of these rules and precedents in recent practice.
National Flood Insurance Program: Selected Issues and Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses legislation and debates regarding the National Flood Insurance Program in the 115th Congress.
Congressional Gold Medals: Background, Legislative Process, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Congressional gold medals which are awarded by Congress periodically for distinguished contributions to the United States. The history, selection process, award designs and production process, and issues for Congress are discussed.
Insurance Regulation: Legislation in the 115th Congress
This report discusses legislation related to insurance companies introduced or passed in the 115th Congress.
Women in Congress, 1917-2018: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress
This report provides data on women who have served in Congress from 1917-2018. It includes committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 327 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress.
House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins
This report discusses the process of selecting House Committee chairs and covers the period from the House's early organization meetings in November to approximately March or April following the convening of a new Congress.
Use of the Capitol Rotunda, Capitol Grounds, and Emancipation Hall: Concurrent Resolutions, 101st to 115th Congress.
This report provides information on the use of the Capitol Rotunda, the Capital Grounds, and Emancipation Hall which require a concurrent resolution from the House and Senate for use at events. Statistics regarding the number and types of uses of these spaces are provided for the 101st Congress through the 115th Congress.
Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups
This report contains a compilation of existing commissions and boards that demonstrates the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of Members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. For each entity, information on the purpose, duration, appointment structure, and term of appointment is provided. Finally, information on the involvement of Members of Congress in the appointment process is presented in a series of tables.
History, Evolution, and Practices of the President's State of the Union Address: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions about the President's annual State of the Union Address.
Expulsion of Members of Congress: Legal Authority and Historical Practice
This report discusses the nature of the power of Congress to remove a Member, including the historical background of the Clause, the implications of the limited judicial interpretations of the Clause's meaning, and other potential constitutional limitations in the exercise of the expulsion power. The report then analyzes the potential grounds upon which a Member might be expelled, including an overview of past cases resulting in expulsion and a discussion of the potential exercise of the expulsion power for conduct occurring prior to the Member's election or reelection to Congress.
Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress
This report introduces the main steps through which a bill (or other item of business) may travel in the legislative process--from introduction to committee and floor consideration to possible presidential consideration. This report outlines each of the common stages through which a bill may move, with references to sources of additional information regarding complications and variations that occur in practice.
Budget Enforcement Procedures: The Senate Pay-As-You-Go (PayGO) Rule
This report discusses the Senate pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rule, which generally requires that any legislation projected to increase direct spending or reduce revenues must also include equivalent amounts of direct spending cuts, revenue increases, or a combination, so that the legislation does not increase the on-budget deficit in the current fiscal year, the budget year, a six-year period, or an 11-year period (the latter two periods beginning with the current fiscal year). This update includes the most recent changes to the rule, and adds information on points of order raised under the rule since 2015.
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
This report discusses recent fiscal year Congressional pay raise freezes and provides: historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Congressional Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
This report provides a list of about 200 congressional liaison offices, intended to help congressional offices in placing telephone calls and addressing correspondence to government agencies. Entries are arranged alphabetically in four sections: legislative branch; judicial branch; executive branch; and agencies, boards, and commissions.
What Happens if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Lapses?
This report provides a short overview of what would happen if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) were not to be reauthorized by January 19, 2018, and was allowed to lapse.
Defense Spending Under an Interim Continuing Resolution: In Brief
This report provides a basic overview of interim continuing resolutions (CRs) and highlights some specific issues pertaining to operations of the Department of Defense (DOD) under a CR.
Senate Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification
This report outlines the rules for scheduling and notifying members of Senate committee hearings.
Senate Committee Hearings: Witness Testimony
This report outlines the rules for providing witness testimony at Senate committee hearings.
Senate Committee Rules in the 115th Congress: Key Provisions
This report first provides a brief overview of Senate rules as they pertain to committee actions. The report then provides tables that summarize selected, key features of each committee's rules in regard to meeting day, hearing and meeting notice requirements, scheduling of witnesses, hearing quorum, business quorum, amendment filing requirements, proxy voting, polling, nominations, investigations, and subpoenas. In addition, the report looks at selected unique provisions some committees have included in their rules in the miscellaneous category. The tables represent only a portion of each committee's rules, and provisions of the rules that are substantially similar to or essentially restatements of the Senate's Standing Rules are not included. This report will be not be updated further during the 115th Congress.
Senate Consideration of Treaties
This report outlines the process that the Senate goes through when considering a treaty.
Senate Rules Affecting Committees
This report identifies and summarizes the provisions of the Senate's standing rules, standing orders, precedents, and other directives that have general applicability to legislative activity in the Senate's standing committees. It covers four main issues: committee organization, committee meetings, hearings, and reporting.
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
This report outlines the Congressional retirement plans available -- depending on when a Member first started serving and their length of service -- and describes the major parts of the retirement plans and their benefits.
Senate Committee Hearings: Preparation
This report identifies many of the tasks that need to be performed by a full committee or subcommittees in advance of a hearing; these are based on Senate or committee rules, or common committee practice. It also outlines responsibilities which are divided among the committee's majority staff, shared by majority and minority staff, or performed by a Senator's personal office staff, depending on the tasks.
Understanding the Speech or Debate Clause
This report discusses the Speech or Debate Clause of the U.S. Constitution. Various views have been expressed by different court rulings and the disagreement between courts is also discussed.
U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives
This report discusses senate vacancies created by a member resigning, dying, or transferring to another position as well as the the procedures to fill them.
Senate Rules Restricting the Content of Conference Reports
This report discusses the rules in the Senate regarding what can be added to conference reports by committees after their creation.
The North Korean Nuclear Challenge: Military Options and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the North Korean nuclear threat and possible military options the U.S. could use to reduce or eliminate the threat. The report begins with a brief overview of the situation, nuclear capabilities of North Korea, and effects military action would have on the region and its stability. Seven military related options are discussed along with possible issues of interest to Congress.
Defense Primer: A Guide for New Members
This report discusses series of short primers developed by CRS to give Members of Congress an overview of key aspects of the Department of Defense and how Congress exercises authority over it. A consolidated list of these primers is contained in this report, along with links to each document.
Field Hearings: Fact Sheet on Purposes, Rules, Regulations, and Guidelines
This report outlines the basic facts on what a Congressional field hearing is and the rules authorizing and regulating them along with current examples of field hearings from the 115th Congress.
Congressional Consideration of Resolutions to "Censure" Executive Branch Officials
This report summarizes the parliamentary procedures the House and Senate might use to consider a resolution to censure or condemn an executive branch official and provides links to additional reading material on the subject.
House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins
This report outlines the roles of a committee chair in Congress and covers the activities of the period from the House's early organization meetings in November to approximately March or April following the convening of a new Congress.
House Rules Manual: Summary of Contents
This report provides a brief summary of the contents of the "House Rules and Manual" that governs the procedures of the House of Representatives.
Congressional Health Coverage: Is the Government Contribution in Limbo?
This report first provides an overview of the statutory framework governing congressional health coverage and the current Office of Personnel Management (OPM) rule, and then addresses certain legal considerations that may come into play should the Trump Administration take action to modify this existing rule.