Congressional Research Service Reports - 3,017 Matching Results

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Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
This report is intended to address questions that arise frequently related to the topic of government shutdowns. It discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The program was previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $842.9 million in advance procurement (AP) funding and $1,041.7 million in research and development funding for the program. The program poses a number of funding and oversight issues for Congress. Decisions that Congress makes on the Columbia-class program could substantially affect U.S. military capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, as amended on May 24, 2017, requests the procurement of nine new ships, including one Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier, two Virginia-class attack submarines, two DDG-51 class destroyers, two Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), one TAO-205 class oiler, and one towing, salvage, and rescue ship. On December 15, 2016, the Navy released a new force-structure goal that calls for achieving and maintaining a fleet of 355 ships of certain types and numbers. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. Decisions that Congress makes on this issue can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
FDA Human Medical Product User Fee Programs: In Brief
This report discusses FDA human medical product user fees for prescription drugs, medical devices, generic drugs, and biosimilars which are charged to companies producing the products and make up a large portion of the FDA's revenues. User fees are authorized in legislation on a five-year cycle, with authority for their actual collection and expenditure provided each year through the annual appropriations process. Appendix A outlines various features of the user fee programs.
End-Year DOD Contract Spending
This report discusses the levels of year-end contract spending by defense agencies and reasons this occurs and possible wasteful spending practices.
Impact of the Budget Control Act Discretionary Spending Caps on a Continuing Resolution
This report answers common questions regarding the government's discretionary spending limits under the Budget Control Act which if they are exceeded trigger sequestration. The result of continuing budget resolutions and possibilities for fiscal year 2018 are addressed.
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition strategies and proposed funding levels for the Aegis BMD program. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base.
Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act
This report discusses the FY2018 defense budget request and provides a summary of congressional action on the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for fiscal year (FY) 2018. The annual NDAA authorizes appropriations for the Department of Defense (DOD) and defense-related nuclear energy programs of the Department of Energy and typically includes provisions affecting DOD policies or organization. Unlike an appropriations bill, the NDAA does not provide budget authority for government activities.
Clearing the Air on the Debt Limit
This report provides clarifications on five common debt limit contentions or questions which are: The United States had debt limits before 1917, Did the Federal government default in the 1970s?, Were "clean" debt limit increases once the norm?, Could a platinum coin avoid a binding debt limit?, Would the Fourteenth Amendment allow the President to act unilaterally?, and Is the debt limit obsolete?
The National Science Foundation: Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations and Funding History
This report outlines the National Science Foundation's 2017 fiscal year appropriations request and compares it with past years.The Trump Administration is seeking $6.653 billion for NSF in FY2018, an $819 million decrease (-11%) from the FY2017 enacted level of $7.472 billion.
Wildfire Management Funding: Background, Issues, and Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the accounts that fund wildfire management activities and historical wildfire management appropriations data, as well as information on FY2018 appropriations. The Administration requested a combined $3.72 billion in FY2018, a 12% decrease from FY2017 enacted levels. On September 14, 2017, the Housed passed H.R. 3354, an omnibus measure covering all 12 appropriations bills, including the FY2018 Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies bill. This bill would provide $3.85 billion combined for wildfire purposes, an 8% decrease from FY2017 enacted levels and 3% above the Administration's requested levels.
Navy Frigate (FFG[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and discusses potential issues for Congress regarding the Navy's FFG(X) program, a program to procure a new class of guided-missile frigates. The FFG(X) program was initiated as part of the Navy's FY2018 budget submission. The Navy wants to procure the first FFG(X) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $143.5 million in research and development funding for the program. The FFG(X) program presents several potential oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Congress Faces Calls to Address Expired Funds for Primary Care
This report discusses funding for the Health Centers Program and the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) which provide medical care to underserved populations through health centers and provide scholarships and loan repayment to physicians in exchange for working in underserved areas for at least two years through the NHSC.
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Fiscal Year 2018: Current Action
This report outlines the legislative process in Congress of Homeland Security appropriations for fiscal year 2018 which have passed the House as part of a consolidated appropriations bill while the Senate version is still awaiting subcommittee markup.
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's funding requests and proposed acquisition strategies for these three potential new weapons for the 2018 fiscal year. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect future Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the defense industrial base.
Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations.
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC),1 which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent.
Defense Primer: Military Pay Raise
This report discusses military pay raises and the annual statutory basic pay raise based on changes in the Employment Cost Index. It includes descriptions of information related to the topic along with a table of historical increases in basic pay.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, Fiscal Year 2017: Fact Sheet
This report shows the 2016 fiscal year Department of Homeland Security (DHS) budget amounts and the requests for DHS for the 2017 fiscal year. The main chart only shows the original budget request by the Obama Administration and shows supplemental funding requests by the Trump Administration in March 2017 and September 2017 separately.
Trends in the Timing and Size of DHS Appropriations: In Brief
This report examines trends in the timing and size of homeland security appropriations measures. Figure 1 shows the history of the timing of the annual DHS appropriations bills as they have moved through various stages of the legislative process. Initially, DHS appropriations were enacted relatively promptly, as stand-alone legislation. However, the bill is no longer an outlier from the consolidation and delayed timing that has affected other annual appropriations legislation. FY2017 marked the latest finalization of DHS annual appropriations levels in the history of the DHS Appropriations Act. The second table and set of charts presents information on DHS discretionary appropriations, as enacted, for FY2004 through FY2017. Table 1 provides data in nominal dollars, while Table 2 provides data in constant FY2013 dollars to allow for comparisons over time. Figure 2 represents Table 2's data in a visual format. The totals include annual appropriations as well as supplemental appropriations.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s, and authority for a new multiyear procurement (MYP) contract covering DDG-51s to be procured in FY2018-FY2022. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. A total of 29 LCSs have been procured through FY2017. For FY2018, the Navy is requesting the procurement of 30th and 31st LCSs. The LCS program presents several oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in Navy budgets, particularly in a context of constraints on Navy budgets and Navy desires to devote resources to developing "high end" combat capabilities for countering improved conventional military capabilities of countries such as China and Russia.
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The TAO-205 program was previously known as the TAO(X) program. The first ship in the program was funded in FY2016 at a cost of $674.2 million. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $466.0 million in procurement funding for the second ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2018, and $75.1 million in advance procurement (AP) funding for the third ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2019. Decisions that Congress makes regarding the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy Frigate (FFG[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and discusses potential issues for Congress regarding the Navy's FFG(X) program, a program to procure a new class of guided-missile frigates. The FFG(X) program was initiated as part of the Navy's FY2018 budget submission. The Navy wants to procure the first FFG(X) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $143.5 million in research and development funding for the program. The FFG(X) program presents several potential oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: Fiscal Year 2018 Budget and Appropriations
This report outlines the 2018 fiscal year budget request for the State Department, foreign operations, and related programs such as foreign aid. Funding levels requested, major projects for the year, and Congressional actions are discussed.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, as amended on May 24, 2017, requests the procurement of nine new ships, including one Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier, two Virginia-class attack submarines, two DDG-51 class destroyers, two Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), one TAO-205 class oiler, and one towing, salvage, and rescue ship.
Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN [X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The program was previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The Navy has identified the Columbia class program as the Navy's top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $5,225.9 million in procurement and advance procurement (AP) funding for the program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Executive Branch Legislative Proposals Affecting Veterans Benefits in the Fiscal Year 2018 Budget
This report discusses legislative proposals that would affect veterans' disability payments and Cost of Living Adjustments (COLAs) in the 2018 Fiscal Year budget proposals.
NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet
This report provides data on past, current, and proposed NASA appropriations. No bills have yet been introduced in the 115th Congress proposing future-year authorizations of NASA appropriations. Table 1 shows appropriations for NASA from FY2012 through FY2017. The data for FY2012 through FY2016 include supplemental appropriations, rescissions, transfers, reprogramming, and, in the case of FY2013, sequestration, Table 2 shows enacted appropriations for FY2017, and Figure 1 shows NASA's total annual budget authority from the agency's establishment in FY1958 to FY2017, in both current dollars and inflation-adjusted FY2017 dollars.
The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses fourteen frequently asked questions related to the Budget Control Act (BCA) and the annual budget.
Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations: Overview
This report outlines the Financial Services and General Government (FSGG) appropriations bill for the 2018 fiscal year. This bill includes funding for the Department of the Treasury (Title I), the Executive Office of the President (EOP; Title II), the judiciary (Title III), the District of Columbia (Title IV), and more than two dozen independent agencies (Title V). The bill typically funds mandatory retirement accounts in Title VI, which also contains additional general provisions applying to the funding provided agencies through the FSGG bill. Title VII contains general provisions applying government-wide. The FSGG bills have often also contained provisions relating to U.S. policy toward Cuba
Judiciary Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2018
This report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2018 judiciary appropriations, with subsections covering each major action, including the initial submission of the request on May 23, 2017; a hearing held by the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government; the House Appropriations subcommittee markup on June 29, 2017; and the House Appropriations Committee markup on July 13, 2017. The status of FY2018 judiciary appropriations is summarized in Table 1. This overview is followed by a section on prior-year actions and funding. The report then provides an overview of judiciary accounts.
Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report first presents a brief overview of the major agencies in the annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill. It then describes the appropriations requested by President Trump for FY2018. Next, it compares the President's request for FY2018 with appropriations enacted for FY2017. It then compares the amounts in H.R. 3354, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee, with FY2017 enacted appropriations and with FY2018 appropriations requested by the President.
DHS Appropriations FY2017: Departmental Management and Operations
This report outlines the fiscal year 2017 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security, Departmental Management and Operations made by Congress.
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: Fiscal Year 2018
This report provides an overview and analysis of FY2018 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The primary focus of this report is on Congressional direction and funding provided to DHS through the appropriations process, though note is also made of funding made available to DHS outside this process (e.g., user fees and trust funds). It includes an Appendix with definitions of key budget terms used throughout the suite of Congressional Research Service reports on homeland security appropriations. It also directs the reader to other reports providing context for and additional details regarding specific component appropriations and issues engaged through the FY2018 appropriations process.
Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report discusses military personnel issues considered during deliberations on H.R. 2810 and S. 1519 which were passed on July 14, 2017 as the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018. A brief synopsis of sections in each bill that pertain to selected personnel policies such as military end-strengths, pay and benefits, and other major policy issues are provided.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, Fiscal Year 2018: In Brief
This report illustrates the appropriations for various parts of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for fiscal year 2018 compared with funding levels for fiscal year 2017 in a series of charts and tables.
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). Congress's decisions on these three programs could substantially affect Coast Guard capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Federal Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 2018
This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of President Trump's FY2018 R&D request, followed by analyses of the R&D funding request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The report concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for nearly 99% of total federal R&D funding. Selected terms associated with federal R&D funding are defined in the text box on the next page. Appendix A provides a list of acronyms and abbreviations.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The TAO-205 program was previously known as the TAO(X) program. The first ship in the program was funded in FY2016 at a cost of $674.2 million. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $466.0 million in procurement funding for the second ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2018, and $75.1 million in advance procurement (AP) funding for the third ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2019.
Navy LX (R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) program, a program to build a new class of amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $9.6 million in research and development funds for the LX(R) program. Decisions Congress makes on the LX(R) program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: Fiscal Year 2017
This report discusses the FY2017 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The report makes note of many budgetary resources provided to DHS, but its primary focus is on funding approved by Congress through the appropriations process. It includes an Appendix with definitions of key budget terms used throughout the suite of Congressional Research Service reports on homeland security appropriations. It also directs the reader to other reports providing context for and additional details regarding specific component appropriations and issues engaged through the FY2016 appropriations process.
The Debt Limit Since 2011
This report discusses the federal debt limit and the crisis of 2011 in reaching the debt limit. Subsequent developments in extending the debt limit and using extraordinary measures to meet government obligations since then are outlined up to the present.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program.
Legislative Branch Appropriations: Frequently Asked Questions
This report responds to frequently asked questions about legislative branch appropriations. Frequently asked questions include the items that are funded within this bill; development, presentation, and consideration of the legislative branch budget requests; the legislative branch budget in historical perspective; and recent actions.
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC),1 which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent.